Terpene synthase N terminal domain
(+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase: complex with mg and product
In molecular biology, this protein domain belongs to the terpene synthase family (TPS). Its role is to synthesize terpenes which are part of primary metabolism, such as sterols and
carotene and also part of the secondary metabolism. This entry will focus on the N terminal domain of the TPS protein.
Terpenes synthases have a role in producing important molecules in metabolism, these molecules are part of a large group called terpenoids . In particular, the N terminal domain has feature of the copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) active site.
The N-terminal domain forms an alpha-barrel similar to that of the sesquiterpene cyclase epiaristolochene synthase.
Sequences containing this protein domain belong to the terpene synthase family. It has been suggested that this gene family be designated tps (for terpene synthase). Sequence comparisons reveal similarities between the monoterpene (C10) synthases, sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and the diterpene (C20) synthases. It has been split into six subgroups on the basis of phylogeny, called Tpsa-Tpsf .
- Tpsa includes vetispiridiene synthase.
- Tpsb includes (-)-limonene synthase.
- Tpsc includes copalyl diphosphate synthase (kaurene synthase A).
- Tpsd includes taxadiene synthase, pinene synthase, and myrcene synthase.
- Tpse includes ent-kaurene synthase B.
- Tpsf includes S-linalool synthase. In the fungus Phaeosphaeria sp. (strain L487) the synthesis of ent-kaurene from geranylgeranyl dophosphate is promoted by a single bifunctional protein.
- Chen F, Tholl D, Bohlmann J, Pichersky E (2011). “The family of terpene synthases in plants: a mid-size family of genes for specialized metabolism that is highly diversified throughout the kingdom”. Plant J. 66 (1): 212–29. doi:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04520.x. PMID 21443633.
- Whittington DA, Wise ML, Urbansky M, Coates RM, Croteau RB, Christianson DW (2002). “Bornyl diphosphate synthase: structure and strategy for carbocation manipulation by a terpenoid cyclase”. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 99 (24): 15375–80. doi:10.1073/pnas.232591099. PMC 137724. PMID 12432096.
- Bohlmann J, Steele CL, Croteau R (August 1997). “Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of myrcene synthase, (-)-(4S)-limonene synthase, and (-)-(1S,5S)-pinene synthase”. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (35): 21784–92. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.35.21784. PMID 9268308.
- , 5-epi- aristolochene synthase,  and (+)-delta-cadinene synthase SWISSPROT
- “4S-limonene synthase precursor – Mentha spicata (Spearmint)”. Uniprot.org. doi:10.1073/pnas.0700915104. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- “Ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase, chloroplastic precursor – Pisum sativum (Garden pea)”. Uniprot.org. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.1997.11030443.x. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- “Taxadiene synthase – Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew)”. Uniprot.org. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.16.9201. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- “Pinene synthase, chloroplastic precursor – Abies grandis (Grand fir)”. Uniprot.org. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- “Myrcene synthase, chloroplastic precursor – Abies grandis (Grand fir)”. Uniprot.org. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- “Ent-kaur-16-ene synthase, chloroplastic precursor – Cucurbita maxima (Pumpkin)”. Uniprot.org. doi:10.1046/j.1365-313X.1996.10020203.x. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- “Linalool synthase – Clarkia concinna (Red ribbons)”. Uniprot.org. Retrieved 2012-08-02.
- Kawaide H, Imai R, Sassa T, Kamiya Y (August 1997). “Ent-kaurene synthase from the fungus Phaeosphaeria sp. L487. cDNA isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of a bifunctional diterpene cyclase in fungal gibberellin biosynthesis”. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (35): 21706–12. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.35.21706. PMID 9268298.