Illustration Rosa majalis0.jpg
Two rose plants, Rosa cinnamomea L. and R. rubiginosa L.
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Clade: Fabids
Order: Rosales
Bercht. & J.Presl[1]

Cannabaceae (hemp family)
Elaeagnaceae (oleaster/Russian olive family)
Moraceae (mulberry family)
Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family)
Rosaceae (rose family)
Ulmaceae (elm family)
Urticaceae (nettle family)



Rosales is an order of flowering plants.[3] It is sister to a clade consisting of Fagales and Cucurbitales.[4] It contains about 7700 species, distributed into about 260 genera. Rosales comprise nine families, the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae. The largest of these families are Rosaceae (90/2500) and Urticaceae (54/2600). The order Rosales is divided into three clades that have never been assigned a taxonomic rank. The basal clade consists of the family Rosaceae; another clade consists of four families, including Rhamnaceae; and the third clade consists of the four urticalean families.[5]

The order Rosales is strongly supported as monophyletic in phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences, such as those carried out by members of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.[6] In their APG III system of plant classification, they defined Rosales as consisting of the nine families listed in the box on the right.[1] The relationships of these families were uncertain until 2011, when they were resolved in a molecular phylogenetic study based on two nuclear genes and ten chloroplast genes.[7]

Well-known members of Rosales include: roses, strawberries, blackberries and raspberries, apples and pears, plums, peaches and apricots, almonds, rowan and hawthorn, jujube, elms, banyans, figs, mulberries, breadfruit, nettles, hops, and cannabis.


In the classification system of Dahlgren the Rosales were in the superorder Rosiflorae (also called Rosanae). In the obsolete Cronquist system, the order Rosales was many times polyphyletic. It consisted of the family Rosaceae and 23 other families that are now placed in various other orders.[8] These families and their placement in the APG III system are:[1]


The following phylogenetic tree is from a cladistic analysis of DNA that was published in 2011.[7]







 urticalean rosids  





Rosales is an order that falls under the kingdom of Plantae. This chart below shows the classification in order to get to the order Rosales. [9]

Kingdom  Plantae
Subkingdom  Tracheobionta
Superdivision  Spermatophyta
Division  Magnoliophyta
Class  Magnoliopsida
Subclass  Rosidae
Order  Rosales


Different plants that fall under the Rosales order grow in all different parts of the world. They can be found in the mountains, the tropics and the arctics. Even though you can find a member of the Rosales order anywhere the specific families grow in different specific geographical locations. [10] Wind-pollination is the way that the majority of the Families that fall under the Rosales order (including Moraceae, Ulmaceae, and Urticaceae etc.) pollinate. [11]


With in the Rosales order is the Rosaceae family, or the fruit species, which is the third most economically important group. Fruit might not be a diet a human could live off of but it adds nutrients to diets.[12][11] It also is an important part of wildlife diets. Along with fruit the Rosaceae family contains ornamental species which includes the rose. The rose is used as a sign of love, poetry, and literature but the common rose that we see today are separated into different categories.[12] There are wild grown species that are considered to be the direct evolution of old roses but there are also roses that have been domesticated into the rose we know today.[12]

Medicines made from the chemicals from the plants in the Rosales order are used in all different countries in the world. Scientifically it has been proven that the chemicals can be used in both remedies and therapeutic ways. [12]


  1. ^ a b c Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). “An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III” (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
  2. ^ UniProt. “Order Rosales. Retrieved 2008-04-24.
  3. ^ Peter F. Stevens (2001 onwards). “Rosales”. At: Trees At: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. At: Missouri Botanical Garden Website. (see External links below)
  4. ^ Hengchang Wang; Michael J. Moore; Pamela S. Soltis; Charles D. Bell; Samuel F. Brockington; Roolse Alexandre; Charles C. Davis; Maribeth Latvis; Steven R. Manchester & Douglas E. Soltis (10 Mar 2009), “Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (10): 3853–3858, doi:10.1073/pnas.0813376106, PMC 2644257, PMID 19223592
  5. ^ Douglas E. Soltis, et alii. (28 authors). 2011. “Angiosperm Phylogeny: 17 genes, 640 taxa”. American Journal of Botany 98(4):704-730. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000404
  6. ^ Walter S. Judd, Christopher S. Campbell, Elizabeth A. Kellogg, Peter F. Stevens, and Michael J. Donoghue. 2008. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, Third Edition. Sinauer Associates: Sunderland, MA, USA. ISBN 978-0-87893-407-2
  7. ^ a b Shu-dong Zhang, De-zhu Li; Soltis, Douglas E.; Yang, Yang; Ting-shuang, Yi (July 2011). “Multi-gene analysis provides a well-supported phylogeny of Rosales”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 60 (1): 21–28. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.04.008. PMID 21540119.
  8. ^ Arthur John Cronquist. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press: New York, NY, USA. ISBN 978-0-231-03880-5
  9. ^ “Classification | USDA PLANTS”. Retrieved 2018-10-22. horizontal tab character in |title= at position 18 (help)
  10. ^ “Rosales | plant order”. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
  11. ^ a b W., Chase, Mark. “Rosales”. AccessScience. doi:10.1036/1097-8542.593700. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
  12. ^ a b c d “Rosales | plant order”. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-10-22.

External links[edit]