|Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||154.25 g·mol−1|
|Density||0.858 to 0.868 g/cm3|
|Melting point||< −20 °C (−4 °F; 253 K)|
|Boiling point||198 to 199 °C (388 to 390 °F; 471 to 472 K)|
|Flash point||55 °C (131 °F; 328 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Over 200 species of plants produce linalool, mainly from the families Lamiaceae (mint and other herbs), Lauraceae (laurels, cinnamon, rosewood), and Rutaceae (citrus fruits), but also birch trees and other plants, from tropical to boreal climate zones, including fungi.
Both enantiomeric forms are found in nature: (S)-linalool is found, for example, as a major constituent of the essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), cymbopogon (Cymbopogon martini var. martinii), and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) flowers. (R)-linalool is present in lavender (Lavandula officinalis), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), among others.
Each enantiomer evokes different neural responses in humans, so are classified as possessing distinct scents. (S)-(+)-Linalool is perceived as sweet, floral, petitgrain-like (odor threshold 7.4 ppb) and the (R)-form as more woody and lavender-like (odor threshold 0.8 ppb).
In higher plants, linalool, as other monoterpenoids, is produced from isopentenyl pyrophosphate via the universal isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate, through a class of membrane-bound enzymes named monoterpene synthases. One of these, linalool synthase (LIS), has been reported to produce (S)-linalool in several floral tissues.
In addition, linalool is used by pest professionals as a flea, fruit fly, and cockroach insecticide. It can also be used a method of pest control for codling moths. Linalool creates a synergistic effect with the codling moth’s phermone called codlemone, which increases attraction of males.
Linalool is used in some mosquito-repellent products; however, the EPA notes that “a preliminary screen of labels for products containing [l]inalool (as the sole active ingredient) indicates that efficacy data on file with the Agency may not support certain claims to repel mosquitos.”
Plants that contain linalool
- Cinnamomum tamala
- Cannabis sativa
- Cannabis indica
- Ocimum basilicum
- Solidago Meyen, Solidago chilensis
- Artemisia vulgaris (mugwort)
- Humulus lupulus
Safety and potential toxicity
Linalool can be absorbed by inhalation of its aerosol and by oral intake or skin absorption, potentially causing irritation, pain and allergic reactions. Some 7% of people undergoing patch testing in Europe were found to be allergic to the oxidized form of linalool. Upon inhalation, it may also cause drowsiness or dizziness.
- “Linalool”. Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
- “Linalool”. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
- “Linalool”. PubChem, US National Library of Medicine. 12 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
- “Widely Used Fragrance Ingredients In Shampoos And Conditioners Are Frequent Causes Of Eczema”. MedicalNewsToday. March 28, 2009.
- Yang, Zhihua; Bengtsson, Marie; Witzgall, Peter (2004-03-01). “Host Plant Volatiles Synergize Response to Sex Pheromone in Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella”. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 30 (3): 619–629. doi:10.1023/b:joec.0000018633.94002.af. ISSN 0098-0331.
- “What to look for when you’re buying mosquito repellent”. South China Morning Post. September 6, 2015. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
- EPA Linalool Summary Document Registration Review: Initial Docket (PDF) April 2007
- Kasper, S.; Gastpar, M.; Muller, W. E.; Volz, H. P.; Moller, H. J.; Dienel, A. Hüsnü; et al. (2010). “Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treament of ‘sybsyndromal’ anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trail”. International clinical psychopharmacology. 25 (5): 277–87. doi:10.1097/YIC.0b013e32833b3242. PMID 20512042.
- Ahmed, Aftab; Choudhary, M. Iqbal; Farooq, Afgan; Demirci, Betül; Demirci, Fatih; Can Başer, K. Hüsnü; et al. (2000). “Essential oil constituents of the spice Cinnamomum tamala (Ham.) Nees & Eberm”. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 15 (6): 388–390. doi:10.1002/1099-1026(200011/12)15:6<388::AID-FFJ928>3.0.CO;2-F.
- Klimánková, Eva; Holadová, Kateřina; Hajšlová, Jana; Čajka, Tomáš; Poustka, Jan; Koudela, Martin; et al. (2008). “Aroma profiles of five basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars grown under conventional and organic conditions”. Food Chemistry. 107 (1): 464–472. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.07.062.
- Vila, R.; Mundina, M.; Tomi, F. L.; Furlán, R.; Zacchino, S.; Casanova, J.; Cañigueral, S. (2002). “Composition and Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Solidago chilensis“. Planta Medica. 68 (2): 164–167. doi:10.1055/s-2002-20253. PMID 11859470.
- Ung, C. Y; White JML; White, I. R; Banerjee, P; McFadden, J. P (2018). “Patch testing with the European baseline series fragrance markers: A 2016 update”. British Journal of Dermatology. 178 (3): 776–780. doi:10.1111/bjd.15949. PMID 28960261.