The effect of cannabis on time perception has been studied with inconclusive results. Studies show consistently throughout the literature that most cannabis users self-report the experience of a slowed perception of time. In the laboratory, researchers have confirmed the effect of cannabis on the perception of time in both humans and animals. Studies have sought to explain how cannabis changes the internal clock. Matthew et al. (1998) looked at the cerebellum, positing a relationship between cerebellar blood flow and the distortion of time perception.
Reports of the effects of cannabis on time perception can be found first in arts and literature, and then in medical reports and studies. Notable discussions of the effects occur in "Le Club des Hachichin" (1846), a work by French poet Théophile Gautier, and in Les Paradis Artificiels (1860), a work by Charles Baudelaire. French physician Jacques-Joseph Moreau studied the effects of cannabis with the help of Gautier and other artists who experimented with hashish in the Club des Hashischins. Moreau published his findings in Hashish and Mental Illness: Psychological Studies (1846), noting that hashish caused "errors of time and space" and "time dragging".
Later, in 1958, South African physician Frances Ames studied the effects of cannabis extract, noting the "disordered time perception" experienced by her subjects where "brief periods seemed immensely long". American poet Allen Ginsberg's "First Manifesto to End the Bringdown" (1966) noted that "the vast majority all over the world who have smoked the several breaths necessary to feel the effect, adjust to the strangely familiar sensation of Time slow-down." American physician Jerome Groopman of Harvard Medical School, reported that the "perception of time is altered, generally with perceived time faster than clock time" in people who have ingested cannabis. Multiple review studies have confirmed these reports.
Most notably, cannabis has had a long association among musicians and the music industry. Musicians and audiences who use cannabis often report the primary subjective effects as a distortion of time perception, which acts to augment both musical performance and music appreciation. Contrary to the effects produced by stimulant use, cannabis use is reported to give the performer or listener a subjective perception of time expansion, resulting in the overestimation of the passage of time. Dosage and method of ingestion may lessen or accentuate this effect. This subjective effect of time expansion is responsible for most of the anecdotal accounts in the literature. The effects of cannabis on musicians and those who listen to music are the subject of research in social pharmacology and music therapy.
- Atakan Z, Morrison P, Bossong MG, Martin-Santos R, Crippa JA (January 2012). "The effect of cannabis on perception of time: a critical review". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 18 (32): 4915–4922. doi:10.2174/138161212802884852. ISSN 1873-4286. PMID 22716134.
- Stolick M (2008). Otherwise Law-Abiding Citizens: A Scientific and Moral Assessment of Cannabis Use. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739131619.
- Green B, Kavanagh D, Young R (December 2003). "Being stoned: a review of self-reported cannabis effects". Drug and Alcohol Review. 22 (4): 453–460. doi:10.1080/09595230310001613976. ISSN 0959-5236. PMID 14660135.
- Iversen L (June 2003). "Cannabis and the brain". Brain. 126 (Pt 6): 1252–1270. doi:10.1093/brain/awg143. ISSN 0006-8950. PMID 12764049.
- Stella N (August 2013). "Chronic THC intake modifies fundamental cerebellar functions". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 123 (8): 3208–3210. doi:10.1172/JCI70226. ISSN 0021-9738. PMC 3967658. PMID 23863631.
- Earleywine M (2002). Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199881437.
- Jones HC, Lovinger PW (1985). The Marijuana Question: And Science's Search for an Answer. New York: Dodd, Mead. ISBN 0396083994.
- Jones, Helen Cc; Paul W. Lovinger (1985) The Marijuana Question and Science's Search for an Answer. Dodd Mead. ISBN 0396083994.
- Ginsberg A (November 1966). "The Great Marijuana Hoax: First Manifesto to End the Bringdown". Atlantic Monthly. pp. 104, 107–112. Retrieved 27 April 2017. (part two of article)
- Groopman, Jerome. (February 20, 2014). Marijuana: The High and the Low. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Chait LD, Pierri J (1992). "Effects of smoked marijuana on human performance: a critical review". Marijuana/Cannabinoids: Neurobiology and Neurophysiology. 387: 423.
- "Music: The Weed, Teenage". www.druglibrary.org. 19 July 1943. Archived from the original on 29 April 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
- Fachner, Jörg (July 2001). The Space between the Notes—Research on Cannabis and Music Perception. 11th IASPM Conference, Day Two (Subjectivities and Identities). pp. 308-319. ISBN 951-98789-1-2
- Aldridge D, Fachner J (2006). Music and Altered States: Consciousness, Transcendence, Therapy and Addiction. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 9781843103738.
- Aldridge D (2005). Case Study Designs in Music Therapy. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 9781843101406.
- Booth M (2011). Cannabis: A History. Random House. ISBN 9781409084891.