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A joint ( //), spliff, jay, boof, doink, reefer, or doobie, is a rolled cannabis cigarette. Unlike commercial tobacco cigarettes, joints are ordinarily hand-rolled by the user with rolling papers, though in some cases they are machine-rolled. Rolling papers are the most common rolling medium in industrialized countries; however, brown paper, cigarettes or beedies with the tobacco removed, receipts, and newspaper can also be used, particularly in developing countries. Modern papers are manufactured in a range of sizes from a wide variety of materials including rice, hemp, and flax, and are also available in liquorice and other flavoured varieties.
Variations and terminology
Although joints by definition contain cannabis, regional differences have been noted. In Europe, in certain Commonwealth nations, and more recently in North America, joints, or spliffs, typically include a cigarette filter or a bit of rolled thin cardboard in one end to serve as a mouthpiece, commonly referred to as the crutch, filter, or roach.
The term “spliff” is sometimes used to distinguish a joint prepared with both cannabis and tobacco,
as is commonly done in European countries, where joints containing only cannabis are uncommon. However, in the West Indies where this term originated (especially Jamaica), a spliff is simply a marijuana cigarette, normally containing no tobacco.
Etymology and synonyms
The word joint ultimately originated from French, where it is an adjective meaning ‘joined’ (past participle of the verb joindre), derived in turn from Latin iunctus, past participle of iungere (‘join’/’bind’/’yoke’). By 1821, ‘joint’ had become an Anglo-Irish term for an annexe, or a side-room ‘joined’ to a main room. By 1877, this had developed into U.S. slang for a ‘place, building, establishment,’ and especially to an opium den. Its first usage in the sense of ‘marijuana cigarette’ is dated to 1938.
There are many slang terms synonymous with the word joint. The term ‘spliff’ is a West Indian word of Jamaican English origin which has spread to several western countries, particularly the UK and many countries in Europe. Its precise etymology is unknown, but it is attested as early as 1936. ‘J’ or ‘jay’ can be used as an abbreviation for a generic joint. Another frequently used term is ‘doobie.’ The end or butt of a mostly smoked joint is referred to as a “roach” in U.S. and Australian slang. Small metal clips to facilitate the smoking of a “roach” are called “roach clips”. In the UK the term roach is commonly used to describe the cardboard mouthpiece mentioned earlier.
- Blunt (cannabis)
- Cannabis smoking
- Recreational drug use
- Medical cannabis
- Vaporizer (inhalation device)
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- Rubin, Vera. Cannabis and Culture. Walter de Gruyter, 1975. p. 509.
- e.g., in Jamaica: The Rastafarians by Leonard E. Barrett p. 130.
- “Roll Your Own Magazine – Winter-Spring 2008”. Ryomagazine.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- “Dope activist to smoke 1m long joint”. news.com.au. 2006-11-26. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 2012-01-28.
- World Health Organization: Division of Mental Health and Prevention of Substance Abuse (1997). Cannabis: a health perspective and research agenda (PDF). p. 11. WHO/MSA/PSA/97.4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
- “Joint”. Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- Australian Government Department of Health: National Cannabis Strategy Consultation Paper Archived 27 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, page 4. “Cannabis has been described as a ‘Trojan Horse’ for nicotine addiction, given the usual method of mixing cannabis with tobacco when preparing marijuana for administration.”
- Damien Gayle (2016-07-09). “Cannabis users who put tobacco in joints ‘more likely to be addicted‘“. The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-01-20.
- “World’s first e-joint given its debut by Dutch firm, says it’s selling 10,000 a day”, The Independent (retrieved December 8, 2014)
- “Online Etymological Dictionary”. Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- “Spliff”. Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
- “Roach”. Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 9 April 2018 – via The Free Dictionary.
- “The Free Dictionary”. Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 29 March 2016.