Cannabis Ruderalis

11-Hydroxy-THC molecule
Clinical data
Drug classCannabinoid
Legal status
Legal status
  • (6aR,10aR)-9-(Hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-pentyl- 6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromen-1-ol
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.164.583 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass330.468 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • Oc2cc(cc1OC(C3CC/C(=C\C3c12)CO)(C)C)CCCCC
  • InChI=1S/C21H30O3/c1-4-5-6-7-14-11-18(23)20-16-10-15(13-22)8-9-17(16)21(2,3)24-19(20)12-14/h10-12,16-17,22-23H,4-9,13H2,1-3H3 checkY
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11-Hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-Δ9-THC, alternatively numbered as 7-OH-Δ1-THC), usually referred to as 11-hydroxy-THC, is the main active metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).[1][2]

After cannabis consumption, THC is metabolized inside the body by cytochrome P450 enzymes such as CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 into 11-hydroxy-THC and then further metabolized by the dehydrogenase and CYP2C9 enzyme to form 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH) which is inactive at the CB1 receptors;[2] and further glucuronidated to form 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide (delta-9-THC-COOH-glu)[3] where it is excreted in both feces and urine.[4] Both compounds, along with THC, can be assayed in drug tests.[1]

THC administered orally results in higher 11-OH-THC plasma concentration compared to smoking. [5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Kraemer T, Paul LD (August 2007). "Bioanalytical procedures for determination of drugs of abuse in blood". Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 388 (7): 1415–1435. doi:10.1007/s00216-007-1271-6. PMID 17468860. S2CID 32917584.
  2. ^ a b Huestis MA (2005). "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the plant cannabinoids, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol". Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 168 (168): 657–690. doi:10.1007/3-540-26573-2_23. ISBN 3-540-22565-X. PMID 16596792.
  3. ^ Stout SM, Cimino NM (February 2014). "Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: a systematic review". Drug Metabolism Reviews. 46 (1): 86–95. doi:10.3109/03602532.2013.849268. PMID 24160757. S2CID 29133059.
  4. ^ Grotenhermen F (2003). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids". Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 42 (4): 327–360. doi:10.2165/00003088-200342040-00003. PMID 12648025. S2CID 25623600.
  5. ^ Pertwee, Robert (2005). Cannabinoids Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology volume 168. Germany: Springer. p. 667. ISBN 3-540-22565-X.

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