Hempcrete or hemplime is biocomposite material, a mixture of hemp hurds (shives) and lime, sand, or pozzolans, which is used as a material for construction and insulation. It is marketed under names like Hempcrete, Canobiote, Canosmose, and Isochanvre. Hempcrete is easier to work with than traditional lime mixes and acts as an insulator and moisture regulator. It lacks the brittleness of concrete and consequently does not need expansion joints. The result is a lightweight insulating material ideal for most climates as it combines insulation and thermal mass.
Applications and specifications
Hempcrete has been used in France since the early 1990s to construct non-weight bearing insulating infill walls, as hempcrete does not have the requisite strength for constructing foundation and is instead supported by the frame. Hempcrete was also used to renovate old buildings made of stone or lime. France continues to be an avid user of hempcrete; it is growing in popularity annually.
Like other plant products, hemp absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere as it grows, retaining the carbon and releasing the oxygen. Theoretically 165 kg of carbon can be absorbed and locked up by 1 m3 of hempcrete wall during manufacture. JustBioFiber claims a sequestration of 130 kg per m³ built.
The typical compressive strength is around 1 MPa, around 1/20 that of residential grade concrete. It is a low density material and resistant to cracking under movement, thus making it highly suitable for use in earthquake-prone areas. Hempcrete walls must be used together with a frame of another material that supports the vertical load in building construction, as hempcrete's density is 15% that of traditional concrete. Studies in the UK indicate that the performance gain between 9” (22cm) and 12”( 30cm) walls is insignificant. Hempcrete walls are fireproof, transmit humidity, resist mold, and have excellent acoustic performance.
Limecrete, Ltd. (UK) reports a fire resistance rating of 1 hour per British/EU standards.
In the United States, permits are needed for the use of hemp in building.
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