Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), also known as farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), is an intermediate in both the mevalonate and non-mevalonate pathways used by organisms in the biosynthesis of terpenes, terpenoids, and sterols.
It is used in the synthesis of CoQ (part of the electron transport chain), as well as being the immediate precursor of squalene (via the enzyme squalene synthase), dehydrodolichol diphosphate (a precursor of dolichol, which transports proteins to the ER lumen for N-glycosylation), and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP).
Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (a prenyl transferase) catalyzes sequential condensation reactions of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate with 2 units of 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form farnesyl pyrophosphate, as is shown in the following two steps:
- Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate reacts with 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form geranyl pyrophosphate:
- Geranyl pyrophosphate then reacts with another molecule of 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate to form farnesyl pyrophosphate
- Davis, Edward M.; Croteau, Rodney (2000). "Cyclization enzymes in the biosynthesis of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes". Topics in Current Chemistry. 209: 53–95. doi:10.1007/3-540-48146-X_2. ISBN 978-3-540-66573-1. S2CID 53419212.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
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