Cannabis Ruderalis

Vaporizing hash oil, known as dabbing. The quartz piece is heated and a small amount of hash oil (seen on the end of a piece of metal) is placed in the encircling dish, where it vaporizes.
Product labeled "full extract cannabis oil"
Extract in a lip-balm sized container

A cannabis concentrate (also called marijuana concentrate, marijuana extract, or cannabis extract) is a highly potent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and/or cannabidiol (CBD) concentrated mass. Marijuana concentrates contain extraordinarily high THC levels that could once range from 40 to 80%, up to four times stronger in THC content than high grade or top shelf marijuana, which normally measures around 20% THC levels. By 2017, distilled concentrate was reportedly available at 99.58% THC content.[1]

Volatile solvents such as ethanol, butane, propane and hexane are often used to prepare extracts, leading to fire and explosion hazards in uncontrolled environments.[2][3][4] Super-critical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (CO2) alleviates concerns of fire and explosion and results in a high quality product.[5]

Legally produced concentrates for retail sale in legalized U.S. states are often packaged in small lip-balm sized containers.[4]


In Colorado, the Marijuana Enforcement Division (MED) regulates almost every facet of the cannabis seed-to-sale process. There are heavy regulations on the containers that hold the concentrate: containers must be child-resistant, opaque, and have a multitude of legal text warning the consumer of the risks of consumption. MED also regulates the creation or extraction of cannabis extract. [6]

List of concentrates[edit]

Common types of cannabis concentrate:[2][7][8][9]

  • Badder/budder
  • Cannabis flower essential oil
  • Caviar (moon rocks) - Cannabis buds dipped in or sprayed with hash oil, then rolled in kief.[10]
  • Crumble
  • Crystalline
  • Distillate
  • Dry sift
  • Hashish or hash - a cannabis concentrate traditionally made by drying the cannabis plant and beating the dried female plant material over a series of screens and then sifting, collecting, and pressing the particles.
    • Bubble hash - water-purified hashish
    • Charas - a cannabis concentrate created by expressing the flower of Cannabis Indica between the hands and removing the residue.
  • Hash oil
    • Fully extracted cannabis oil (FECO)[11]: 80–81 
    • Butane hash oil (BHO)
    • CO2 oil
  • Honeycomb
  • Kief
  • Live resin[12]
  • Pull and snap
  • Rosin
  • Shatter
  • Taffy
  • Terp sauce
  • Tincture of cannabis
  • Wax

The major difference between live resin and other cannabis concentrates lies in the way they are produced. The manufacturing of live resin involves fresh, live cannabis either freshly harvested or flash-frozen marijuana. This helps protect plant’s content matter, aroma and flavor.


  1. ^ Summit Research (December 22, 2017), Cannabis Distillation: The Last Mile in Extraction, Leafly
  2. ^ a b DEA 2014.
  3. ^ Small 2016.
  4. ^ a b Angela Bacca (January 12, 2015), "Is Cannabis Extraction the Future of a Multi-Billion Dollar Industry?", San Francisco Chronicle
  5. ^ Backes & Weil 2017, p. 143.
  6. ^ "Colorado Retail Marijuana Laws" (PDF). Colorado Department of Revenue. 2018.
  7. ^ "Why marijuana concentrates are cause for confusion". The Cannabist. June 18, 2015.
  8. ^ "Concentrate! Here's the Difference Between Shatter, Budder, Crumble and More".
  9. ^ "Cannabis Concentrates Guide: THC Oils, Hash, Wax, Shatter & Dabs". 9 October 2019.
  10. ^ "What are Moon Rocks and how do you smoke them?". Leafly. 12 December 2017.
  11. ^ Dach, J.; Moore, E.A.; Kander, J. (2015). Cannabis Extracts in Medicine: The Promise of Benefits in Seizure Disorders, Cancer and Other Conditions. McFarland Health Topics. McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4766-2111-1.
  12. ^ Slang Terms and Code Words: A Reference for Law Enforcement Personnel (PDF) (Report). Drug Enforcement Administration. July 2018. p. 6. DEA-HOU-DIR-022-18. Retrieved 8 February 2019.


External links[edit]

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration document: "What You Should Know About Marijuana Concentrates (Also Known as THC Extractions)".

Leave a Reply