Cannabis Ruderalis

Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90

Russian Federation
Российская Федерация
Anthem: 
"State Anthem of the Russian Federation"
Государственный гимн Российской Федерации
Russia on the globe, with unrecognized territories shown in light green.[a]
Russia on the globe, with unrecognized territories shown in light green.[a]
Capital
and largest city
Moscow
55°45′N 37°37′E / 55.750°N 37.617°E / 55.750; 37.617
Official language
and national language
Russian[2]
Recognized national languagesSee Languages of Russia
Ethnic groups
(2010)[3]
Religion
(2017)[4]
Demonym(s)Russian
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential constitutional republic[5]
• President
Vladimir Putin
Mikhail Mishustin
Valentina Matviyenko
Vyacheslav Volodin
Vyacheslav Lebedev
LegislatureFederal Assembly
Federation Council
State Duma
Formation
862
879
1283
16 January 1547
2 November 1721
15 March 1917
30 December 1922
12 December 1991
12 December 1993
18 March 2014
4 July 2020
Area
• Total
17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)[6] 17,125,191 km2 (including Crimea)[7] (1st)
• Water (%)
13[8] (including swamps)
Population
• 2021 estimate
  • Neutral decrease 146,171,015
  • (including Crimea)[9]
  • Neutral decrease 143,759,445
  • (excluding Crimea)[9]
(9th)
• Density
8.4/km2 (21.8/sq mi) (181st)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $4.328 trillion[10] (6th)
• Per capita
Increase $29,485[10] (55th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.710 trillion[10] (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $11,654[10] (64th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 37.5[11]
medium · 98th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.824[12]
very high · 52nd
CurrencyRussian ruble () (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+2 to +12
Driving sideright
Calling code+7
ISO 3166 codeRU
Internet TLD

Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya, Russian pronunciation: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation,[b] is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world by area, covering over 17 million square kilometres (6.6×10^6 sq mi), and encompassing more than one-eighth of Earth's inhabited land area. Russia extends across eleven time zones, and has the most borders of any country in the world, with sixteen sovereign nations.[c] It has a population of 146.2 million; and is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth-most populous country in the world. Moscow, the capital, is the largest city in Europe, while Saint Petersburg is the nation's second-largest city and cultural centre. Russians are the largest Slavic and European nation; they speak Russian, the most spoken Slavic language, and the most spoken native language in Europe.

The East Slavs emerged as a recognisable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. The medieval state of Rus' arose in the 9th century. In 988, it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated until it was finally reunified by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the 15th century. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third-largest empire in history. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian SFSR became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state, which had a one-party system throughout most of its existence. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first human in space. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation. In the aftermath of the constitutional crisis of 1993, a new constitution was adopted, and Russia has since been governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Vladimir Putin has dominated Russia's political system since 2000, and his government has been accused of authoritarianism, numerous human rights abuses, and corruption.

Russia is a great power, and is considered a potential superpower. It is ranked 52nd in the Human Development Index, with a universal healthcare system, and a free university education. Russia's economy is the world's eleventh-largest by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP. It is a recognized nuclear-weapons state, possessing the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons, with the world's second-most powerful military, and the fourth-highest military expenditure. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the world's largest, and it is one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the SCO, the Council of Europe, the APEC, the OSCE, the IIB and the WTO, as well as the leading member of the CIS, the CSTO, and the EAEU. Russia is also home to the ninth-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Etymology

The name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated primarily by the East Slavs.[13] However, the proper name became more prominent in later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская земля" (Russkaya zemlya), which can be translated as "Russian land".[14] In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography. The name Rus' itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, a group of Norse merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centred on Novgorod that later became Kievan Rus'.[15]

A Medieval Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia, which was used as one of several designations for East Slavic and Eastern Orthodox regions, and commonly as a designation for the lands of Rus'.[16] The current name of the country, Россия (Rossiya), comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía – spelled Ρωσία (Rosía pronounced [roˈsia]) in Modern Greek.[17]

The standard way to refer to the citizens of Russia is "Russians" in English.[18] There are two words in Russian which are commonly translated into English as "Russians" – one is "русские" (russkiye), which most often refers to ethnic Russians – and the other is "россияне" (rossiyane), which refers to citizens of Russia, regardless of ethnicity.[19]

History

Early history

One of the first modern human bones of over 40,000 years old were found in Southern Russia, in the villages of Kostyonki and Borshchyovo situated on the banks of the Don River.[20][21]

Nomadic pastoralism developed in the Pontic–Caspian steppe beginning in the Chalcolithic.[23] Remnants of these steppe civilizations were discovered in places such as Ipatovo,[23] Sintashta,[24] Arkaim,[25] and Pazyryk,[26] which bear the earliest known traces of horses in warfare.[24] In classical antiquity, the Pontic-Caspian Steppe was known as Scythia.[27]

In late 8th century BCE, Ancient Greek traders brought classical civilization to the trade emporiums in Tanais and Phanagoria.[28]

In the 3rd to 4th centuries AD, the Gothic kingdom of Oium existed in Southern Russia, which was later overrun by Huns.[13] Between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD, the Bosporan Kingdom, which was a Hellenistic polity that succeeded the Greek colonies,[29] was also overwhelmed by nomadic invasions led by warlike tribes such as the Huns and Eurasian Avars.[30] The Khazars, who were of Turkic origin, ruled the lower Volga basin steppes between the Caspian and Black Seas until the 10th century.[31]

The ancestors of modern Russians are the Slavic tribes, whose original home is thought by some scholars to have been the wooded areas of the Pinsk Marshes, one of the largest wetlands in Europe.[32] The East Slavs gradually settled Western Russia in two waves: one moving from Kiev towards present-day Suzdal and Murom and another from Polotsk towards Novgorod and Rostov.[31] From the 7th century onwards, the East Slavs constituted the bulk of the population in western Russia,[31] and slowly but peacefully assimilated the native Finnic peoples, including the Merya,[33] the Muromians,[34] and the Meshchera.[35]

Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' in the 11th century

The establishment of the first East Slavic states in the 9th century coincided with the arrival of Varangians, the Vikings who ventured along the waterways extending from the eastern Baltic to the Black and Caspian Seas.[36] According to the Primary Chronicle, a Varangian from the Rus' people, named Rurik, was elected ruler of Novgorod in 862.[13] In 882, his successor Oleg ventured south and conquered Kiev,[37] which had been previously paying tribute to the Khazars.[31] Rurik's son Igor and Igor's son Sviatoslav subsequently subdued all local East Slavic tribes to Kievan rule, destroyed the Khazar Khaganate,[38] and launched several military expeditions to Byzantium and Persia.[39][40]

In the 10th to 11th centuries, Kievan Rus' became one of the largest and most prosperous states in Europe.[41] The reigns of Vladimir the Great (980–1015) and his son Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054) constitute the Golden Age of Kiev, which saw the acceptance of Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium, and the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda.[13]

In the 11th and 12th centuries, constant incursions by nomadic Turkic tribes, such as the Kipchaks and the Pechenegs, caused a massive migration of the East Slavic populations to the safer, heavily forested regions of the north, particularly to the area known as Zalesye.[42]

The age of feudalism and decentralization had come, marked by constant in-fighting between members of the Rurikid Dynasty that ruled Kievan Rus' collectively. Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod Republic in the north-west and Galicia-Volhynia in the south-west.[13]

Ultimately Kievan Rus' disintegrated, with the final blow being the Mongol invasion of 1237–40, that resulted in the destruction of Kiev, and the death of about half the population of Rus'.[43] The invaders, later known as Tatars, formed the state of the Golden Horde, which pillaged the Russian principalities and ruled the southern and central expanses of Russia for over two centuries.[44]

Galicia-Volhynia was eventually assimilated by the Kingdom of Poland, while the Novgorod Republic and Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation.[13] The Novgorod Republic escaped Mongol occupation and together with Pskov retained some degree of autonomy during the time of the Mongol yoke; they were largely spared the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. Led by Prince Alexander Nevsky, Novgorodians repelled the invading Swedes in the Battle of the Neva in 1240,[45] as well as the Germanic crusaders in the Battle of the Ice in 1242.[46]

Grand Duchy of Moscow

The most powerful state to eventually arise after the destruction of Kievan Rus' was the Grand Duchy of Moscow, initially a part of Vladimir-Suzdal.[47] While still under the domain of the Mongol-Tatars and with their connivance, Moscow began to assert its influence in the Central Rus' in the early 14th century, gradually becoming the leading force in the process of the Rus' lands' reunification and expansion of Russia.[48] Moscow's last rival, the Novgorod Republic, prospered as the chief fur trade centre and the easternmost port of the Hanseatic League.[49]

Times remained difficult, with frequent Mongol-Tatar raids. Agriculture suffered from the beginning of the Little Ice Age. As in the rest of Europe, plague was a frequent occurrence between 1350 and 1490.[50] However, because of the lower population density and better hygiene—widespread practicing of banya, a wet steam bath—the death rate from plague was not as severe as in Western Europe,[51] and population numbers recovered by 1500.[50]

Led by Prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow and helped by the Russian Orthodox Church, the united army of Russian principalities inflicted a milestone defeat on the Mongol-Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380.[52] Moscow gradually absorbed the surrounding principalities, including formerly strong rivals such as Tver and Novgorod.[47]

Ivan III ("the Great") finally threw off the control of the Golden Horde and consolidated the whole of Central and Northern Rus' under Moscow's dominion, and was the first Russian ruler to take the title title "Grand Duke of all Rus'".[47] After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Moscow claimed succession to the legacy of the Eastern Roman Empire.[47] Ivan III married Sophia Palaiologina, the niece of the last Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI, and made the Byzantine double-headed eagle his own, and eventually Russia's, coat-of-arms.[53]

Tsardom of Russia

Tsar Ivan the Terrible, 19th-century evocation by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1897

In development of the Third Rome ideas, the Grand Duke Ivan IV (the "Terrible") was officially crowned first Tsar of Russia in 1547. The Tsar promulgated a new code of laws (Sudebnik of 1550), established the first Russian feudal representative body (Zemsky Sobor), curbed the influence of the clergy, and introduced local self-management in rural regions.[54]

During his long reign, Ivan the Terrible nearly doubled the already large Russian territory by annexing the three Tatar khanates (parts of the disintegrated Golden Horde): Kazan and Astrakhan along the Volga, and the Siberian Khanate in southwestern Siberia.[54] Thus, by the end of the 16th century, Russia expanded east of the Ural Mountains, thus east of Europe, and into Asia, being transformed into a transcontinental state.[55]

However, the Tsardom was weakened by the long and unsuccessful Livonian War against the coalition of Poland, Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway for access to the Baltic coast and sea trade.[56] At the same time, the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate, the only remaining successor to the Golden Horde, continued to raid southern Russia.[57] In an effort to restore the Volga khanates, Crimeans and their Ottoman allies invaded central Russia and were even able to burn down parts of Moscow in 1571.[54] But in the next year the large invading army was thoroughly defeated by the Russians in the Battle of Molodi, forever eliminating the threat of an Ottoman–Crimean expansion into Russia.[58] The slave raids of Crimeans, however, did not cease until the late 17th century though the construction of new fortification lines across Southern Russia, such as the Great Abatis Line, constantly narrowed the area accessible to incursions.[59]

Kuzma Minin appeals to the people of Nizhny Novgorod to raise a volunteer army against the Polish invaders

The death of Ivan's sons marked the end of the ancient Rurik Dynasty in 1598, and in combination with the famine of 1601–03, led to a civil war, the rule of pretenders, and foreign intervention during the Time of Troubles in the early 17th century.[56] The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied parts of Russia, extending into even Moscow.[47] In 1612, the Poles were forced to retreat by the Russian volunteer corps, led by two national heroes, merchant Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky.[60] The Romanov Dynasty acceded to the throne in 1613 by the decision of Zemsky Sobor, and the country started its gradual recovery from the crisis.[61]

Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks.[47] In 1648, the peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against Poland-Lithuania during the Khmelnytsky Uprising in reaction to the social and religious oppression they had been suffering under Polish rule.[62] In 1654, the Ukrainian leader, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, offered to place Ukraine under the protection of the Russian Tsar, Aleksey I. Aleksey's acceptance of this offer led to another Russo-Polish War. Ultimately, Ukraine was split along the Dnieper River, leaving the western part, right-bank Ukraine, under Polish rule and the eastern part (Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev) under Russian rule.[47] Later, in 1670–71, the Don Cossacks led by Stenka Razin initiated a major uprising in the Volga Region, but the Tsar's troops were successful in defeating the rebels.[63]

In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia was led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable furs and ivory.[47] Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian River Routes, and by the mid-17th century, there were Russian settlements in Eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsula, along the Amur River, and on the coast of the Pacific Ocean.[55] In 1648, Fedot Popov and Semyon Dezhnyov, two Russian explorers, discovered the Bering Strait, and became the first Europeans to sail to North America.[64]

Imperial Russia

Peter the Great, Tsar of All Russia in 1682–1721 and the first Emperor of All Russia in 1721–1725

Under Peter the Great, Russia was proclaimed an Empire in 1721, and became one of the European great powers. Ruling from 1682 to 1725, Peter defeated Sweden in the Great Northern War (1700−1721), forcing it to cede West Karelia and Ingria (two regions lost by Russia in the Time of Troubles), as well as the Governorate of Estonia and Livonia, securing Russia's access to the sea and sea trade. In 1703, on the Baltic Sea, Peter founded Saint Petersburg as Russia's new capital. Throughout his rule, sweeping reforms were made, which brought significant Western European cultural influences to Russia.[65]

The reign of Peter I's daughter Elizabeth in 1741–62 saw Russia's participation in the Seven Years' War (1756–63). During this conflict, Russia annexed East Prussia and even reached the gates of Berlin. However, upon Elizabeth's death, all these conquests were returned to the Kingdom of Prussia by pro-Prussian Peter III of Russia.[65]

Catherine II ("the Great"), who ruled in 1762–96, presided over the Age of Russian Enlightenment. She extended Russian political control over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and incorporated most of its territories into Russia during the Partitions of Poland, pushing the Russian frontier westward into Central Europe, and thus making Russia the most populous country in Europe. In the south, after the successful Russo-Turkish Wars against the Ottoman Empire, Catherine advanced Russia's boundary to the Black Sea, defeating the Crimean Khanate. As a result of victories over Qajar Iran through the Russo-Persian Wars, by the first half of the 19th century, Russia also made significant territorial gains in Transcaucasia and the North Caucasus.[65] Catherine's successor, her son Paul, was unstable and focused predominantly on domestic issues. Following his short reign, Catherine's strategy was continued with Alexander I's (1801–25) wresting of Finland from the weakened Sweden in 1809, and of Bessarabia from the Ottomans in 1812. While in North America, the Russians became the first Europeans to reach and colonize Alaska.[66]

Russian expansion and territorial evolution between the 14th and 20th centuries.[67]

In 1803–1806, the first Russian circumnavigation was made, later followed by other notable Russian sea exploration voyages.[68] In 1820, a Russian expedition discovered the continent of Antarctica.[69]

During the Napoleonic Wars, Russia joined alliances with various other European empires, and fought against France. The French invasion of Russia at the height of Napoleon's power in 1812 reached Moscow, but eventually failed miserably as the obstinate resistance in combination with the bitterly cold Russian winter led to a disastrous defeat of invaders, in which more than 95% of the pan-European Grande Armée perished. Led by Mikhail Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolly, the Imperial Russian Army ousted Napoleon from the country and drove throughout Europe in the war of the Sixth Coalition, finally entering Paris. Alexander I controlled Russia's delegation at the Congress of Vienna, which defined the map of post-Napoleonic Europe.[66]

Monument to Mikhail Kutuzov in front of the Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg. The Kazan Cathedral and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate Napoleon's defeat.

The officers who pursued Napoleon into Western Europe brought ideas of liberalism back to Russia with them and attempted to curtail the tsar's powers during the abortive Decembrist revolt of 1825. At the end of the conservative reign of Nicholas I (1825–55), a zenith period of Russia's power and influence in Europe, was disrupted by defeat in the Crimean War.[66] Between 1847 and 1851, around one million people died across the country due to cholera.[70]

Nicholas's successor Alexander II (1855–81) enacted significant changes throughout the country, including the emancipation reform of 1861. These reforms spurred industrialisation, and modernized the Imperial Russian Army, which liberated much of the Balkans from Ottoman rule in the aftermath of the 1877–78 Russo-Turkish War. During most of the 19th and early 20th century, Russia and Britain vied to fill the power vacuums that had been left by the declining Ottoman Empire, Qajar Iran, and the Qing dynasty. This rivalry between the two major European empires came to be known as "The Great Game".[71]

The late 19th century saw the rise of various socialist movements in Russia. Alexander II was killed in 1881 by revolutionary terrorists, and the reign of his son Alexander III (1881–94) was less liberal but more peaceful. The last Russian Emperor, Nicholas II (1894–1917), was unable to prevent the events of the Russian Revolution of 1905, triggered by the unsuccessful Russo-Japanese War and the demonstration incident known as Bloody Sunday. The uprising was put down, but the government was forced to concede major reforms (Russian Constitution of 1906), including granting the freedoms of speech and assembly, the legalisation of political parties, and the creation of an elected legislative body, the State Duma.[71]

February Revolution and Russian Republic

Emperor Nicholas II of Russia and his family were murdered by the Bolsheviks in 1918.

In 1914, Russia entered World War I in response to Austria-Hungary's declaration of war on Russia's ally Serbia,[72] and fought across multiple fronts while isolated from its Triple Entente allies.[73] In 1916, the Brusilov Offensive of the Imperial Russian Army almost completely destroyed the Austro-Hungarian Army.[74] However, the already-existing public distrust of the regime was deepened by the rising costs of war, high casualties, and rumors of corruption and treason. All this formed the climate for the Russian Revolution of 1917, carried out in two major acts.[75]

The February Revolution forced Nicholas II to abdicate; he and his family were imprisoned and later executed in Yekaterinburg during the Russian Civil War.[61] The monarchy was replaced by a shaky coalition of political parties that declared itself the Provisional Government.[76] On 1 September (14), 1917, upon a decree of the Provisional Government, the Russian Republic was proclaimed.[77] On 6 January (19), 1918, the Russian Constituent Assembly declared Russia a democratic federal republic (thus ratifying the Provisional Government's decision).[75] The next day the Constituent Assembly was dissolved by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.[75]

Russian Civil War

White émigré propaganda poster, circa 1932.

An alternative socialist establishment co-existed, the Petrograd Soviet, wielding power through the democratically elected councils of workers and peasants, called Soviets. The rule of the new authorities only aggravated the crisis in the country instead of resolving it, and eventually, the October Revolution, led by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Provisional Government and gave full governing power to the Soviets, leading to the creation of the world's first socialist state.[75]

Following the October Revolution, the Russian Civil War broke out between the anti-Communist White movement and the new Soviet regime with its Red Army. Bolshevist Russia lost its Ukrainian, Polish, Baltic, and Finnish territories by signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk that concluded hostilities with the Central Powers of World War I.[75] The Allied powers launched an unsuccessful military intervention in support of anti-Communist forces.[78] In the meantime, both the Bolsheviks and White movement carried out campaigns of deportations and executions against each other, known respectively as the Red Terror and White Terror.[79] By the end of the civil war, Russia's economy and infrastructure were heavily damaged. There were an estimated 7–12 million casualties during the war, mostly civilians.[80] Millions became White émigrés,[81] and the Russian famine of 1921–22 claimed up to five million victims.[82]

Soviet Union

Vladimir Lenin and other Bolveshik leaders inspecting Vsevobuch troops on the Red Square, 1919.

On 30 December 1922, Lenin and his aides formed the Soviet Union, by merging the Russian SFSR with the Ukrainian, Byelorussian, and the Transcaucasian SFSR. Eventually the union grew larger to compass 15 republics, out of which, the largest in size and population was the Russian SFSR, which dominated the union for its entire history politically, culturally, and economically.[83]

Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika was designated to take charge. Eventually Joseph Stalin, the General Secretary of the Communist Party, managed to suppress all opposition factions and consolidate power in his hands to become the country's dictator by the 1930s. Leon Trotsky, the main proponent of world revolution, was exiled from the Soviet Union in 1929, and Stalin's idea of Socialism in One Country became the official line.[84] The continued internal struggle in the Bolshevik party culminated in the Great Purge, a period of mass repressions in 1937–38, during which hundreds of thousands of people were executed, including original party members and military leaders forced to confess to nonexistent plots.[85]

Under Stalin's leadership, the government launched a command economy, industrialisation of the largely rural country, and collectivisation of its agriculture. During this period of rapid economic and social change, millions of people were sent to penal labor camps, including many political convicts for their suspected or real opposition to Stalin's rule; millions were deported and exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union. The transitional disorganisation of the country's agriculture, combined with the harsh state policies and a drought, led to the Soviet famine of 1932–1933, The Soviet Union made the costly transformation from a largely agrarian economy to a major industrial powerhouse in a short span of time.[86]

World War II

The Battle of Stalingrad, the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare, ended in 1943 with a decisive Soviet victory against the German Army.
World War II casualties in Europe by theatre and by year. The Soviet effort was essential in defeating the Axis powers.[87]

On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany broke the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact; and invaded the ill-prepared Soviet Union with the largest and most powerful invasion force in human history,[88] opening the largest theater of World War II.[89] The German Hunger Plan foresaw the starvation and extinction of a great part of the Soviet population,[90] and Generalplan Ost called for the elimination of over 70 million Russians for Lebensraum.[91]

Nearly 3 million Soviet POWs in German captivity were murdered in just eight months of 1941–42.[92] Although the Wehrmacht had considerable early success, their attack was halted in the Battle of Moscow.[93] Subsequently, the Germans were dealt major defeats first at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of 1942–43,[94] and then in the Battle of Kursk in the summer of 1943.[95] Another German failure was the Siege of Leningrad, in which the city was fully blockaded on land between 1941 and 1944 by German and Finnish forces, and suffered starvation and more than a million deaths, but never surrendered.[94] Under Stalin's administration and the leadership of such commanders as Georgy Zhukov and Konstantin Rokossovsky, Soviet forces steamrolled through Eastern and Central Europe in 1944–45 and captured Berlin in May 1945.[96] In August 1945, the Soviet Army ousted the Japanese from China's Manchukuo and North Korea, contributing to the Allied victory over Japan.[97]

The 1941–45 period of World War II is known in Russia as the Great Patriotic War.[98] The Soviet Union together with the United States, the United Kingdom and China were considered as the Big Four of Allied powers in World War II,[99] and later became the Four Policemen which was the foundation of the United Nations Security Council.[100] During this war, which included many of the most lethal battle operations in human history, Soviet civilian and military death were about 26-27 million, accounting for about a third of all World War II casualties.[101] The full demographic loss of Soviet citizens was even greater.[102] The Soviet economy and infrastructure suffered massive devastation, which caused the Soviet famine of 1946–47.[103] Nonetheless, the Soviet Union emerged as a global superpower in the aftermath.[104]

Cold War

After World War II, Eastern and Central Europe, including East Germany and eastern parts of Austria were occupied by Red Army according to the Potsdam Conference.[105] Dependent communist governments were installed in the Eastern Bloc satellite states.[106] After becoming the world's second nuclear power,[107] the Soviet Union established the Warsaw Pact alliance,[108] and entered into a struggle for global dominance, known as the Cold War, with the rivaling United States and NATO.[109]

After Stalin's death in 1953 and a short period of collective rule, the new leader Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalin's many crimes and atrocities and launched the policy of de-Stalinization, releasing many political prisoners from the Gulag labor camps.[110] The general easement of repressive policies became known later as the Khrushchev Thaw.[111] At the same time, Cold War tensions reached its peak when the two rivals clashed over the deployment of the United States Jupiter missiles in Turkey and Soviet missiles in Cuba.[112]

Sputnik 1 was the world's first artificial satellite.

In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, thus starting the Space Age.[113] Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth, aboard the Vostok 1 manned spacecraft on 12 April 1961.[114] Following the ousting of Khrushchev in 1964, another period of collective rule ensued, until Leonid Brezhnev became the leader. The era of the 1970s and the early 1980s was later designated as the Era of Stagnation, a period when economic growth slowed and social policies became static. The 1965 Kosygin reform aimed for partial decentralisation of the Soviet economy and shifted the emphasis from heavy industry and weapons to light industry and consumer goods but was stifled by the conservative Communist leadership.[115] In 1979, after a Communist-led revolution in Afghanistan, Soviet forces invaded the country, ultimately starting the Soviet–Afghan War.[116] The occupation drained economic resources and dragged on without achieving meaningful political results.[117] Finally, the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989 due to international opposition, persistent anti-Soviet guerrilla warfare, and a lack of support by Soviet citizens.[118]

Mikhail Gorbachev in one-to-one discussions with Ronald Reagan in the Reykjavík Summit, 1986.[119]

From 1985 onwards, the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who sought to enact liberal reforms in the Soviet system, introduced the policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to end the period of economic stagnation and to democratize the government.[120] This, however, led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements across the country.[121] Prior to 1991, the Soviet economy was the world's second-largest,[122] but during its final years, it was afflicted by shortages of goods in grocery stores, huge budget deficits, and explosive growth in the money supply leading to inflation.[123]

By 1991, economic and political turmoil began to boil over as the Baltic states chose to secede from the Soviet Union.[124] On 17 March, a referendum was held, in which the vast majority of participating citizens voted in favour of changing the Soviet Union into a renewed federation.[125] In June 1991, Boris Yeltsin became the first directly elected president in Russian history when he was elected President of the Russian SFSR.[126] In August 1991, a coup d'état attempt by members of Gorbachev's government, directed against Gorbachev and aimed at preserving the Soviet Union, instead led to the end of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[127] On 25 December 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, along with contemporary Russia, fourteen other post-Soviet states emerged.[128]

Post-Soviet Russia (1991–present)

Vladimir Putin takes the oath of office as president on his first inauguration, with Boris Yeltsin looking over, 2000.

The economic and political collapse of the Soviet Union led Russia into a deep and prolonged depression.[129] During and after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, wide-ranging reforms including privatisation and market and trade liberalisation were undertaken,[130] including radical changes along the lines of "shock therapy" as recommended by the United States and the International Monetary Fund.[131]

The privatisation largely shifted control of enterprises from state agencies to individuals with inside connections in the government, which led to the rise of the infamous Russian oligarchs.[132] Many of the newly rich moved billions in cash and assets outside of the country in an enormous capital flight.[133] The depression of the economy led to the collapse of social services; the birth rate plummeted while the death rate skyrocketed, and millions plunged into poverty.[134] The 1990s also saw extreme corruption and lawlessness, as well as the rise of criminal gangs and violent crime.[135]

In late 1993, tensions between Yeltsin and the Russian parliament culminated in a constitutional crisis which ended after military force. During the crisis, Yeltsin was backed by Western governments, and over 100 people were killed. In December, a referendum was held and approved, which introduced a new constitution, giving the president enormous powers.[136]

Dmitry Medvedev and Barack Obama after signing the New START nuclear reduction treaty, 2010.[137]

The 1990s were plagued by armed conflicts in the North Caucasus, both local ethnic skirmishes and separatist Islamist insurrections.[138] From the time Chechen separatists declared independence in the early 1990s, an intermittent guerrilla war was fought between the rebel groups and Russian forces.[139] Terrorist attacks against civilians were carried out by separatists, claiming thousands of lives.[d]

Russia took up the responsibility for settling the Soviet Union's external debts, even though its population made up just half of it at the time of its dissolution. In 1992, most consumer price controls were eliminated, causing extreme inflation and significantly devaluing the ruble. With a devalued ruble, the Russian government struggled to pay back its debts to internal debtors, as well as to international institutions. Despite significant attempts at economic restructuring, Russia's debt outpaced GDP growth. High budget deficits coupled with increasing capital flight and inability to pay back debts, caused the 1998 Russian financial crisis, and resulted in a further GDP decline.[144]

Putin era

On 31 December 1999, President Yeltsin unexpectedly resigned, handing the post to the recently appointed prime minister and his chosen successor, Vladimir Putin.[145] Yeltsin left office widely unpopular, with an approval rating as low as 2% by some estimates.[146] Putin then won the 2000 presidential election,[147] and suppressed the Chechen insurgency.[148] As a result of high oil prices, a rise in foreign investment, and prudent economic and fiscal policies, the Russian economy grew significantly; dramatically improving Russia's standard of living, and increasing its influence in global politics.[149] Putin went on to win a second presidential term in 2004.[150]

On 2 March 2008, Dmitry Medvedev was elected president while Putin became prime minister, as the constitution barred Putin from serving a third consecutive presidential term.[151] Putin returned to the presidency following the 2012 presidential elections,[152] and Medvedev was appointed prime minister.[153] This four year joint leadership by the two was coined "tandemocracy" by foreign media.[154]

In 2014, after President Viktor Yanukovych of Ukraine fled as a result of a revolution, Putin requested and received authorisation from the Russian parliament to deploy Russian troops to Ukraine, leading to the takeover of Crimea.[155] Following a Crimean referendum in which separation was favoured by a large majority of voters,[156] the Russian leadership announced the accession of Crimea into Russia, though this and the referendum that preceded it were not accepted internationally.[157] The annexation of Crimea led to sanctions by Western countries, after which the Russian government responded with counter-sanctions against a number of countries.[158]

In September 2015, Russia started military intervention in the Syrian Civil War in support of the Syrian government, consisting of airstrikes against militant groups of the Islamic State, al-Nusra Front (al-Qaeda in the Levant), the Army of Conquest and other rebel groups.[159] In March 2018, Putin was elected for a fourth presidential term overall.[160]

In January 2020, substantial amendments to the constitution were proposed,[161] and the entire Russian government resigned,[162] leading to Mikhail Mishustin becoming the new prime minister.[163] It took effect in July following a national vote, allowing Putin to run for two more six-year presidential terms after his current term ends.[164] In April 2021, Putin signed the constitutional changes into law.[165]

Geography

Topographic map of Russia

Russia is a transcontinental country stretching vastly over both Europe and Asia.[166] Russia's border neighbors are Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It spans the northernmost corner of Eurasia, and has the world's fourth-longest coastline, at 37,653 km (23,396 mi).[e][168] Russia lies between latitudes 41° and 82° N, and longitudes 19° E and 169° W, and is larger than three continents: Oceania, Europe, and Antarctica,[169] while having the same surface area as Pluto.[170]

Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia's westernmost part along the Baltic Sea, is about 9,000 km (5,592 mi) apart from its easternmost part, Big Diomede Island in the Bering Strait.[171] Russia has nine major mountain ranges, and they are found along the southern regions, which share a significant portion of the Caucasus Mountains (containing Mount Elbrus, which at 5,642 m (18,510 ft) is the highest peak in Russia and Europe);[5] the Altai and Sayan Mountains in Siberia; and in the East Siberian Mountains and the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East (containing Klyuchevskaya Sopka, which at 4,750 m (15,584 ft) is the highest active volcano in Eurasia).[172][173] The Ural Mountains, running north to south through the country's west, are rich in mineral resources, and form the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia.[174]

Russia borders three,[166] oceans, when including its links with over thirteen marginal seas.[f][171] Russia's major islands and archipelagos include Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin.[175][176] The Diomede Islands are just 3.8 km (2.4 mi) apart,[177] and Kunashir Island is just 20 km (12.4 mi) from Hokkaido, Japan.

Russia, home to over 100,000 rivers,[166] has one of the world's largest surface water resources, with its lakes containing approximately one-quarter of the world's liquid fresh water.[173] Lake Baikal, the largest and most prominent among Russia's fresh water bodies, is the world's deepest, purest, oldest and most capacious fresh water lake, containing over one-fifth of the world's fresh surface water.[178] Ladoga and Onega in northwestern Russia are two of the largest lakes in Europe.[166] Russia is second only to Brazil by total renewable water resources.[179] The Volga, widely seen as Russia's national river due to its historical importance, is the longest river in Europe.[180] The Siberian rivers of Ob, Yenisey, Lena and Amur are among the world's longest rivers.[180]

Climate

The sheer size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate, which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southwest. Mountains in the south and east obstruct the flow of warm air masses from the Indian and Pacific oceans, while the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences. Most of Northwest Russia and Siberia has a subarctic climate, with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia (mostly Sakha, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature of −71.2 °C or −96.2 °F),[175] and more moderate winters elsewhere. Russia's vast stretch of land along the Arctic Ocean and the Russian Arctic islands have a polar climate.[182]

The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea, most notably Sochi, and some coastal and interior strips of the North Caucasus possess a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters. In many regions of East Siberia and the Russian Far East, winter is dry compared to summer; while other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The westernmost parts of Kaliningrad Oblast on the Vistula Spit, and some parts in the south of Krasnodar Krai and the North Caucasus have an oceanic climate. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast, as well as some southernmost silvers of Siberia, possess a semi-arid climate.[181]

Throughout much of the territory, there are only two distinct seasons—winter and summer—as spring and autumn are usually brief periods of change between extremely low and extremely high temperatures.[182] The coldest month is January (February on the coastline); the warmest is usually July. Great ranges of temperature are typical. In winter, temperatures get colder both from south to north and from west to east. Summers can be quite hot, even in Siberia.[183]

Biodiversity

Russia, owing to its gigantic size, has diverse ecosystems, including polar deserts, tundra, forest tundra, taiga, mixed and broadleaf forest, forest steppe, steppe, semi-desert, and subtropics.[184] About half of Russia's territory is forested,[5] and it has the world's largest forest reserves,[185] which are known as the "Lungs of Europe"; coming second only to the Amazon rainforest in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs.[186]

Russian biodiversity includes 12,500 species of vascular plants, 2,200 species of bryophytes, about 3,000 species of lichens, 7,000-9,000 species of algae, and 20,000-25,000 species of fungi. Russian fauna is composed of 320 species of mammals, over 732 species of birds, 75 species of reptiles, about 30 species of amphibians, 343 species of freshwater fish (high endemism), approximately 1,500 species of saltwater fishes, 9 species of cyclostomata, and approximately 100–150,000 invertebrates (high endemism).[187] Approximately 1,100 of rare and endangered plant and animal species are included in the Russian Red Data Book.[184]

Russia's entirely natural ecosystems are conserved in nearly 15,000 specially protected natural territories of various statuses, occupying more than 10% of the country's total area.[184] They include 45 UNESCO biosphere reserves,[188] 64 national parks, and 101 nature reserves.[189] Russia still has many ecosystems which are still untouched by man—mainly in the northern taiga areas and the subarctic tundra of Siberia. Over time the country has been having improvement and application of environmental legislation, development and implementation of various federal and regional strategies and programmes, and study, inventory and protection of rare and endangered plants, animals, and other organisms, and including them in the Russian Red Data Book.[185]

Government and politics

Vladimir Putin (2018-03-01) 03 (cropped).jpg Mikhail Mishustin (2020-07-09).jpg
Vladimir Putin
President
Mikhail Mishustin
Prime Minister

According to the Constitution of Russia, the country is an asymmetric federation and semi-presidential republic, wherein the president is the head of state,[190] and the prime minister is the head of government. The Russian Federation is fundamentally structured as a multi-party representative democracy, with the federal government composed of three branches:[191]

The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term, but not for a third consecutive term).[192] Ministries of the government are composed of the premier and his deputies, ministers, and selected other individuals; all are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (whereas the appointment of the latter requires the consent of the State Duma).

Political divisions

According to the constitution, the Russian Federation is composed of 85 federal subjects.[g] In 1993, when the new constitution was adopted, there were 89 federal subjects listed, but some were later merged. The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council,[193] the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy.[194]

Map of federal subjects of Russia (2014).svg
Federal subjects Governance
  46 oblasts
The most common type of federal subject with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centres.
  22 republics
Each is nominally autonomous;[195] home to a specific ethnic minority, and has its own constitution, language, and legislature, but is represented by the federal government in international affairs.[196]
  9 krais
For all intents and purposes, krais are legally identical to oblasts. The title "krai" ("frontier" or "territory") is historic, related to geographic (frontier) position in a certain period of history. The current krais are not related to frontiers.
Occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", each with a substantial or predominant ethnic minority.
Major cities that function as separate regions (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol).
  1 autonomous oblast
The only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.[197]

Federal districts

Federal subjects are grouped into eight federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia.[198] Unlike the federal subjects, the federal districts are not a subnational level of government but are a level of administration of the federal government. Federal districts' presidential envoys have the power to implement federal law and to coordinate communication between the president and the regional governors.[199]

Foreign relations

Putin with G20 counterparts in Osaka, 2019.

As of 2019, Russia has the fifth-largest diplomatic network in the world; maintaining diplomatic relations with 190 United Nations member states, two partially-recognized states, and three United Nations observer states; with 144 embassies.[200] It is considered a potential superpower; and is a historical great power, an important regional power, and one of five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. Russia is a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, and the APEC, and takes a leading role in organisations such as the CIS, the EAEU, the CSTO, the SCO, and BRICS.

Russia maintains positive relations with other countries of SCO,[201] EAEU,[202] and BRICS,[203] especially with neighbouring Belarus, which is in the Union State, a supranational confederation of the latter with Russia.[204] Serbia has been a historically close ally of Russia since centuries, as both countries share a strong mutual cultural, ethnic, and religious affinity.[205] In the 21st century, Sino-Russian relations have significantly strengthened bilaterally and economically—the Treaty of Friendship, and the construction of the ESPO oil pipeline and the Power of Siberia gas pipeline formed a special relationship between the two.[206] India is the largest customer of Russian military equipment, and the two countries share a historically strong strategic and diplomatic relationship since the Soviet times.[207]

Military

The Russian Armed Forces are divided into the Ground Forces, the Navy, and the Aerospace Forces—and there are also two independent arms of service: the Strategic Missile Troops and the Airborne Troops.[5] As of 2019, the military had around one million active-duty personnel, which is the world's fourth-largest.[209] Additionally, there are over 2.5 million reservists, with the total number of reserve troops possibly being as high as 20 million.[210] It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces.[5]

Russia boasts the world's second-most powerful military,[211] and is among the five recognized nuclear-weapons states, with the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons.[212] More than half of the world's 13,500 nuclear weapons are owned by Russia.[212] The country possesses the second-largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines,[213] and is one of the only three states operating strategic bombers,[214] with the world's most powerful ground force,[215] the second-most powerful air force,[216] and the third-most powerful navy fleet.[217] Russia has the world's fourth-highest military expenditure, spending $65.1 billion in 2019.[218] It has a large and fully indigenous arms industry, producing most of its own military equipment, and is the world's second-largest exporter of arms, behind only the United States.[5]

Human rights and corruption

Russia's human rights management has been increasingly criticized by leading democracy and human rights watchdogs. In particular, such organisations as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch consider Russia to have not enough democratic attributes and to allow few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens.[219][220] Since 2004, Freedom House has ranked Russia as "not free" in its Freedom in the World survey.[221] Since 2011, the Economist Intelligence Unit has ranked Russia as an "authoritarian regime" in its Democracy Index, ranking it 124th out of 167 countries for 2020.[222] In regards to media freedom, Russia was ranked 149th out of 180 countries in Reporters Without Borders' Press Freedom Index for 2020.[223]

Russia was the lowest rated European country in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index for 2020; ranking 129th out of 180 countries.[224] Corruption is perceived as a significant problem in Russia,[225] impacting various aspects of life, including the economy,[226] business,[227] public administration,[228][229] law enforcement,[230] healthcare,[231] and education.[232] The phenomenon of corruption is strongly established in the historical model of public governance, and attributed to general weakness of rule of law in the country.[225]

Economy

Moscow is a major financial hub in Europe, and has one of the world's largest urban economies.
Russia's GDP growth by purchasing power parity (PPP) during 1991–2019 in international dollars

Russia has a mixed economy,[233] with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas.[234] It has the world's eleventh-largest economy by nominal GDP and the sixth-largest by PPP. In 2017, the large service sector contributed to 62% of the total GDP, the industrial sector 32%, and the small agricultural sector roughly 5%.[5] Russia has a low unemployment rate of 4.5%,[235] and a relatively low poverty rate of 12.6%.[236] More than 70% of its population is categorized as middle class officially,[237] which has been disputed by some experts.[238][239] Russia foreign exchange reserves are worth $604 billion, and are world's fifth-largest.[240] It has a labour force of roughly 70 million, which is the world's sixth-largest.[241] Russia's large automotive industry ranks as the world's tenth-largest by production.[242]

Russia is the world's fourteenth-largest exporter.[243] In 2016, the oil-and-gas sector accounted for 36% of federal budget revenues.[244] In 2019, the Natural Resources and Environment Ministry estimated the value of natural resources to 60% of the country's GDP.[245] Russia has one of the lowest external debts among major developed countries,[246] and ranked high among the "very easy" countries in the 2019 Ease of Doing Business Index.[247] It has a flat tax rate of 13%, and has the world's second-most attractive personal tax system for single managers after the United Arab Emirates.[248] However, extreme inequality of household income and wealth in the country has also been noted.[249][250]

Infrastructure

Railway transport in Russia is mostly under the control of the state-run Russian Railways.[251] The total length of common-used railway tracks is the world's third-longest, and exceeds 87,157 km (54,157 mi).[252] As of 2016, Russia has 1,452.2 thousand km of roads,[253] and its road density is among the world's lowest.[254] Russia's inland waterways are the world's second-longest, and total 102,000 km (63,380 mi).[255] Among Russia's 1,218 airports,[256] the busiest is Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow, which is also the fifth-busiest airport in Europe.

The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway line in the world, connecting Moscow to Vladivostok.[257]

Russia's largest port is the Port of Novorossiysk in Krasnodar Krai along the Black Sea.[258] It is the world's sole country to operate nuclear-powered icebreakers, which advance the economic exploitation of the Arctic continental shelf of Russia, and the development of sea trade through the Northern Sea Route.[259]

Russia has been widely described as an energy superpower;[260] as it has the world's largest natural gas reserves,[261] the second-largest coal reserves,[262] the eighth-largest oil reserves,[263] and the largest oil shale reserves in Europe.[264] It is the world's leading natural gas exporter,[265] the second-largest natural gas producer,[266] and the second-largest oil exporter,[267] and producer.[268] Fossil fuels cause most of the greenhouse gas emissions by Russia.[269] The country is the world's fourth-largest electricity producer,[270] and the ninth-largest renewable energy producer in 2019.[271] Russia was also the world's first country to develop civilian nuclear power, and to construct the world's first nuclear power plant.[272] In 2019, It was the world's fourth-largest nuclear energy producer.[273]

Agriculture and fishery

Russia's agriculture sector contributes about 5% of the country's total GDP, although the sector employs about one-eighth of the total labour force.[274] It has the world's third-largest cultivated area, at 1,265,267 square kilometres (488,522 sq mi). However, due to the harshness of its environment, about 13.1% of its land is agricultural,[5] and only 7.4% of its land is arable.[275] The main product of Russian farming has always been grain, which occupies considerably more than half of the cropland.[274] Russia is the world's largest exporter of wheat,[276] and is the largest producer of barley,[277] buckwheat, oats,[278] and rye,[279] and the second-largest producer of sunflower seed.[280] Various analysts of climate change adaptation foresee large opportunities for Russian agriculture during the rest of the 21st century as arability increases in Siberia, which would lead to both internal and external migration to the region.[281]

More than one-third of the sown area is devoted to fodder crops, and the remaining farmland is devoted to industrial crops, vegetables, and fruits.[274] Owing to its large coastline along three oceans, Russia maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets, ranking sixth in the world in tonnage of fish caught; capturing 4,773,413 tons of fish in 2018.[282] It is also home to the world's finest caviar (the beluga), and produces about one-third of all canned fish, and some one-fourth of the world's total fresh and frozen fish.[274]

Science and technology

Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), polymath scientist, inventor, poet and artist

Russia's research and development budget is the world's ninth-highest, with an expenditure of approximately 422 billion rubles on domestic research and development.[283] In 2019, Russia was ranked tenth worldwide in the number of scientific publications.[284] Russia was ranked 47th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 46th in 2019.[285][286][287][288]

Since 1904, Nobel Prize were awarded to twenty-six Soviets and Russians in physics, chemistry, medicine, economy, literature and peace.[289] Mikhail Lomonosov proposed the law of conservation of matter preceding the energy conservation law.[290] Since the time of Nikolay Lobachevsky (the "Copernicus of Geometry" who pioneered the non-Euclidean geometry) and a prominent tutor Pafnuty Chebyshev, Russian mathematicians became among the world's most influential.[291] Dmitry Mendeleev invented the Periodic table, the main framework of modern chemistry.[290] Nine Soviet/Russian mathematicians were awarded with the Fields Medal.[292] Grigori Perelman was offered the first ever Clay Millennium Prize Problems Award for his final proof of the Poincaré conjecture in 2002.[293] Alexander Popov was among the inventors of radio,[294] while Nikolai Basov and Alexander Prokhorov were co-inventors of laser and maser.[295] Many famous Russian scientists and inventors were émigrés, among them are Igor Sikorsky,[296] and Vladimir Zworykin,[297] while many foreign ones lived and worked in Russia for a long time, such as Leonard Euler,[298] and Alfred Nobel.[299] Russian discoveries and inventions include the transformer, electric filament lamp, the aircraft, the safety parachute, electrical microscope, colour photos,[300] caterpillar tracks, track assembly, electrically powered railway wagons, videotape recorder, the helicopter, the solar cell, probiotics (found in some yoghurts), the television, petrol cracking, synthetic rubber, and grain harvester.[301]

Mir, Soviet and Russian space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.[302]

Roscosmos is Russia's national space agency;[303] while Russian achievements in the field of space technology and space exploration are traced back to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, the father of theoretical astronautics, whose works had inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers, such as Sergey Korolyov, Valentin Glushko, and many others who contributed to the success of the Soviet space program in the early stages of the Space Race and beyond.[304]

In 1957, the first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched.[113] In 1961, the first human trip into space was successfully made by Yuri Gagarin.[114] Many other Soviet and Russian space exploration records ensued, including the first spacewalk performed by Alexei Leonov.[305] Vostok 6 was the first human spaceflight to carry a woman into space (Valentina Tereshkova).[306] Luna 9 was the first spacecraft to land on the Moon,[307] Sputnik 2 was the first spacecraft to carry an animal (Laika),[308] Zond 5 brought the first Earthlings (two tortoises and other life forms) to circumnavigate the Moon,[309] Venera 7 was the first spacecraft to land on another planet (Venus),[310] and Mars 3 was the first spacecraft to land on Mars.[311] Lunokhod 1 was the first space exploration rover,[312] and Salyut 1 was the world's first space station.[313]

Russia is among the world's largest satellite launchers,[314] and has completed the GLONASS satellite navigation system. It is developing its own fifth-generation jet fighter (Sukhoi Su-57),[208] and has built the world's first floating nuclear power plant.[315] Luna-Glob is a Russian Moon exploration programme, with its first mission scheduled to launch in July 2022 (Luna 25).[316] To replace the ageing Soyuz, Roscosmos is also developing the Orel spacecraft, which could conduct its first crewed fight in 2025.[317] In February 2019, it was announced that Russia is intending to conduct its first crewed mission to land on the Moon in 2031.[318] In April 2021, Roscosmos declared that it is planning to quit the ISS, and will create its own space station with the aim of launching it into orbit by 2030.[319] In June 2021, Roscosmos and China National Space Administration announced that they are jointly developing a lunar base, which is planned to be utilized from 2036.[320]

Tourism

According to the World Tourism Organization, Russia was the sixteenth-most visited country in the world, and the tenth-most visited country in Europe, in 2018, with over 24.6 million visits.[321] Russia was ranked 39th in the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019.[322] According to Federal Agency for Tourism, the number of inbound trips of foreign citizens to Russia amounted to 24.4 million in 2019.[323] Russia's international tourism receipts in 2018 amounted to $11.6 billion.[321] In 2020, tourism accounted for about 4% of country's GDP.[324] Major tourist routes in Russia include a journey around the Golden Ring of Russia, a theme route of ancient Russian cities, cruises on large rivers such as the Volga, and journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway.[325] Russia's most visited and popular landmarks include Red Square, the Peterhof Palace, the Kazan Kremlin, the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius and Lake Baikal.[326]

Demographics

Ethnic groups in Russia of more than 1 million people according to the 2010 Census.[327]

Russia is one of the world's most sparsely populated and urbanized countries,[5] and had a population of 142.8 million according to the 2010 census,[328] which rose to 146.2 million as of 2021.[9] It is the most populous country in Europe,[329] and the world's ninth-most populous country,[330] with a population density of 9 inhabitants per square kilometre (23 per square mile).[331]

Since the 1990s, Russia's death rate has exceeded its birth rate, which has been called by analysts as a demographic crisis.[332] In 2018, the total fertility rate across Russia was estimated to be 1.6 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and is one of the world's lowest fertility rates.[333] Subsequently, the nation has one of the world's oldest populations, with a median age of 40.3 years.[5] In 2009, it recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years; and since the 2010s, Russia has seen increased population growth due to declining death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration.[334] However, since 2020, due to excessive deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia's population has been decreasing considerably.[335][336][337]

Russia is a multinational state, home to over 193 ethnic groups nationwide.[327] In the 2010 Census, roughly 81% of the population were ethnic Russians,[327] and the remaining 19% of the population were ethnic minorities,[3] and roughly 85% of Russia's population was of European descent,[3] of which the vast majority were Slavs,[338] with a substantial minority of Finnic and Germanic peoples.[339][340] According to the United Nations, Russia's immigrant population is the world's third-largest, numbering over 11.6 million;[341] most of which are from post-Soviet states, mainly Ukrainians.[342]

Language

Minority languages across Russia

Russian is the official and the predominantly spoken language in Russia.[2] It is the most spoken native language in Europe,[357] the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia,[358] as well as the world's most widely spoken Slavic language.[358] Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet after English,[359] and is one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station,[360] as well as one of the six official languages of the United Nations.[361]

Besides Russian, approximately over 100 minority languages are spoken across Russia.[362] According to the Russian Census of 2002, 142.6 million across the country spoke Russian, 5.3 million spoke Tatar, and 1.8 million spoke Ukrainian.[363] The constitution gives the country's individual republics the right to establish their own state languages in addition to Russian, as well as guarantee its citizens the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.[364]

Religion

Saint Basil's Cathedral in Red Square of Moscow is the most popular icon of Russia.[365]

Russia is a secular state by constitution, and its largest religion is Christianity. It has the world's largest Orthodox population,[366][367] and according to different sociological surveys on religious adherence, between 41% to over 80% of Russia's population adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church.[368][369][370]

In 2017, a survey made by the Pew Research Center showed that 73% of Russians declared themselves as Christians—out of which 71% were Orthodox, 1% were Catholic, and 2% were Other Christians, while 15% were unaffiliated, 10% were Muslims, and 1% followed other religions.[4] According to various reports, the proportion of Atheists in Russia is between 16% and 48% of the population.[371]

Islam is the second-largest religion in Russia, and it is the traditional religion amongst the bulk of the peoples of the North Caucasus, and amongst some Turkic peoples scattered along the Volga-Ural region.[372] Buddhists are home to a sizeable population in the three Siberian regions: Buryatia, Tuva, Zabaykalsky Krai, and in Kalmykia; the only region in Europe where Buddhism is the most practised religion.[373]

Education

Moscow State University, the most prestigious educational institution in Russia.[374]
The Petrozavodsk State University in Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia.

Russia has a free education system, which is guaranteed for all citizens by the constitution.[375] The Ministry of Education of Russia is responsible for primary and secondary education, and vocational education; while the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia is responsible for science and higher education.[376] Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia has the world's highest college-level or higher graduates in terms of percentage of population, at 54%.[377]

Pre-school education in Russia is highly developed, some four-fifths of children aged 3 to 6 attend day nurseries or kindergartens. Schooling is compulsory for nine years. It starts from age 6 to 7 and leads to a basic general education certificate. An additional two or three years of schooling are required for the secondary-level certificate, and some seven-eighths of Russian students continue their education past this level. Admission to an institute of higher education is selective and highly competitive: first-degree courses usually take five years.[378] The oldest and largest universities in Russia are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University.[379] There are also ten highly prestigious federal universities across the country. According to a UNESCO report in 2014, Russia is the world's sixth-leading destination for international students.[380]

Health

Russia, by constitution, guarantees free, universal health care for all Russian citizens,[381] through a compulsory state health insurance program. The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation oversees the Russian public healthcare system, and the sector employs more than two million people. Federal regions also have their own departments of health that oversee local administration. A separate private health insurance plan is needed to access private healthcare in Russia.[382]

According to the World Bank, Russia spent 5.32% of its GDP on healthcare in 2018.[383] It has one of the world's most female-biased sex ratios, with 0.859 males to every female.[5] In 2019, the overall life expectancy in Russia at birth is 73.2 years (68.2 years for males and 78.0 years for females),[384] and it had a very low infant mortality rate (5 per 1,000 live births).[385] The principle cause of death in Russia are cardiovascular diseases.[386] Obesity is a prevalent health issue in Russia. In 2016, 61.1% of Russian adults were overweight or obese.[387] However, Russia's historically high alcohol consumption rate is the biggest health issue in the country,[388] as it remains one of the world's highest, despite a stark decrease in the last decade.[389]

Culture

Russian culture has been formed by the nation's history, its geographical location and its vast expanse, religious traditions, and Western influence.[390] Russian writers and philosophers have played an important role in the development of European thought.[391][392] Russians have also greatly influenced classical music,[393] ballet,[394] sport,[395] architecture,[396] painting,[397] and cinema.[398] The nation has made pioneering contributions to science and technology and space exploration,[399] and is home to 30 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 19 out of which are cultural.[400] The large global Russian diaspora has also played a major role in spreading Russian culture throughout the world.

Art and architecture

Early Russian painting is represented in icons and vibrant frescos. In the early 15th-century, the master icon painter Andrei Rublev created some of Russia's most treasured religious art.[401] The Russian Academy of Arts, which was established in 1757, to train Russian artists, brought Western techniques of secular painting to Russia.[65] In the 18th century, academicians Ivan Argunov, Dmitry Levitzky, Vladimir Borovikovsky became influential. The early 19th century saw many prominent paintings by Karl Briullov and Alexander Ivanov, both of whom were known for Romantic historical canvases.[402][403] In the 1860s, a group of critical realists (Peredvizhniki), led by Ivan Kramskoy, Ilya Repin and Vasiliy Perov broke with the academy, and portrayed the many-sided aspects of social life in paintings.[401] The turn of the 20th century saw the rise of symbolism; represented by Mikhail Vrubel and Nicholas Roerich.[404][405] The Russian avant-garde flourished from approximately 1890 to 1930; and globally influential artists from this era were El Lissitzky,[406] Kazimir Malevich,[407] Natalia Goncharova,[408] Wassily Kandinsky,[409] and Marc Chagall.[410] Notable sculptures from the Soviet era include Vera Mukhina,[411] Yevgeny Vuchetich, and Ernst Neizvestny.[412]

The Winter Palace, which served as the official residence of the Emperor of Russia, is an architectural symbol of Saint Petersburg.[413]

The history of Russian architecture begins with early woodcraft buildings of ancient Slavs,[414] and the architecture of Kievan Rus'.[415] Following the Christianization of Kievan Rus', for several centuries it was influenced predominantly by the Byzantine Empire.[416] Aristotle Fioravanti and other Italian architects brought Renaissance trends into Russia.[417] The 16th-century saw the development of the unique tent-like churches; and the onion dome design, which is a distinctive feature of Russian architecture.[418] In the 17th-century, the "fiery style" of ornamentation flourished in Moscow and Yaroslavl, gradually paving the way for the Naryshkin baroque of the 1690s.[396] After the reforms of Peter the Great, Russia's architecture became influenced by Western European styles.[419] The 18th-century taste for Rococo architecture led to the splendid works of Bartolomeo Rastrelli and his followers.[420] During the reign of Catherine the Great, Saint Petersburg was transformed into an outdoor museum of Neoclassical architecture.[421] During Alexander I's rule, Empire style became the de facto architectural style, and Nicholas I opened the gate of Eclecticism to Russia. The second half of the 19th-century was dominated by the Neo-Byzantine and Russian Revival style.[396] In early 20th-century, Russian neoclassical revival became a trend.[419] Prevalent styles of the late 20th-century were the Art Nouveau,[396] Constructivism,[422] and Socialist Classicism.[423]

Music

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893), composer

Until the 18th-century, music in Russia consisted mainly of church music and folk songs and dances.[424] In the 19th-century, it was defined by the tension between classical composer Mikhail Glinka along with other members of The Mighty Handful, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolay Rubinstein.[393] The later tradition of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era, was continued into the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninoff, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music.[425] World-renowned composers of the 20th century include Alexander Scriabin, Alexander Glazunov, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Georgy Sviridov and Alfred Schnittke.[424]

Soviet and Russian conservatories have turned out generations of world-renowned soloists. Among the best known are violinists David Oistrakh and Gidon Kremer,[426][427] cellist Mstislav Rostropovich,[428] pianists Vladimir Horowitz,[429] Sviatoslav Richter,[430] and Emil Gilels,[431] and vocalist Galina Vishnevskaya.[432]

During the Soviet times, popular music also produced a number of renowned figures, such as the two balladeersVladimir Vysotsky and Bulat Okudzhava,[433] and performers such as Alla Pugacheva.[434] Jazz, even with sanctions from Soviet authorities, flourished and evolved into one of the country's most popular musical forms.[433] The Ganelin Trio have been described by critics as the greatest ensemble of free-jazz in continental Europe.[435] By the 1980s, rock music became popular across Russia, and produced bands such as Aria, Aquarium,[436] DDT,[437] and Kino.[438][439] Pop music in Russia has continued to flourish since the 1960s, with globally famous acts such as t.A.T.u..[440] In the recent times, Little Big, a rave band, has gained popularity in Russia and across Europe.[441]

Literature and philosophy

Leo Tolstoy is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time, with works such as War and Peace.[442]

Russian literature is considered to be among the world's most influential and developed.[391] It can be traced to the Middle Ages, when epics and chronicles in Old East Slavic were composed.[443] By the Age of Enlightenment, literature had grown in importance, with works from Mikhail Lomonosov, Denis Fonvizin, Gavrila Derzhavin, and Nikolay Karamzin.[391] From the early 1830s, during the Golden Age of Russian Poetry, literature underwent an astounding golden age in poetry, prose and drama.[444] Romanticism permitted a flowering of poetic talent: Vasily Zhukovsky and later his protégé Alexander Pushkin came to the fore.[445][446] Following Pushkin's footsteps, a new generation of poets were born, including Mikhail Lermontov, Nikolay Nekrasov, Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, Fyodor Tyutchev and Afanasy Fet.[447]

The first great Russian novelist was Nikolai Gogol.[448] Then came Ivan Turgenev, who mastered both short stories and novels.[449] Fyodor Dostoevsky and Leo Tolstoy soon became internationally renowned.[450][451] Ivan Goncharov is remembered mainly for his novel Oblomov.[452] Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin wrote prose satire,[453] while Nikolai Leskov is best remembered for his shorter fiction.[454] In the second half of the century Anton Chekhov excelled in short stories and became a leading dramatist.[455] Other important 19th-century developments included the fabulist Ivan Krylov,[456] non-fiction writers such as the critic Vissarion Belinsky,[457] and playwrights such as Aleksandr Griboyedov and Aleksandr Ostrovsky.[458][459] The beginning of the 20th century ranks as the Silver Age of Russian Poetry. This era had poets such as Alexander Blok, Anna Akhmatova, Boris Pasternak, Konstantin Balmont,[460] Marina Tsvetaeva, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and Osip Mandelshtam.[447] It also produced some first-rate novelists and short-story writers, such as Aleksandr Kuprin, Nobel Prize winner Ivan Bunin, Leonid Andreyev, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Andrei Bely.[447]

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Russian literature split into Soviet and white émigré parts. In the 1930s, Socialist realism became the predominant trend in Russia. Its leading figure was Maxim Gorky, who laid the foundations of this style.[461] Mikhail Bulgakov was one of the leading writers of the Soviet era.[462] Nikolay Ostrovsky's novel How the Steel Was Tempered has been among the most successful works of Russian literature. Various émigré writers, such as novelist Vladimir Nabokov continued to write in exile.[463] Some writers dared to oppose Soviet ideology, such as Nobel Prize-winning novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, who wrote about life in the gulag camps.[464]

Russian philosophy has been greatly influential, with philosophers such as Alexander Herzen, who is called the "father of Russian socialism"; Mikhail Bakunin, who is referred to as the father of anarchism; Mikhail Bakhtin, Helena Blavatsky, Vladimir Lenin, who is one of the world's most popular revolutionaries, and developed the political ideology of Leninism; Leon Trotsky, who is the founder of Trotskyism; and Petr Chaadaev, who influenced both the Westernizers and the Slavophiles.[392] Notable Russian philosophers of the late 19th and 20th centuries including Vladimir Solovyov,[465] Alexander Zinoviev,[466] Sergei Bulgakov,[467] Pavel Florensky,[468] Lev Shestov,[469] and Nikolai Berdyaev.[470]

Cuisine

Kvass is an ancient and traditional Russian beverage.

Russian cuisine has been formed by climate, cultural and religious traditions, and the vast geography of the nation; and it shares many similarities with the cuisines of its neighbouring countries.[471] Crops of rye, wheat, barley, and millet provide the ingredients for various breads, pancakes and cereals, as well as for many drinks.[472] Bread is very popular in Russia.[473] Flavourful soups and stews include shchi, borsch, ukha, solyanka, and okroshka. Smetana (a heavy sour cream) is often added to soups and salads.[474] Pirozhki, blini, and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Beef Stroganoff, Chicken Kiev, pelmeni, and shashlyk are popular meat dishes. Other meat dishes include stuffed cabbage rolls (golubtsy) usually filled with meat. Salads include Olivier salad, vinegret, and dressed herring.[472]

Russia's national non-alcoholic drink is kvass,[475] and the national alcoholic drink is vodka; its creation in the nation dates back to the 14th century.[476] The country has the world's highest vodka consumption,[477] but beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage in Russia.[478] Wine has become popular in Russia in the 21st century,[479][480] and the country is becoming one of the world's largest wine producers.[478][481] Tea has also been a historically popular beverage in Russia.[471]

Media

Poster of Battleship Potemkin (1925) by Sergei Eisenstein, which was named the greatest film of all time at the Brussels World's Fair in 1958.[482]

Russia has almost 37 thousand media outlets, 35 thousand newspapers,[483] and over 12 thousand magazines.[484] The largest internationally operating news agencies in Russia are TASS, RIA Novosti, and Interfax.[485] Television is the most popular media in Russia, as 99% of the Russian population receives at least one television channel,[483] and roughly 60% of Russians watch television on a daily basis.[486] Popular nationwide radio stations in Russia include Radio Rossii, Echo of Moscow, Radio Mayak, Radio Yunost, and Russkoye Radio.[484] Some popular newspapers include Komsomolskaya Pravda, Kommersant, Novaya Gazeta, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Izvestia, and The Moscow Times.[484] Russia has the largest video gaming market in Europe, with over 65 million players nationwide.[487]

Russian and later Soviet cinema was a hotbed of invention, resulting in world-renowned films such as The Battleship Potemkin.[488] Soviet-era filmmakers, most notably Sergei Eisenstein and Andrei Tarkovsky, would go on to become among of the world's most innovative and influential directors.[489][490] Eisenstein was a student of Lev Kuleshov, who developed the groundbreaking Soviet montage theory of film editing at the world's first film school, the All-Union Institute of Cinematography.[491] Dziga Vertov's "Kino-Eye" theory had a huge impact on the development of documentary filmmaking and cinema realism.[492] Many Soviet socialist realism films were artistically successful, including Chapaev, The Cranes Are Flying, and Ballad of a Soldier.

The 1960s and 1970s saw a greater variety of artistic styles in Soviet cinema.[398] The comedies of Eldar Ryazanov and Leonid Gaidai of that time were immensely popular, with many of the catchphrases still in use today.[493][494] In 1961–68 Sergey Bondarchuk directed an Oscar-winning film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's epic War and Peace, which was the most expensive film made in the Soviet Union.[398] In 1969, Vladimir Motyl's White Sun of the Desert was released, a very popular film in a genre of ostern; the film is traditionally watched by cosmonauts before any trip into space.[495] In 2002, Russian Ark became the first feature film ever to be shot in a single take.[496] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian cinema industry suffered large losses—however, since the late 2000s, it has seen growth once again, and continues to expand.[497]

Sports

Maria Sharapova, former world No. 1 tennis player, was the world's highest-paid female athlete for 11 consecutive years.[498]

Football is the most popular sport in Russia.[390] The Soviet Union national football team became the first European champions by winning Euro 1960,[499] and reached the finals of Euro 1988.[500] In 1956 and 1988, the Soviet Union won gold at the Olympic football tournament. Russian clubs CSKA Moscow and Zenit Saint Petersburg won the UEFA Cup in 2005 and 2008.[501][502] The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro 2008.[503] Russia was the host nation for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup,[504] and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.[505]

Ice hockey is very popular in Russia, and the Soviet national ice hockey team dominated the sport internationally throughout its existence.[506] Bandy is Russia's national sport, and it has historically been the highest-achieving country in the sport.[507] The Russian national basketball team won the EuroBasket 2007,[508] and the Russian basketball club PBC CSKA Moscow is among the most successful European basketball teams.[509] The annual Formula One Russian Grand Prix is held at the Sochi Autodrom in the Sochi Olympic Park.[510]

Historically, Russian athletes have been one of the most successful contenders in the Olympic Games,[511] ranking second in an all-time Olympic Games medal count.[512] Russia is the leading nation in rhythmic gymnastics; and Russian synchronized swimming is considered to be the world's best.[513] Figure skating is another popular sport in Russia, especially pair skating and ice dancing.[514] Russia has produced a number of famous tennis players.[515] Chess is also a widely popular pastime in the nation, with many of the world's top chess players being Russian for decades.[516] The 1980 Summer Olympic Games were held in Moscow,[517] and the 2014 Winter Olympics and the 2014 Winter Paralympics were hosted in Sochi.[518][519]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Crimea, which was annexed by Russia in 2014, remains internationally recognised as a part of Ukraine.[1]
  2. ^ Russian: Российская Федерация, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə fʲɪdʲɪˈratsɨjə]
  3. ^ Russia shares land borders with fourteen sovereign nations, and has maritime boundaries with the United States and Japan, and borders the two partially recognized breakaway states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
  4. ^ Most notably the Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis, the Russian apartment bombings, the Moscow theater hostage crisis, and the Beslan school siege.[140][141][142][143]
  5. ^ Russia has an additional 850 km (530 mi) of coastline along the Caspian Sea, which is the world's largest inland body of water, and has been variously classified as a sea or a lake.[167]
  6. ^ Russia borders, clockwise, to its west: the Baltic Sea, to its southwest: the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, to its north: the Barents Sea, the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, the Pechora Sea, the White Sea, and the East Siberian Sea, to its northeast: the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea, and to its southeast: the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan.
  7. ^ Including the disputed Republic of Crimea, and the federal city of Sevastopol.

References

  1. ^ Taylor & Francis (2020). "Republic of Crimea". The Territories of the Russian Federation 2020. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-003-00706-7. Note: The territories of the Crimean peninsula, comprising Sevastopol City and the Republic of Crimea, remained internationally recognised as constituting part of Ukraine, following their annexation by Russia in March 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Chapter 3. The Federal Structure". Constitution of Russia. Retrieved 22 April 2015. 1. The Russian language shall be a state language on the whole territory of the Russian Federation.
  3. ^ a b c "ВПН-2010". perepis-2010.ru. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012.
  4. ^ a b "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe". Pew Research Center. 10 May 2017. Retrieved 9 September 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Russia - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  6. ^ "World Statistics Pocketbook 2016 edition" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Statistics Division. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  7. ^ "Information about availability and distribution of land in the Russian Federation as of 1 January 2017 (by federal subjects of Russia)" Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 1 January 2017 (в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации). Rosreestr.
  8. ^ "The Russian federation: general characteristics". Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2008.
  9. ^ a b c Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2021 г. и в среднем за 2020 г. [Estimated population as of 1 January 2021 and on the average for 2020] (XLS). Russian Federal State Statistics Service (in Russian). Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  10. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  11. ^ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Russian Federation". World Bank. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  12. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia - Early History". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  14. ^ Kuchkin V. A. Russian land // Ancient Russia in the medieval world / Institute of General History of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Ed. E. A. Melnikova, V. Ya. Petrukhina . - M .: Ladomir, 2014. - S. 697-698.
  15. ^ Duczko, Wladyslaw (2004). Viking Rus. Brill Publishers. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-90-04-13874-2.
  16. ^ Nazarenko, Aleksandr Vasilevich (2001). "1. Имя "Русь" в древнейшей западноевропейской языковой традиции (XI-XII века)" [The name Rus' in the old tradition of Western European language (XI-XII centuries)]. Древняя Русь на международных путях: междисциплинарные очерки культурных, торговых, политических связей IX-XII веков [Old Rus' on international routes: Interdisciplinary Essays on cultural, trade, and political ties in the 9th-12th centuries] (in Russian). Languages of the Rus' culture. pp. 40, 42–45, 49–50. ISBN 978-5-7859-0085-1. Archived from the original on 14 August 2011.
  17. ^ Milner-Gulland, R. R. (1997). The Russians: The People of Europe. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-0-631-21849-4.
  18. ^ "Definition of Russian". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
  19. ^ Merridale, Catherine (2003). "Redesigning History in Contemporary Russia". Journal of Contemporary History. 38 (1): 13–28. doi:10.1177/0022009403038001961. JSTOR 3180694. S2CID 143597960.
  20. ^ "The era of the great European cultures of the Northern-type hunters". www.iabrno.cz. Czech Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Archaeology in Brno, The Center for Paleolithic and Paleoethnological Research. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  21. ^ "Kostenki-12, a memorial to Upper Paleolithic culture in Eastern Europe". Institute of History of Material Culture, RAS. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  22. ^ Anthony, David W.; Ringe, Don (1 January 2015). "The Indo-European Homeland from Linguistic and Archaeological Perspectives". Annual Review of Linguistics. 1 (1): 199–219. doi:10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124812. ISSN 2333-9683.
  23. ^ a b Belinskij, Andrej; Härke, Heinrich (1999). "The 'Princess' of Ipatovo". Archeology. 52 (2). Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  24. ^ a b Drews, Robert (2004). Early Riders: The beginnings of mounted warfare in Asia and Europe. New York: Routledge. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-415-32624-7.
  25. ^ Koryakova, L. "Sintashta-Arkaim Culture". The Center for the Study of the Eurasian Nomads (CSEN). Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  26. ^ "1998 NOVA documentary: "Ice Mummies: Siberian Ice Maiden"". Transcript. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  27. ^ Sinor, Denis (1990). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24304-9.
  28. ^ Jacobson, E. (1995). The Art of the Scythians: The Interpenetration of Cultures at the Edge of the Hellenic World. Brill. p. 38. ISBN 978-90-04-09856-5.
  29. ^ Tsetskhladze, G. R. (1998). The Greek Colonisation of the Black Sea Area: Historical Interpretation of Archaeology. F. Steiner. p. 48. ISBN 978-3-515-07302-8.
  30. ^ Turchin, P. (2003). Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall. Princeton University Press. pp. 185–186. ISBN 978-0-691-11669-3.
  31. ^ a b c d Christian, D. (1998). A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 286–288. ISBN 978-0-631-20814-3.
  32. ^ For a discussion of the origins of Slavs, see Barford, P. M. (2001). The Early Slavs. Cornell University Press. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0-8014-3977-3.
  33. ^ Paszkiewicz, H.K. (1963). The Making of the Russian Nation. Darton, Longman & Todd. p. 262.
  34. ^ McKitterick, R. (15 June 1995). The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge University Press. p. 497. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8.
  35. ^ Mongaĭt, A.L. (1959). Archeology in the U.S.S.R. Foreign Languages Publishing House. p. 335.
  36. ^ Obolensky, D. (1994). Byzantium and the Slavs. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-88141-008-2.
  37. ^ Thompson, J.W.; Johnson, E.N. (1937). An Introduction to Medieval Europe, 300–1500. W. W. Norton & Co. p. 268. ISBN 978-0-415-34699-3.
  38. ^ Plokhy, Serhii (2006). The Origins of the Slavic Nations: Premodern Identities in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-521-86403-9..
  39. ^ Obolensky, Dimitri (1971). Byzantium & the Slavs. pp. 75–108. ISBN 978-0-88141-008-2.
  40. ^ Logan, Donald F. (1992). The Vikings in History 2nd Edition. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-08396-6.
  41. ^ Vernadsky, George (1973). Kievan Russia. Yale University Press. p. 430. ISBN 978-0-300-01647-5.
  42. ^ Klyuchevsky, V. (1987). The course of the Russian history. 1. Myslʹ. ISBN 978-5-244-00072-6.
  43. ^ Hamm, Michael F. (1993). Kiev: A Portrait, 1800-1917. Princeton University Press. p. 328. ISBN 978-0-691-02585-8.
  44. ^ Halperin, Charles J. (1987). Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History. Indiana University Press. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-253-20445-5.
  45. ^ "Battle of the Neva". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  46. ^ Ostrowski, Donald (2006). "Alexander Nevskii's "Battle on the Ice": The Creation of a Legend". Russian History. 33 (2/4): 289–312. doi:10.1163/187633106X00186. JSTOR 24664446.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia - Muscovy". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  48. ^ Davies, Brian L. (2014). Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea Steppe, 1500–1700 (PDF). Routledge. p. 4.
  49. ^ Jotischky, Andrew; Hull, Caroline (2005). The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. Penguin Books. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-0-14-101449-4.
  50. ^ a b Hatcher, John (2008). The Black Death: An Intimate History. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-84475-4.
  51. ^ Pollock, Ethan (2019). Without the Banya We Would Perish: A History of the Russian Bathhouse. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539548-8.
  52. ^ Galeotti, Mark (2019). Kulikovo 1380: The battle that made Russia. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-4728-3121-7.
  53. ^ Hamlin, Cyrus (December 1886). "The Dream of Russia". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  54. ^ a b c Payne, Robert; Romanoff, Nikita (2002). Ivan the Terrible. p. 520. ISBN 978-0-8154-1229-8.
  55. ^ a b Wood, Alan (2011). Russia's Frozen Frontier: A History of Siberia and the Russian Far East 1581 - 1991. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-340-97124-6.
  56. ^ a b Riasanovsky, Nicholas V.; Lawrence, John (1960). A history of Russia. p. 654. ISBN 978-0-19-534197-3.
  57. ^ Matsuki, Eizo. "The Crimean Tatars and their Russian-Captive Slaves" (PDF). Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
  58. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. (2009). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ISBN 978-1-85109-672-5.
  59. ^ Williams, Brian Glyn (2013). "The Sultan's Raiders: The Military Role of the Crimean Tatars in the Ottoman Empire" (PDF). The Jamestown Foundation. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013.
  60. ^ Dunning, Chester S.L. (2004). Russia's First Civil War: The Time of Troubles and the Founding of the Romanov Dynasty. Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 978-0-271-02465-3.
  61. ^ a b Montefiore, Simon Sebag (2016). The Romanovs 1613–1918. Vintage Books. p. 784. ISBN 978-0-307-28051-0.
  62. ^ Kohut, Zenon E. (2003). "The Khmelnytsky Uprising, the Image of Jews, and the Shaping of Ukrainian Historical Memory". Jewish History. 17 (2): 141–63. doi:10.1023/A:1022300121820. JSTOR 20101495. S2CID 159708538.
  63. ^ Avrich, Paul (1972). Russian Rebels, 1600–1800. Schocken Books. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-393-00836-4.
  64. ^ Fisher, R.H (1981). The Voyage of Semen Dezhnev in 1648: Bering's precursor. London: Hakluyt Society. ISBN 978-0-904180-07-7.
  65. ^ a b c d Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia - Early Imperial Russia". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  66. ^ a b c Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Russia - Ruling the Empire". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  67. ^ Chew, Allen F. (2009). An Atlas of Russian History: Eleven Centuries of Changing Borders. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-01445-7.
  68. ^ McCartan, E.F. (1963). "The Long Voyages-Early Russian Circumnavigation". The Russian Review. 22 (1): 30–37. doi:10.2307/126593. JSTOR 126593.
  69. ^ Bonhomme, Brian (2012). Russian Exploration, from Siberia to Space: A History. McFarland & Company. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-7864-6687-0.
  70. ^ Hosking, Geoffrey (2001). Russia and the Russians: A History. Harvard University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-674-00473-3.
  71. ^ a b Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia - Transformation of Russia in the Nineteenth Century". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  72. ^ "How The World Went To War In 1914". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  73. ^ Tomaszewski, Fiona K. (2002). A Great Russia: Russia and the Triple Entente, 1905-1914. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-0-275-97366-7.
  74. ^ Schindler, John (2003). "Steamrollered in Galicia: The Austro-Hungarian Army and the Brusilov Offensive, 1916". War in History. 10 (1): 27–59. doi:10.1191/0968344503wh260oa. JSTOR 26061940. S2CID 143618581.
  75. ^ a b c d e Curtis, Glenn E. (1998). "Russia - Revolutions and Civil War". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  76. ^ Swain, Geoffrey (2014). Trotsky and the Russian Revolution. Routledge. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-317-81278-4. The first government to be formed after the February Revolution of 1917 had, with one exception, been composed of liberals.
  77. ^ Провозглашена Российская республика. Президентская библиотека имени Б.Н. Ельцина. 7 February 2017.
  78. ^ Carley, M. (1989). Allied Intervention and the Russian Civil War, 1917-1922. The International History Review, 11(4), 689-700. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
  79. ^ Blakemore, Erin (2 September 2020). "How the Red Terror set a macabre course for the Soviet Union". National Geographic. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  80. ^ Mawdsley, Evan (2007). The Russian Civil War. New York City. p. 287. ISBN 978-1-68177-009-3.
  81. ^ Hassell, James E. (1992). Russian Refugees in France and the United States Between the World Wars (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society). p. 96. ISBN 978-0-87169-817-9.
  82. ^ Haller, Francis (8 December 2003). "Famine in Russia: the hidden horrors of 1921". Le Temps. International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  83. ^ "USSR Established". History. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  84. ^ Bensley, Michael (2014). "Socialism in One Country: A Study of Pragmatism and Ideology in the Soviet 1920s" (PDF). University of Kent. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  85. ^ Abbott, Gleason (2009). A Companion to Russian History. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-3560-3.
  86. ^ Shepley, Nick (2015). Stalin, the five year plans and the Gulags: Slavery and Terror 1929-53. ISBN 978-1-78333-087-4.
  87. ^ Burns, J. H. "Document: The Executive of the President's Soviet Protocol Committee to the President's Special Assistant, August 10, 1943". TeachingAmericanHistory.org. Ashbrook Center at Ashland University.
  88. ^ Chapple, Amos (22 June 2021). "Operation Barbarossa: The Nazi Invasion Of The U.S.S.R. 80 Years Ago". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2 July 2021. Nazi Germany led the largest-ever ground invasion force in an attack on the Soviet Union in 1941 that unleashed a brutal conflict that cost the lives of millions of people.
  89. ^ Taylor, Alan (18 September 2011). "World War II: The Eastern Front". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  90. ^ Blakemore, Erin (21 February 2017). "The Nazis' Nightmarish Plan to Starve the Soviet Union". JSTOR. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  91. ^ Mineau, André (2004). Operation Barbarossa: Ideology and Ethics Against Human Dignity. Rodopi. p. 180. ISBN 978-90-420-1633-0.
  92. ^ Jones, Adam (2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-415-48619-4. The large majority of POWs, some 2.8 million, were killed in just eight months of 1941–42, a rate of slaughter matched (to my knowledge) only by the 1994 Rwanda genocide.
  93. ^ Braithwaite, Rodric (2006). Moscow 1941: A City and Its People at War. London: Profile Books. ISBN 978-1-86197-759-5.
  94. ^ a b Hellbeck, Jochen (2015). Stalingrad: The City That Defeated The Third Reich. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-61039-496-3.
  95. ^ Clark, Lloyd (2011). Kursk: The Greatest Battle: Eastern Front 1943. London: Headline. ISBN 978-0-7553-3638-8.
  96. ^ Kagan, Neil; Hyslop, Stephen (7 May 2020). "The Soviet victory in the Battle of Berlin finished Nazi Germany". National Geographic. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  97. ^ Goldman, Stuart D. (28 August 2012). "The Forgotten Soviet-Japanese War of 1939". The Diplomat. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  98. ^ "Russia's Monumental Tributes To The 'Great Patriotic War'". Radio Free Europe. 8 May 2020. Retrieved 29 May 2021. It is known in Russia as the "Great Patriotic War" and there are a number of imposing monuments across the country to mark the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II...
  99. ^ Brinkley, Douglas (2003). The New York Times Living History: World War II, 1942–1945: The Allied Counteroffensive. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-8050-7247-1.
  100. ^ Urquhart, Brian (16 July 1998). Looking for the Sheriff. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  101. ^ Tharoor, Ishaan (8 May 2015). "Don't forget how the Soviet Union saved the world from Hitler". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 July 2021. The Red Army was "the main engine of Nazism’s destruction," writes British historian and journalist Max Hastings in "Inferno: The World at War, 1939-1945." The Soviet Union paid the harshest price: though the numbers are not exact, an estimated 26 million Soviet citizens died during World War II, including as many as 11 million soldiers. At the same time, the Germans suffered three-quarters of their wartime losses fighting the Red Army.
  102. ^ Hosking, Geoffrey (2006). Rulers and victims: the Russians in the Soviet Union. Harvard University Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-674-02178-5.
  103. ^ Harrison, Mark (14 April 2010). "The Soviet Union after 1945: Economic Recovery and Political Repression" (PDF). University of Warwick. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  104. ^ Reiman, Michael (2016). "The USSR as the New World Superpower". About Russia, Its Revolutions, Its Development and Its Present. Peter Lang. pp. 169–176. ISBN 978-3-631-67136-8. JSTOR j.ctv2t4dn7.14.
  105. ^ Neiberg, Michael (2015). Potsdam: The End of World War II and the Remaking of Europe. Basic Books. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-465-04062-9.
  106. ^ Frucht, Richard C. (2003). Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism. Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 978-0-203-80109-3.
  107. ^ Holloway, David (1994). Stalin and the Bomb: The Soviet Union and Atomic Energy 1939–1956. Yale University Press. p. 505. ISBN 978-0-300-06056-0.
  108. ^ Mastny, Vojtech; Malcolm, Byrne (2005). A Cardboard Castle?: An Inside History of the Warsaw Pact, 1955–1991. Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN 978-963-7326-07-3.
  109. ^ Wagg, Stephen; Andrews, David (2012). East Plays West: Sport and the Cold War. Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-134-24167-5.
  110. ^ Jones, Polly (7 April 2006). The Dilemmas of De-Stalinization: Negotiating Cultural and Social Change in the Khrushchev Era. Routledge. pp. 2–4. ISBN 978-1-134-28347-7.
  111. ^ Taubman, William (1990). Khrushchev: The Man and His Era. W. W. Norton & Company and Simon & Schuster. p. 871. ISBN 978-0-393-32484-6.
  112. ^ Fuelling, Cody. "To the Brink: Turkish and Cuban Missiles during the Height of the Cold War". International Social Science Review. University of North Georgia. 93 (3). Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  113. ^ a b Brzezinski, Matthew B. (2007). Red Moon Rising: Sputnik and the Hidden Rivalries That Ignited the Space Age. New York City: Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 978-0-8050-8147-3.
  114. ^ a b Jenks, Andrew L. (2012). The Cosmonaut Who Couldn't Stop Smiling: The Life and Legend of Yuri Gagarin. Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-87580-447-7.
  115. ^ Bacon, Edwin; Sandle, Mark (2002). Brezhnev Reconsidered. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-50108-9.
  116. ^ Arnold, Anthony (1985). Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion in Perspective. Hoover Institution Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-8179-8213-3.
  117. ^ Ezoza Nomazova, Faye O. Prichard. "The Role of Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan in the Breakdown of the USSR". Virginia Commonwealth University. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  118. ^ Gates, Robert (2007). From the Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War. Simon & Schuster. p. 604. ISBN 978-1-4165-4336-7.
  119. ^ Brownell, Richard (12 October 2018). "Reagan and Gorbachev's First Brush with Peace". Medium. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  120. ^ Taubman, William (2017). Gorbachev: His Life and Times. New York City: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4711-4796-8.
  121. ^ Beissinger, Mark R. "Nationalism and the Collapse of Soviet Communism" (PDF). Princeton University. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  122. ^ Hanson, Philip (2003). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Economy. Routledge. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-582-29958-0.
  123. ^ "Russia Unforeseen Results of Reform". The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
  124. ^ Dahlburg, John-Thor; Marshall, Tyler (7 September 1991). "Independence for Baltic States: Freedom: Moscow formally recognizes Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, ending half a century of control. Soviets to begin talks soon on new relationships with the three nations". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021. Retrieved 28 September 2021.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  125. ^ Parks, Michael (19 March 1991). "Vote Backs Gorbachev but Not Convincingly : Soviet Union: His plan to preserve federal unity is supported--but so is Yeltsin's for a Russian presidency". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  126. ^ Remnick, David (14 June 1991). "YELTSIN ELECTED PRESIDENT OF RUSSIA". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  127. ^ Bonnell, Victoria E.; Cooper, Ann; Freidin, Gregory (1994). Russia at the Barricades: Eyewitness Accounts of the August 1991 Coup. New York Times: Routledge. p. 384. ISBN 978-1-315-70099-1.
  128. ^ Plokhy, Serhii (2014). The Last Empire: The Final Days of the Soviet Union. p. 520. ISBN 978-1-78074-646-3.
  129. ^ Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Russia - Economic Conditions in Mid-1996". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  130. ^ "Russian Federation" (PDF). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 24 February 2008.
  131. ^ Sciolino, E. (21 December 1993). "U.S. is abandoning 'shock therapy' for the Russians". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  132. ^ Watson, Joey (2 January 2019). "The rise of Russia's oligarchs — and their bid for legitimacy". ABC News. Retrieved 28 May 2021. The Russian ultra-rich amassed their wealth during the economic and social turmoil following the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the introduction of the market economy.
  133. ^ Johnson, Scott (12 March 2019). "Capital Flight From Russia Carries $750 Billion Price Tag". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  134. ^ Milanovic, Branko (1998). Income, Inequality, and Poverty During the Transformation from Planned to Market Economy. The World Bank. ISBN 978-0-8213-3994-7.
  135. ^ Satter, David (2003). Darkness at Dawn. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10591-9.
  136. ^ "Who Was Who? The Key Players In Russia's Dramatic October 1993 Showdown". Radio Free Europe. 2 October 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  137. ^ Lee, Carol E. (8 April 2010). "Obama, Medvedev sign START treaty". Politico. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  138. ^ Perovic, Jeronim (2006). "The North Caucasus on the Brink" (PDF). International Relations and Security Network. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  139. ^ Hockstader, Lee (12 December 1995). "CHECHEN WAR REVEALS WEAKNESSES IN YELTSIN, RUSSIA'S NEW DEMOCRACY". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  140. ^ Wesolowsky, Tony; Kotlyar, Yevgenia (13 June 2020). "After 25 Years, Budyonnovsk Hostage Crisis Seen As Horrific Harbinger Of Terror". Radio Free Europe. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  141. ^ Anderson, Scott (30 March 2017). "None Dare Call It a Conspiracy". GQ. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  142. ^ Oetgen, Albert; Balmforth, Tom (23 October 2012). "The Dubrovka Theater Siege in Moscow, a Decade Later". The Atlantic. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  143. ^ Phillips, Timothy (2007). Beslan: The Tragedy of School Number 1. Granta. p. 291. ISBN 978-1-86207-927-4.
  144. ^ Owen, David; Robinson, David O. (2003). Russia Rebounds. International Monetary Fund. ISBN 978-1-4519-2073-4.
  145. ^ Bohlen, Celestine (1 January 2000). "YELTSIN RESIGNS: THE OVERVIEW; Yeltsin Resigns, Naming Putin as Acting President To Run in March Election". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  146. ^ Tran, Mark (23 April 2007). "A bold buffoon". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  147. ^ Wines, Mark (27 March 2000). "ELECTION IN RUSSIA: THE OVERVIEW; Putin Wins Russia Vote in First Round, But His Majority Is Less Than Expected". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  148. ^ Crossette, Barbara (28 February 2002). "Russia Using Brutality to Suppress Chechens, Rights Group Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  149. ^ Guriev, Sergei; Tsyvinski, Aleh (2010). "Challenges Facing the Russian Economy after the Crisis". In Åslund, Anders; Guriev, Sergei; Kuchins, Andrew C. (eds.). Russia After the Global Economic Crisis. Peterson Institute for International Economics; Centre for Strategic and International Studies; New Economic School. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-88132-497-6.
  150. ^ Mydans, Seth (15 March 2004). "As Expected, Putin Easily Wins a Second Term in Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  151. ^ Harding, Luke (8 May 2008). "Putin ever present as Medvedev becomes president". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  152. ^ Lally, Kathy; Englund, Will (4 March 2012). "Putin wins election as Russian president; opponents claim widespread fraud". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  153. ^ "Putin and Medvedev in role swap". DW News. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  154. ^ Harding, Luke (15 January 2020). "Dmitry Medvedev: the rise and fall of the Robin to Putin's Batman". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  155. ^ "Ousted Ukrainian President Asked For Russian Troops, Envoy Says". NBC News. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  156. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Crimea parliament asks to join Russia". BBC. 6 March 2014. Retrieved 27 April 2015.
  157. ^ "General Assembly Adopts Resolution Calling upon States Not to Recognize Changes in Status of Crimea Region". United Nations. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  158. ^ "Russia Extends Western Food Imports Embargo to End 2021". The Moscow Times. 21 November 2020. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  159. ^ Petkova, Mariya (1 October 2020). "What has Russia gained from five years of fighting in Syria?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  160. ^ Hodge, Nathan; Fox, Kara; Dewan, Angela (19 March 2018). "Putin tightens grip on power with overwhelming Russian election win". CNN. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  161. ^ "Constitutional change in Russia" (PDF). European Parliament. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  162. ^ Reevell, Patrick (16 January 2020). "Russian government resigns as Putin proposes constitutional changes". ABC News. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  163. ^ "Who is Russia's new prime minister Mikhail Mishustin?". NBC News. 17 January 2020. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  164. ^ "Putin strongly backed in controversial Russian reform vote". BBC. 2 July 2020. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  165. ^ Roth, Andrew (5 April 2021). "Vladimir Putin passes law that may keep him in office until 2036". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  166. ^ a b c d "Russia". National Geographic Kids. National Geographic. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  167. ^ "Is the Caspian a sea or a lake?". The Economist. 16 August 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2021. Like many lakes, it does not feed into an ocean, but it is sea-like in its size and depth.
  168. ^ "Coastline - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  169. ^ Taylor, Callum (2 April 2018). "Russia is huge, and that's about the size of it". Medium. Retrieved 6 July 2021. Russia takes up 17,098,250 square kilometres, roughly one-eighth of the world's total land mass. That's larger than the entire continent of Antarctica...
  170. ^ Clark, Stuart (28 July 2015). "Pluto: ten things we now know about the dwarf planet". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 June 2021. Pluto's diameter is larger than expected at 2,370 kilometres across. This is about two-thirds the size of Earth's moon, giving Pluto a surface area comparable to Russia.
  171. ^ a b Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Global Position and Boundaries". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  172. ^ "Klyuchevskoy". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  173. ^ a b Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Topography and Drainage". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  174. ^ a b "The Ural Mountains". NASA Earth Observatory. NASA. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  175. ^ a b "Russia". The Arctic Institute – Center for Circumpolar Security Studies. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  176. ^ Aziz, Ziryan (28 February 2020). "Island hopping in Russia: Sakhalin, Kuril Islands and Kamchatka Peninsula". Euronews. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  177. ^ "Diomede Islands – Russia". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  178. ^ "Lake Baikal—A Touchstone for Global Change and Rift Studies". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  179. ^ "Total renewable water resources". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  180. ^ a b "Russia's Largest Rivers From the Amur to the Volga". The Moscow Times. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  181. ^ a b Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. ISSN 2052-4463. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
  182. ^ a b Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Climate". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  183. ^ Drozdov, V. A.; Glezer, O. B.; Nefedova, T. G.; Shabdurasulov, I. V. (1992). "Ecological and Geographical Characteristics of the Coastal Zone of the Black Sea". GeoJournal. 27 (2): 169. doi:10.1007/BF00717701. S2CID 128960702.
  184. ^ a b c "Russian Federation - Main Details". Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  185. ^ a b "Biodiversity in Russia". Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  186. ^ Walsh, Nick Paton (19 September 2003). "It's Europe's lungs and home to many rare species. But to Russia it's £100bn of wood". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 December 2007. Forest makes up 70% of Russia's territory and spans 12 time zones. It is known as Europe's lungs and is second only to the Amazon in the amount of carbon dioxide it absorbs, and is home to many rare species.
  187. ^ "Species richness of Russia". Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  188. ^ "Russian Federation". UNESCO. June 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  189. ^ "Look Inside Russia's Wildest Nature Reserves—Now Turning 100". National Geographic. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2021. Russia's tumultuous history includes one legacy little known outside its borders—a vast system of protected lands that conservationists have fought for decades to study and protect. Some are so remote and guarded that few of Russia's own citizens have ever stepped foot in them.
  190. ^ "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". (Article 80, § 1). Retrieved 27 December 2007.
  191. ^ DeRouen, Karl R.; Heo, Uk (2005). Defense and Security: A Compendium of National Armed Forces and Security Policies. ABC-CLIO. p. 666. ISBN 978-1-85109-781-4.
  192. ^ "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". (Article 81, § 3). Retrieved 27 December 2007.
  193. ^ "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". (Article 95, § 2). Retrieved 27 December 2007.
  194. ^ KARTASHKIN, V., & ABASHIDZE, A. (2004). Autonomy in the Russian Federation: Theory and Practice. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 10(3), 203-220. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
  195. ^ Saunders, R.A. (2019). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Historical Dictionaries of Europe. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-5381-2048-4. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
  196. ^ Orttung, Robert; Lussier, Danielle; Paetskaya, Anna (2000). The Republics and Regions of the Russian Federation: A Guide to Politics, Policies, and Leaders. New York City: EastWest Institute. pp. 523–524. ISBN 978-0-7656-0559-7.
  197. ^ Gessen, Masha (2016). Where the Jews Aren't: The Sad and Absurd Story of Birobidzhan, Russia's Jewish Autonomous Region. Schocken. ISBN 978-0-8052-4246-1.
  198. ^ Russian Classification of Economic Regions (OK 024–95) of 1 January 1997 as amended by the Amendments #1/1998 through #5/2001. (Section I. Federal Districts)
  199. ^ "Russia - Regional and local government". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 27 June 2021.
  200. ^ "Global Diplomacy Index – Country Rank". Lowy Institute. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  201. ^ "Russia's 'Pivot to Asia' and the SCO". The Diplomat. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  202. ^ Avedissian, Karena (3 November 2019). "Fact Sheet: What is the Eurasian Economic Union?". EVN Report. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  203. ^ Kulik, Sergey (7 July 2015). "Russia and the BRICS: Priorities of the Presidency". Council of Councils. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  204. ^ Slunkin, Pavel (5 November 2020). "Lukashenka besieged: Russia's plans for Belarus". European Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  205. ^ Vuksanovic, Vuk (19 October 2019). "Why Serbia Won't Stop Playing the Russia Card Any Time Soon". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  206. ^ Šćepanović, Janko (14 June 2021). "Good China-Russia Relations Are Here to Stay". The Diplomat. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  207. ^ Tamkin, Emily (8 July 2020). "Why India and Russia Are Going to Stay Friends". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  208. ^ a b Ryan Bauer and Peter A. Wilson (17 August 2020). "Russia's Su-57 Heavy Fighter Bomber: Is It Really a Fifth-Generation Aircraft?". RAND Corporation. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  209. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies (15 February 2019). The Military Balance 2019. Routledge. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-85743-988-5.
  210. ^ "The Global Intelligence Files". WikiLeaks. Retrieved 1 April 2015. IISS listed total reserves as 20,000,000 for many years, assuming a Soviet-style callup. The potential reserve personnel of Russia may be as high as 20 million, depending on how the figures are counted.
  211. ^ "2021 Military Strength Ranking". Global Firepower. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  212. ^ a b "Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What at a Glance". Arms Control Association. August 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  213. ^ Noot, Jurrien; Polmar, Norman (1991). Submarines of the Russian and Soviet Navies, 1718-1990. United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-570-4.
  214. ^ Paul, T. V.; Wirtz, James J.; Fortmann, Michael (2004). Balance of power: theory and practice in the 21st century. Stanford University Press. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-8047-5017-2.
  215. ^ "Tank Strength by Country (2020)". Global Firepower. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  216. ^ "Aircraft Strength by Country (2020)". Global Firepower. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  217. ^ "Navy Fleet Strengths (2020)". Global Firepower. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  218. ^ Tian, Nan; Fleurant, Aude; Kuimova, Alexandra; Wezeman, Pieter D.; Wezeman, Siemon T. (27 April 2020). "Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2019" (PDF). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  219. ^ "Russian Federation". Amnesty International. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  220. ^ Human Rights Watch on Russia and Chechnya HTW.org
  221. ^ "Countries and Territories". Freedom House. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  222. ^ "Global democracy has another bad year". The Economist. 22 January 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  223. ^ "Russia". Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  224. ^ "Corruptions Perceptions Index 2020". Transparency.org. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  225. ^ a b "New Reports Highlight Russia's Deep-Seated Culture of Corruption". Voice of America. 26 January 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  226. ^ Alferova, Ekaterina (26 October 2020). В России предложили создать должность омбудсмена по борьбе с коррупцией [Russia proposed to create the post of Ombudsman for the fight against corruption]. Izvestia Известия (in Russian). Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  227. ^ "Russia Corruption Report". GAN Integrity. June 2020. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  228. ^ Suhara, Manabu. "Corruption in Russia: A Historical Perspective" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  229. ^ "Russia lost 4 billion dollars on unfavorable state procurement contracts in the last year". Meduza. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  230. ^ "Cops for hire". The Economist. 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  231. ^ Klara Sabirianova Peter; Zelenska, Tetyana (2010). "Corruption in Russian Health Care: The Determinants and Incidence of Bribery" (PDF). Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  232. ^ Denisova-Schmidt, Elena; Leontyeva, Elvira; Prytula, Yaroslav (2014). "Corruption at Universities is a Common Disease for Russia and Ukraine". Harvard University. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  233. ^ "Mixed economy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 4 June 2021. Mixed economies also arose in many countries that formerly had centrally planned and socialist economies. The mixed economies in modern China and Russia, for example, evolved from communist systems that were too inefficient to compete in the modern global economy.
  234. ^ Excerpted from Glenn E. Curtis, ed. (1998). "Russia - Natural Resources". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 June 2021. Russia is one of the world's richest countries in raw materials, many of which are significant inputs for an industrial economy. Russia accounts for around 20 percent of the world's production of oil and natural gas and possesses large reserves of both fuels. This abundance has made Russia virtually self-sufficient in energy and a large-scale exporter of fuels.
  235. ^ "Unemployment, total (% of total labor force) (national estimate) – Russian Federation | Data". World Bank. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  236. ^ "Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of population) – Russian Federation | Data". The World Bank. Retrieved 5 November 2020.
  237. ^ "Putin highlights Russia's middle class as comprising more than 70% of population". TASS. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  238. ^ Braun, Bernhard (6 October 2020). "In search of Russia's middle class". Centre for East European and International Studies. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  239. ^ Alexandrov, Ivan (26 March 2020). Сколько в России среднего класса? [How many middle class is there in Russia?] (in Russian). Eurasianet. Retrieved 6 November 2020.
  240. ^ "International Reserves of the Russian Federation (End of period)". Central Bank of Russia. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  241. ^ "Labor force - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  242. ^ "2020 PRODUCTION STATISTICS". OICA. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  243. ^ "Exports - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  244. ^ "Russia – Analysis". EIA. 31 October 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2021.
  245. ^ "Russia's Natural Resources Make Up 60% of GDP". The Moscow Times. 14 March 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2021. Russia's Natural Resources and Environment Ministry estimates that the combined worth of the country's oil, gas and other resources amounts to 60 percent of its gross domestic product, the RBC news website reported on Thursday... As one of the world's top producers of natural gas and oil, Russia's economy is heavily reliant on exports of its resources... These resources added up to a combined 55.2 trillion rubles ($844.58 billion) in value as of 2017...
  246. ^ "Russia External Debt". CEIC. Retrieved 9 July 2021.
  247. ^ "Ease of Doing Business rankings". The World Bank. Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  248. ^ "Global personal taxation comparison survey–market rankings". Mercer (consulting firms). Retrieved 27 December 2007.
  249. ^ Guilford, Gwynn (12 April 2018). "On incomes, Russia and the US are now equally unequal". Quartz. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  250. ^ Kuznets, Dmitry; Grigorieva, Nastya; Rothrock, Kevin (23 January 2019). "The top 1% controls a third of the wealth, and the poor are getting poorer. How Russia became one of the most unequal places on Earth". Meduza. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  251. ^ "Passenger transportation" (PDF). Russian Railways. 2017. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  252. ^ "Railways - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  253. ^ "О развитии дорожной инфраструктуры" [On the development of road infrastructure]. Government of Russia. 29 April 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  254. ^ "Europe continues to report the world's highest Road Network Density, followed by East Asia and Pacific". International Road Federation. 16 December 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  255. ^ "Waterways - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  256. ^ "Airports - The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  257. ^ Warren, Katie (3 January 2020). "I rode the legendary Trans-Siberian Railway on a 2,000-mile journey across 4 time zones in Russia. Here's what it was like spending 50 hours on the longest train line in the world". Business Insider. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  258. ^ D. Elagina (22 January 2021). "Cargo throughput volume in Russia in 2020, by port". Statista. Retrieved 10 June 2021. The Russian sea port Novorossiysk, located in the Azov-Black Sea basin, handled almost 142 million metric tons of cargo in 2020 and became the leading port in the country by the cargo throughput.
  259. ^ "Nuclear icebreakers – what's so special about them?". Poseidon Expeditions. Retrieved 24 May 2021. Russia is the only country constructing nuclear-powered icebreakers in the world. They were purposely built for the strategic importance of the Northern Sea Route and a more evident need to guarantee the safety of the Russian trade vessels in winter and Arctic settlements' dependency on supplies.
  260. ^ "The Future of Russia as an Energy Superpower". Harvard University Press. 20 November 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  261. ^ N. Sönnichsen (15 June 2021). "Natural gas - countries with the largest reserves 2009-2019". Statista. Retrieved 2 July 2021. Russia has the largest proved natural gas reserves in the world. As of 2019, it had 38 trillion cubic meters worth of the fossil fuel, four trillion cubic meters more than ten years prior.
  262. ^ "Statistical Review of World Energy 69th edition" (PDF). bp.com.