Map of cannabis laws in the US
Legality of cannabis in the United States
  Legal
  Legal for medical use
  Legal for medical use, limited THC content
  Illegal for any use
  D  Decriminalized
Notes:
· Includes laws which have not yet gone into effect.
· Cannabis remains a Schedule I drug under federal law.
· Some local jurisdictions and Indian reservations have decriminalization or legalization policies separate from the states they are located in.
· Cannabis is illegal in all federal enclaves (other than hemp).
US Cannabis laws 1939–2016

The legal history of cannabis in the United States began with state-level prohibition in the early 20th century, with the first major federal limitations occurring in 1937. Starting with Oregon in 1973, individual states began to liberalize cannabis laws through decriminalization. In 1996, California became the first state to legalize medical cannabis, sparking a trend that spread to a majority of states by 2016. In 2012, Washington and Colorado became the first states to legalize cannabis for recreational use.

Federal[edit]

  • 1937: The Marihuana Tax Act is enacted, effectively prohibiting cannabis at the federal level. Although medical use is still permitted, new fees and regulatory requirements significantly curtail its use.[1]
  • 1969: The Marihuana Tax Act is struck down in the case Leary v. United States. The Supreme Court rules that the act violates the Fifth Amendment's protection against self-incrimination.[2]
  • 1970: The Controlled Substances Act is enacted. Cannabis is classified as a Schedule I drug, determined to have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use, thereby prohibiting its use for any purpose.[3]
  • 1990: The Solomon–Lautenberg amendment is enacted.[4] As a result, many states pass "Smoke a joint, lose your license" laws under which any drug offense is punished with a mandatory six month driver's license suspension.[5][6]
  • 2014: The Rohrabacher–Farr amendment passes the U.S. House and is signed into law. Requiring annual renewal, it prohibits the Justice Department from interfering with the implementation of state medical cannabis laws.[7][8] The Cole Memorandum had in 2013 assigned similar policies from within the Justice Department.[9][10]
  • 2018: The 2018 farm bill legalizes low-THC (less than 0.3% THC) hemp and hemp-derived products such as cannabidiol (CBD) at the federal level. The bill also fully removed or "descheduled" low-THC cannabis products from the Controlled Substances Act, where they had been listed as Schedule I drugs since the CSA's inception in 1970.[3][11]

State[edit]

Prohibition begins – 1911[edit]

  • 1911: Massachusetts requires a prescription for sales of Indian hemp.[12]
  • 1913: California, Maine, Wyoming, and Indiana ban marijuana.[12]
  • 1915: Utah and Vermont ban marijuana.[12]
  • 1917: Colorado legislators make the use and cultivation of cannabis a misdemeanor.
  • 1923: Iowa, Oregon, Washington, and Vermont ban marijuana.[12]
  • 1927: New York,[12] Idaho, Kansas, Montana, and Nebraska ban marijuana.[13]
  • 1931: Illinois bans marijuana.[14]
  • 1931: Texas declares cannabis a narcotic, allowing up to life sentences for possession.[15]
  • 1933: North Dakota and Oklahoma ban marijuana.[13] By this year, 29 states have criminalized cannabis.[16]

Decriminalization begins – 1973[edit]

  • 1973: Texas law is amended to declare possession of four ounces or less a misdemeanor.[15][17]
  • 1973: Oregon becomes the first state to decriminalize cannabis – reducing the penalty for up to one ounce to a $100 fine.[18]
  • 1975: Alaska, Maine, Colorado, California, and Ohio decriminalize cannabis.[18]
  • 1975: Alaska's Supreme Court establishes that the right to privacy includes possession of small amounts of marijuana.[19]
  • 1976: Minnesota decriminalizes cannabis.[18]
  • 1977: Mississippi, New York, and North Carolina decriminalize cannabis.[18] South Dakota also decriminalizes cannabis, but the law is repealed almost immediately afterwards.[20]
  • 1978: Nebraska decriminalizes cannabis.[18] No other state would decriminalize until 2001.
  • 1978: New Mexico passes the Controlled Substances Therapeutic Research Act, becoming the first state to enact legislation recognizing the medical value of marijuana.[21]
  • 1979: Virginia passes legislation allowing doctors to recommend cannabis for glaucoma or the side effects of chemotherapy.[22][23]
  • 1982: Alaska passes legislation to further decrease penalties for cannabis.[24]
  • 1990: Alaska recriminalizes cannabis by voter initiative, restoring criminal penalties for possession of any amount of cannabis.[25]

Medical cannabis begins – 1996[edit]

  • 1996: California becomes the first state to legalize medical cannabis with the approval of Proposition 215.[26] Arizona also passes a medical cannabis ballot measure, but it is rendered ineffective on a technicality.[27]
  • 1998: Oregon, Alaska, and Washington all legalize medical cannabis through ballot measure.[28] Nevada also passes a medical cannabis initiative, but it requires second approval in 2000 to become law, as per the state constitution.[29]
  • 1999: Maine legalizes medical cannabis through ballot measure.[28]
  • 2000: Hawaii becomes the first state to legalize medical cannabis through state legislature.[30]
  • 2000: Nevada and Colorado legalize medical cannabis through ballot measure.[28]
  • 2001: Nevada decriminalizes cannabis through state legislature.[31]
  • 2003: Maryland passes legislation establishing reduced penalties for persons using cannabis due to a medical necessity (as established at trial).[32]
  • 2004: Vermont legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[33]
  • 2004: Montana legalizes medical cannabis through ballot measure.
  • 2006: Rhode Island legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[34]
  • 2007: New Mexico legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[35]
  • 2008: Michigan approves a ballot to legalize medical cannabis. Massachusetts approves a ballot measure to decriminalize cannabis.[36]
  • 2010: New Jersey legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[37]
  • 2010: Arizona legalizes medical cannabis through ballot measure.
  • 2010: California legislators reduce penalties for cannabis to a civil infraction.[38]
  • 2011: Delaware legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[39]
  • 2011: Connecticut decriminalizes cannabis through state legislature.[40]
  • 2012: Connecticut legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[41]
  • 2012: Rhode Island decriminalizes cannabis through state legislature.[42]

Recreational legalization begins – 2012[edit]

  • 2012: Colorado and Washington become the first two states to legalize the recreational use of cannabis following the passage of Amendment 64 and Initiative 502.[43] Massachusetts approves a ballot measure to legalize medical cannabis.
  • 2013: Vermont decriminalizes cannabis through state legislature.[44]
  • 2013: New Hampshire legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[45]
  • 2013: Illinois legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[46]
  • 2014: Utah becomes the first state to pass a low-THC, high-CBD medical cannabis law.[47] These laws allow low-THC cannabis oil to be used for treatment of certain medical conditions (mostly seizure disorders) with a doctor's recommendation.
  • 2014: Maryland legislators decriminalize cannabis and approve a comprehensive medical cannabis law, expanding the very limited measure that was passed in 2003.[48]
  • 2014: Missouri decriminalizes cannabis through state legislature.[49]
  • 2014: Minnesota legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[50]
  • 2014: New York legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[51]
  • 2014: Alaska and Oregon legalize recreational cannabis through ballot measure.
  • 2014: By the end of the year, 10 more states pass low-THC, high-CBD medical cannabis laws: Alabama, Kentucky, Wisconsin, Mississippi, Tennessee, Iowa, South Carolina, Florida, North Carolina, and Missouri.[52]
  • 2015: Delaware decriminalizes cannabis through state legislature.[53]
  • 2015: Louisiana legislators pass a limited medical cannabis law.[54][55]
  • 2015: During the year, five more states pass low-THC, high-CBD medical cannabis laws: Virginia, Georgia, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming.[52]
  • 2016: Pennsylvania legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[56]
  • 2016: Ohio legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[57]
  • 2016: Illinois decriminalizes cannabis through state legislature.[58]
  • 2016: California, Nevada, Maine, and Massachusetts approve ballot measures to legalize recreational cannabis. Arkansas, Florida, and North Dakota approve ballot measures to legalize medical cannabis.
  • 2017: West Virginia legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[59]
  • 2017: Indiana passes a low-THC, high-CBD medical cannabis law.[60]
  • 2017: New Hampshire decriminalizes cannabis through state legislature.[61]
  • 2018: Vermont becomes the first state to legalize recreational cannabis through state legislature. Unlike all other states that had legalized recreational cannabis, however, no provision was made for commercial sale.[62]
  • 2018: Indiana legalizes CBD for any use.[63]
  • 2018: Kansas legalizes CBD for any use.[64]
  • 2018: Oklahoma legalizes medical cannabis through ballot measure.[65]
  • 2018: Michigan approves a ballot measure to legalize recreational cannabis.[66] Missouri and Utah approve ballot measures to legalize medical cannabis.
  • 2019: New Mexico decriminalizes cannabis through state legislature.[67]
  • 2019: North Dakota decriminalizes cannabis through state legislature.[68]
  • 2019: Illinois legalizes recreational cannabis through state legislature, including its commercial sale. It became the first state to legalize the commercial sale of recreational cannabis through an act of state legislature.[69]
  • 2019: Hawaii decriminalizes cannabis through state legislature.[70]
  • 2020: Virginia decriminalizes cannabis through state legislature.[71]
  • 2020: Vermont legalizes commercial recreational cannabis sales through state legislature.[72]
  • 2020: Arizona, Montana, New Jersey, and South Dakota approve ballot measures to legalize recreational cannabis, with South Dakota becoming the first state to legalize recreational use without first legalizing medical use.[73] Mississippi and South Dakota approve ballot measures to legalize medical cannabis.[74]
  • 2021: South Dakota initiative to legalize recreational use is ruled state-unconstitutional by a circuit court judge.[75]

Municipal[edit]

  • 1906: Washington, D.C. requires a prescription for cannabis drugs.[76]
  • 1915: El Paso, Texas restricts cannabis.[77]
  • 1972: Ann Arbor City Council decriminalized cannabis, reducing the penalty to a $5 fine.[78] The law was overturned by a Republican-led council a year later,[79] but reinstated through voter referendum in 1974.[80]
  • 1977: Madison, Wisconsin decriminalized cannabis through ballot initiative.[81]
  • 1978: San Francisco residents approved Proposition W, a non-binding measure directing city law enforcement to "cease the arrest and prosecution of individuals involved in the cultivation, transfer, or possession of marijuana".[82] Mayor George Moscone was assassinated shortly afterwards, however,[83] and the initiative was disregarded by new mayor Dianne Feinstein.[84]
  • 1991: San Francisco residents approved the non-binding Proposition P in support of the medical use of cannabis.[85] The city Board of Supervisors followed with Resolution 141-92 in 1992, which allowed for the distribution of medical cannabis throughout the city.[86]
  • 1998: Washington, D.C. residents approved Initiative 59 to legalize medical cannabis, but the Barr amendment blocked implementation until 2009, with the first legal sales finally occurring in 2013.[87]
  • 2003: Seattle residents voted to make enforcement of cannabis laws the lowest priority.[88]
  • 2004: Oakland, California residents approved Measure Z, making private adult cannabis offenses the lowest possible priority for law enforcement, establishing a system to regulate, tax, and sell cannabis pending state legalization, and urging legalization on the state and national levels.[89]
  • 2005: Denver residents voted to legalize cannabis.[90]
  • 2006: San Francisco made enforcement of cannabis laws the lowest priority. The change was approved through a Board of Supervisors vote.[91]
  • 2009: Breckenridge, Colorado residents voted to legalize cannabis.[92]
  • 2012: Chicago decriminalized cannabis through a city council vote.[93]
  • 2012: Detroit, Grand Rapids, and Flint residents voted to decriminalize cannabis.[94]
  • 2013: Portland, Maine residents voted to legalize cannabis.[95]
  • 2014: Philadelphia decriminalized cannabis through a city council vote.[96]
  • 2014: After a city council vote decriminalized cannabis in March,[97] Washington D.C. residents voted in November to legalize recreational use of cannabis and personal cultivation.[98] A congressional rider passed afterwards prevented D.C. City Council from legalizing commercial sales.[99]
  • 2014: New York City decriminalized cannabis through a new policy announced by city officials.[100]
  • 2015: Wichita, Kansas decriminalized cannabis through voter referendum.[101]
  • 2015: Miami-Dade commissioners voted to decriminalize cannabis.[102]
  • 2015: Toledo, Ohio residents voted to decriminalize possession of cannabis less than 200 grams.[103]
  • 2015: Pittsburgh decriminalized cannabis through a city council vote.[104]
  • 2016: Tampa decriminalized cannabis through a city council vote.[105]
  • 2016: New Orleans decriminalized cannabis through a city council vote.[106]
  • 2016: Orlando decriminalized cannabis through a city council vote.[107]
  • 2016: Nashville decriminalized cannabis through a Metro Council vote.[108]
  • 2016: Memphis decriminalized cannabis through a city council vote.[109]
  • 2016: Residents in the Ohio cities of Bellaire, Logan, Newark, and Roseville voted to decriminalize possession of cannabis less than 200 grams.[103]
  • 2017: Houston decriminalized cannabis through a new policy announced by the city's district attorney.[110]
  • 2017: Kansas City, Missouri residents voted to decriminalize cannabis, eliminating jail time for possession of 35 grams or less and reducing the penalty to a $25 fine.[111]
  • 2017: Atlanta decriminalized possession of one ounce or less of cannabis via unanimous city council vote.[112]
  • 2018: Albuquerque decriminalized cannabis through a city council vote.[113]

Territory[edit]

Native American reservations[edit]

Opinion[edit]

Presidential[edit]

  • 1972: President Richard Nixon opposes the policy of cannabis decriminalization. He states: "I do not believe that you can have effective criminal justice based on a philosophy that something is half legal and half illegal ... despite what the [Shafer Commission] has recommended."[127]
  • 1977: President Jimmy Carter endorses legislation to federally decriminalize cannabis, declaring that "Penalties against possession of a drug should not be more damaging to an individual than the use of the drug itself."[128][129]
  • 1980: Presidential candidate Ronald Reagan warns that "Leading medical researchers are coming to the conclusion that marijuana ... is probably the most dangerous drug in the United States."[130]
  • 1996: Former Presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, and George H. W. Bush urge the defeat of medical cannabis initiatives in California and Arizona, asserting in an open letter that the measures pose "enormous threats" to the public health of all Americans.[131]
  • 2000: President Bill Clinton, in an interview with Rolling Stone shortly before leaving office, states his support for decriminalizing cannabis.[132][133]
  • 2015: President Barack Obama declares his support for cannabis decriminalization but opposition to legalization.[134][135]

Public[edit]

  • 1969: Gallup conducted its first poll on legalizing cannabis, finding 12% in favor.[136]
  • 1973: General Social Survey's first poll on legalizing cannabis showed 19% in favor.[137]
  • 1977: Gallup reported 28% support for the legalization of cannabis, a number that would not be surpassed until 2000.[136]
  • 2011: Gallup reported 50% support for legalizing cannabis.[138]
  • 2013: Pew Research reported 52% [139] and Gallup 58%[140] in support of legalizing cannabis. In both polls, a majority of respondents supported legalization for the first time.
  • 2017: Gallup's annual poll showed 64% support for the legalization of cannabis, including a majority of Republicans for the first time.[141]
  • 2018: Reflecting the increased growth of support for marijuana legalization, Gallup's annual poll showed that 66% of Americans supported legalization, including 75% of Democrats, 71% of Independents, 59% of people over 55, and at least 65% support in the East, South, Midwest, and West.[142]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pacula, Rosalie Piccardo (February 2002). "State Medical Marijuana Laws: Understanding the Laws and Their Limitations" (PDF). Journal of Public Health Policy. 23 (4): 413–439. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.202.2274. doi:10.2307/3343240. JSTOR 3343240. PMID 12532682. S2CID 13389317.
  2. ^ White, Hunter J. (June 13, 2018). "Cannabis Was Legal Federally From 1969 To 1970 Because Of This Court Case". Civilized. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Eddy, Mark (April 2, 2010), Medical Marijuana: Review and Analysis of Federal and State Policies (PDF), Congressional Research Service
  4. ^ "States Are Pressed to Suspend Driver Licenses of Drug Users". The New York Times. Associated Press. November 16, 1990. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
  5. ^ "Possess a Joint, Lose Your License": July 1995 Status Report, Marijuana Policy Project, archived from the original on October 8, 2007
  6. ^ Aiken, Joshua (December 12, 2016), "Reinstating Common Sense: How driver's license suspensions for drug offenses unrelated to driving are falling out of favor", Prison Policy Initiative, retrieved February 1, 2018
  7. ^ Reilly, Ryan (May 30, 2014). "House Blocks DEA From Targeting Medical Marijuana". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 4, 2014.
  8. ^ Sullum, Jacob (January 4, 2016). "The Federal Ban on Medical Marijuana Was Not Lifted". Reason. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  9. ^ Memorandum for All United States Attorneys: Guidance Regarding Federal Marijuana Enforcement, Office of the Deputy Attorney General (August 29, 2013).
  10. ^ Ashley Southall & Jack Healy, U.S. Won’t Sue to Reverse States' Legalization of Marijuana, New York Times (August 29, 2013).
  11. ^ "What Does the 2018 Farm Bill Mean for the Hemp and CBD Businesses?". Seattle: Perkins Coie law firm. December 31, 2018.
  12. ^ a b c d e Sarah E. Boslaugh (December 8, 2015). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society. SAGE Publications. pp. 1758–. ISBN 978-1-5063-4618-2.
  13. ^ a b Richard Davenport-Hines (November 29, 2012). The Pursuit of Oblivion: A Social History of Drugs. Orion Publishing Group. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-1-78022-542-5.
  14. ^ Also from Bruce Rushton (February 9, 2012). "The war on weed". Illinoistimes.com. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
  15. ^ a b Marijuana: A Study of State Policies and Penalties (PDF), National Governors' Conference Center for Policy Research and Analysis, November 1977
  16. ^ Beatriz Caiuby Labate; Clancy Cavnar (March 25, 2014). Prohibition, Religious Freedom, and Human Rights: Regulating Traditional Drug Use. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 236–. ISBN 978-3-642-40957-8.
  17. ^ Smith, Griffin Jr. (September 1973). "How the New Drug Law Was Made". Texas Monthly. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
  18. ^ a b c d e Anderson, Patrick (February 27, 1981). High In America: The True Story Behind NORML And The Politics Of Marijuana. The Viking Press. ISBN 978-0670119905.
  19. ^ "State by State Laws: Alaska". National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. 2006. Retrieved December 24, 2006.
  20. ^ David R. Bewley-Taylor (March 22, 2012). International Drug Control: Consensus Fractured. Cambridge University Press. pp. 169–. ISBN 978-1-107-37907-7.
  21. ^ Lester Grinspoon; James B. Bakalar (1997). Marihuana, the Forbidden Medicine. Yale University Press. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-0-300-07086-6.
  22. ^ James A. Inciardi; Lana D. Harrison (October 11, 1999). Harm Reduction: National and International Perspectives. SAGE. pp. 84–. ISBN 978-0-7619-0688-9.
  23. ^ San Francisco Chronicle (February 2, 1997). "Va. finds it legalized medical marijuana Law passed in 1979 with no controversy". Articles.baltimoresun.com. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
  24. ^ Matthew Lippman (August 22, 2013). Essential Criminal Law. SAGE Publications. pp. 298–. ISBN 978-1-4833-2447-0.
  25. ^ Michael D. Lyman (September 25, 2013). Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control. Routledge. pp. 398–. ISBN 978-0-12-407167-4.
  26. ^ Balzar, John (November 6, 1996). "Voters Approve Measure to Use Pot as Medicine". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  27. ^ State-By-State Medical Marijuana Laws, Marijuana Policy Project, December 2016
  28. ^ a b c "Active State Medical Marijuana Programs - NORML". norml.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2008.
  29. ^ "Medical Marijuana Initiatives Pass In Colorado and Nevada; Californians Pass Initiative To Keep Non-Violent Drug Offenders Out Of Jail". NORML. November 9, 2000. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  30. ^ "Hawaii Becomes First State to Approve Medical Marijuana Bill". The New York Times. Associated Press. June 15, 2000. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
  31. ^ "Nevada Defelonizes Pot PossessionState Eliminates Jail, Criminal Record for Minor Offenders; Legalizes Medical Marijuana for Seriously Ill". NORML. June 7, 2001. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  32. ^ Whitlock, Craig; Montgomery, Lori (May 23, 2003). "Ehrlich Signs Marijuana Bill". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  33. ^ "Vermont Approves Amended Medical Marijuana Measure". NORML. May 20, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  34. ^ "Rhode Island Legalizes Medical Marijuana". Fox News. Associated Press. January 3, 2006. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  35. ^ "New Mexico approves medical use of marijuana". Reuters. April 2, 2007. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  36. ^ Abel, David (November 5, 2008). "Voters approve marijuana law change". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  37. ^ Kocieniewski, David (January 12, 2010). "New Jersey Lawmakers Pass Medical Marijuana Bill". The New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2010.
  38. ^ McGreevy, Patrick (October 2, 2010). "Schwarzenegger approves bill downgrading marijuana possession of ounce or less to an infraction". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  39. ^ "Delaware Passes Medical Marijuana Law". Marijuana Policy Project. May 13, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  40. ^ "Conn. passes bill to decriminalize marijuana". CBS News. Associated Press. June 8, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  41. ^ Graves, Lucia (June 1, 2012). "Medical Marijuana States Add Number 17, Connecticut". HuffPost. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  42. ^ "Rhode Island: Marijuana Decriminalization Measure Signed Into Law". NORML. June 21, 2012. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  43. ^ Coffman, Keith; Neroulias, Nicole (November 6, 2012). "Colorado, Washington first states to legalize recreational pot". Reuters. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  44. ^ Wing, Nick (June 6, 2013). "Vermont Marijuana Decriminalization Signed Into Law, Reduces Penalties For Possession Up To An Ounce". HuffPost. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  45. ^ Wing, Nick (July 23, 2013). "New Hampshire Medical Marijuana Bill Signed Into Law". HuffPost. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  46. ^ "Governor Pat Quinn signs bill making medical marijuana legal in Illinois". ABC 7 Chicago. August 1, 2013. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  47. ^ Kennedy, Gene (March 21, 2014). "Utah Gov. signs bill to bring cannabis oil to Utah". KSTU. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  48. ^ "Maryland: Marijuana Law Reform Measures Signed Into Law". NORML. April 17, 2014. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  49. ^ "Missouri Becomes 19th State To Decriminalize Marijuana Possession". Marijuana Policy Project. May 16, 2014. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  50. ^ Condon, Patrick (May 29, 2014). "Dayton signs medical marijuana bill". Star Tribune. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  51. ^ Campbell, Jon (July 7, 2014). "Cuomo signs New York's medical marijuana bill". USA Today. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  52. ^ a b "18 States with Laws Specifically about Legal Cannabidiol (CBD)". ProCon.org. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  53. ^ Starkey, Jonathan (June 18, 2015). "Marijuana decriminalization bill OK'd in Delaware". USA Today. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  54. ^ Litten, Kevin (June 29, 2015). "Bobby Jindal signs marijuana bills that reform criminal penalties, medical marijuana access". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
  55. ^ "State Medical Marijuana Laws". National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  56. ^ Langley, Karen (April 18, 2016). "Medical marijuana legalized in Pennsylvania". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  57. ^ Borchardt, Jackie (June 8, 2016). "Gov. John Kasich signs medical marijuana bill into law". cleveland.com. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  58. ^ Monique, Garcia (July 29, 2016). "Rauner reduces punishment for minor pot possession from jail to citation". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  59. ^ Zuckerman, Jake (April 19, 2017). "WV governor signs medical marijuana into law". Charleston Gazette-Mail. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  60. ^ Sheridan, Jill (April 27, 2017). "Governor Signs Indiana's First Medicinal Cannabis Bill". WBOI. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  61. ^ Wilson, Reid (July 19, 2017). "NH governor signs marijuana decriminalization bill". The Hill. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
  62. ^ Wilson, Reid (January 22, 2018). "Vermont governor signs marijuana legalization bill". The Hill. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
  63. ^ Moore, Chris (March 22, 2018). "Indiana Legalizes Medical CBD Oil, Again". Merry Jane. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  64. ^ Marso, Andy (June 6, 2018). "Cannabis extract CBD now legal in Kansas — with one big caveat". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  65. ^ Bowden, John (June 26, 2018). "Oklahoma votes to legalize medicinal marijuana". The Hill. Retrieved June 27, 2018.
  66. ^ Gray, Kathleen (November 6, 2018). "Proposal 1: Marijuana legalization passes in Michigan". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  67. ^ Angell, Tom (April 4, 2019). "New Mexico Governor Signs Marijuana Decriminalization Bill". Forbes. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  68. ^ Jaeger, Kyle (May 9, 2019). "North Dakota Governor Signs Marijuana Decriminalization Bill". Marijuana Moment. Retrieved May 11, 2019.
  69. ^ Jaeger, Kyle (June 25, 2019). "Illinois Governor Signs Historic Marijuana Legalization Bill". Marijuana Moment. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  70. ^ Angell, Tom (June 25, 2019). "Hawaii Marijuana Decriminalization Will Take Effect, Governor Says". Marijuana Moment. Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  71. ^ Jaeger, Kyle (April 12, 2020). "Virginia Governor Approves Marijuana Decriminalization Bill". Marijuana Moment. Retrieved April 12, 2020.
  72. ^ Jager, Kyle (October 7, 2020). "Vermont Governor Allows Marijuana Sales Legalization Bill To Take Effect Without His Signature". Marijuana Moment. Retrieved October 7, 2020.
  73. ^ Sullum, Jacob (November 4, 2020). "South Dakota Voters Legalize Medical and Recreational Marijuana". Reason. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
  74. ^ Young, Jeffrey (November 4, 2020). "Marijuana Legalization Measures Pass In 5 States". HuffPost. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
  75. ^ Wilson, Reid (February 9, 2021). "South Dakota judge strikes down voter-passed marijuana measure". The Hill. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  76. ^ United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency (1977). Marijuana decriminalization: hearing before the Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, first session, pursuant to S. Res. 72, section 12, Investigation of juvenile delinquency in the United States, S. 1450 ... May 14, 1975. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 286.
  77. ^ Aaron Martinez (June 2, 2015). "100 years after El Paso becomes first city in U.S. to outlaw pot, debate remains the same". Elpasotimes.com. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
  78. ^ Brush, Mark (May 3, 2013). "Sorting out the confusion over local marijuana laws, Ann Arbor's experience". Michigan Radio. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  79. ^ "Ann Arbor Defies New Marijuana Law". The New York Times. July 15, 1973. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  80. ^ "Ann Arbor Votes $5 Fine For the Use of Marijuana". The New York Times. April 3, 1074. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  81. ^ Cullen, Sandy (April 10, 2007). "30 Years Later Madison Voters Passed A Law In April 1977 That Permits Possession Of Small Amounts Of Marijuana In Private Places". madison.com. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  82. ^ Roberts, Chris (July 1, 2015). "SF's Dianne Feinstein: 'Worst Senator on Marijuana Reform'". SF Weekly. Retrieved February 24, 2018.
  83. ^ Lee, Martin A. (August 2012). Smoke Signals: A Social History of Marijuana – Medical, Recreational, and Scientific. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-1439102602.
  84. ^ Heddleston, Thomas R. (June 2012). From the Frontlines to the Bottom Line: Medical Marijuana, the War on Drugs, and the Drug Policy Reform Movement (Thesis). UC Santa Cruz Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Archived from the original on February 16, 2014.
  85. ^ "Proposition P". marijuanalibrary.org. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  86. ^ Gardner, Fred (August 26, 2014). "The Cannabis Buyers Club: How Medical Marijuana Began in California". marijuana.com. Archived from the original on November 20, 2018. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
  87. ^ Altieri, Erik (July 30, 2013). "First Medical Marijuana Sale Reported in Washington, DC | NORML Blog, Marijuana Law Reform". Blog.norml.org. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  88. ^ "Seattle Voters Approve Initiative Making Marijuana Enforcement City's "Lowest Priority"". NORML. September 18, 2003. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  89. ^ "Measure Z Home Page". Oaksterdam Cannabis Museum. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
  90. ^ "Denver votes to legalize marijuana possession". USA Today. November 3, 2005. Retrieved October 16, 2014.
  91. ^ "San Francisco Board of Supervisors Vote Overwhelmingly to Deprioritize Adult Marijuana Offenses; Now Officially Lowest Law Enforcement Priority". Drug Policy Alliance. November 14, 2006. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  92. ^ "Breckenridge Pot Legalization Creates Big Buzz". ABC 7 Denver. November 5, 2009. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
  93. ^ Mack, Kristen (June 27, 2012). "Chicago City Council passes pot ticket ordinance". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  94. ^ "Marijuana decriminalized in five Mich. cities, but police still plan to make arrests". CBS News. November 8, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  95. ^ Wilkey, Robin (November 6, 2013). "Portland, Maine, Legalizes Recreational Marijuana". Huffington Post. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
  96. ^ "Philadelphia Is Decriminalizing Marijuana Possession". Retrieved October 1, 2014.
  97. ^ Davis, Aaron C. (March 5, 2014). "D.C. Council votes to eliminate jail time for marijuana possession". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  98. ^ Ferner, Matt (November 4, 2014). "Washington, D.C. Votes To Legalize Recreational Marijuana". HuffPost. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  99. ^ Garcia, Maddie (July 30, 2017). "D.C. Marijuana Market: Stuck In A Gray Zone". NPR. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  100. ^ "Pot in NYC may soon net just a ticket, not an arrest". CNN. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  101. ^ "Vote to decriminalize marijuana passes in Wichita". KSN-TV.
  102. ^ Hanks, Douglas (June 30, 2015). "Miami-Dade adopts $100 fine for pot possession". Miami Herald. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  103. ^ a b Janice Williams (November 14, 2016). "Marijuana Legalization In Ohio: Several Cities Vote In Favor Of Decriminalization Laws". Ibtimes.com. Retrieved November 30, 2016.
  104. ^ Goldstein, Chris (January 5, 2016). "Pittsburgh mayor quietly signs bill to decriminalize marijuana". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  105. ^ Lanee, Jamel (March 17, 2016). "Tampa votes to decriminalize marijuana". WFLA. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  106. ^ LaRose, Greg (March 17, 2016). "No arrests for pot possession in New Orleans, council decides". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  107. ^ Weiner, Jeff (May 9, 2016). "Orlando OKs citations for marijuana possession in small amounts". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  108. ^ Garrison, Joey (September 20, 2016). "Nashville passes marijuana decriminalization measure". The Tennessean. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  109. ^ Poe, Ryan (October 4, 2016). "Memphis council OKs decriminalizing pot in some cases". The Commercial Appeal. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  110. ^ Rogers, Brian (February 16, 2017). "New policy to decriminalize marijuana in Harris County will save time, money, DA's office says". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
  111. ^ Cummings, Ian (April 4, 2017). "KC voters approve lower penalty for pot possession: $25 fine and no jail". The Kansas City Star. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  112. ^ Stafford, Leon (October 2, 2017). "Atlanta City Council cuts penalties, jail time for some pot possession". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved February 11, 2018.
  113. ^ Knight, Steve; Reisen, Matthew (April 12, 2018). "Mayor signs new pot bill into law". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
  114. ^ "Guam Legalizes Medical Marijuana". The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 11, 2015.
  115. ^ "Marijuana Possession Now Decriminalized In US Virgin Islands". The Daily Chronic.
  116. ^ Alexandra Sifferlin. "Puerto Rico Governor Signs Executive Order to Legalize Medical Pot". TIME.com. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
  117. ^ Angell, Tom (September 21, 2018). "Governor Signs Marijuana Legalization Bill, Making History In US Territory". Forbes. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  118. ^ Jaeger, Kyle (January 18, 2019). "Governor Signs Bill Legalizing Medical Marijuana In The U.S. Virgin Islands". Marijuana Moment. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  119. ^ "Guam Legalizes Marijuana Use By Adults". NORML. April 4, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  120. ^ Barnard, Jeff; Wozniacka, Gosia (December 12, 2014). "DOJ says Indian tribes can grow and sell marijuana". Northwest Herald. Associated Press. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  121. ^ "Tribe Bets on Legal Pot". US News. June 16, 2015. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
  122. ^ Tom Banse (November 12, 2015), South Puget Sound tribe opens nation's first reservation marijuana store, Seattle: KUOW
  123. ^ Tad Sooter (December 10, 2015), "Suquamish Tribe opens marijuana shop", Kitsap Sun, Bremerton, Washington
  124. ^ "Pinoleville Pomo Nation confirms deal for legal marijuana farm". indianz.com. January 9, 2015.
  125. ^ Cherney, Max (January 14, 2015). "Native American Tribe in California Announces Plan to Grow Medical Marijuana". Vice. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  126. ^ Walker ORENSTEIN (August 5, 2016), "Puyallup Tribe pursuing medical marijuana grow after signing deal with state", The Olympian, Olympia, Washington
  127. ^ Hudak, John (October 25, 2016). Marijuana: A Short History. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 978-0815729068.
  128. ^ Wooten, James T. (August 3, 1977). "Carter seeks to end marijuana penalty for small amounts". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  129. ^ "Drug Abuse Message to the Congress", The American Presidency Project, August 2, 1977, retrieved March 9, 2018
  130. ^ Aggarwal, Sunil K. (February 26, 2013). "'Tis in our nature: taking the human-cannabis relationship seriously in health science and public policy". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 4 (6): 6. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00006. PMC 3581812. PMID 23447745.
  131. ^ "3 Ex-presidents Urge Defeat Of Marijuana Propositions". Chicago Tribune. October 30, 1996. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  132. ^ "Now He Has Something To Say? Clinton Supports Marijuana Decrim, Sentencing Reform in Rolling Stone Interview". stopthedrugwar.org. December 8, 2000. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  133. ^ Wenner, Jann S. (December 28, 2000). "Bill Clinton: The Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  134. ^ Lopez, German. "President Obama wants to treat marijuana like tobacco but not legalize it. Wait, what?". Vox. Retrieved February 27, 2015.
  135. ^ Wheaton, Sarah (March 16, 2015). "Obama snuffs stoner dreams of legalization". Politico. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
  136. ^ a b "Illegal Drugs". Gallup. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  137. ^ "Should marijuana be made legal". GSS Data Explorer. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  138. ^ Newport, Frank (October 17, 2011). "Record-High 50% of Americans Favor Legalizing Marijuana Use". Gallup. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  139. ^ "Majority Now Supports Legalizing Marijuana". Pew Research Center. April 4, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  140. ^ Swift, Art (October 22, 2013). "For First Time, Americans Favor Legalizing Marijuana". Gallup. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  141. ^ McCarthy, Justin (October 25, 2017). "Record-High Support for Legalizing Marijuana Use in U.S." Gallup. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  142. ^ McCarthy, Justin (October 22, 2018). "Two in Three Americans Now Support Legalizing Marijuana". Gallup. Retrieved October 30, 2018.

External links[edit]