|Place of origin||Tunisia|
|Region or state||Maghreb|
|Main ingredients||Red peppers|
|Ingredients generally used||Baklouti pepper, serrano peppers, and other hot chili peppers|
Harissa (Arabic: هريسة harīsa, from Maghrebi Arabic) is a Tunisian hot chili pepper paste, the main ingredients of which are roasted red peppers, Baklouti (بقلوطي) pepper, serrano peppers, and other hot chili peppers, spices and herbs such as garlic paste, coriander seed, saffron, rose, or caraway, as well as some vegetable or olive oil to carry the oil-soluble flavors.
As with the European cuisine, chili peppers were imported into Maghrebian cuisine by the Columbian Exchange, presumably during the Spanish occupation of Tunisia between 1535 and 1574. Recipes for harissa vary according to the household and region. Variations can include the addition of cumin, red peppers, garlic, coriander, and lemon juice. Ingredients can be fermented onions, garlic, peppers, or tomato paste. In Saharan regions, harissa can have a smoky flavor. Prepared harissa is also sold in jars, cans, bottles, tubes, plastic bags, and other containers.
Harissa is sometimes described as “Tunisia’s main condiment”, even “the national condiment of Tunisia”, or at least as “the hallmark of Tunisia’s fish and meat dishes”. In Tunisia, harissa is used as an ingredient in a meat (poultry, beef, goat, or lamb) or fish stew with vegetables, and as a flavoring for couscous. It is also used for lablabi, a chickpea soup usually eaten for breakfast. In Algeria, harissa is commonly added to soups, stews, and couscous. Harissa paste can also be used as a rub for meat or eggplants. In Israel, harissa is a common topping for sabich and shawarma, although other hot sauces such as the Yemeni sahawiq or the Iraqi amba are also used. Moroccan cuisine has also adopted harissa, using it as a side condiment for tagines, or sometimes mixed into dishes.
Tunisia is the biggest exporter of prepared harissa. In 2006, the Tunisian production of harissa was 22,000 tonnes, incorporating about 40,000 tonnes of peppers. Tunisian harissa is often made with chilis grown around Nabeul and Gabès, which are relatively mild, scoring 40,000–50,000 on the Scoville scale. Another significant producer is Algeria’s Annaba Province, which is also a significant consumer. According to cookbook author Martha Rose Shulman, premade harissa tastes rather different from that which is served in Tunisian and expatriate restaurants.
- Zhug, a hot sauce in Middle Eastern cuisine, made from fresh hot peppers seasoned with coriander, garlic, and various spices
- Muhammara or acuka, a hot pepper dip in Levantine cuisine
- Ajika, a dip in Caucasian cuisine, based on a boiled preparation of hot red peppers, garlic, herbs, and spices
- Gochujang, a fermented hot pepper dip made from red chilies in Korean cuisine
- List of African dishes
- Berber cuisine
- List of dips
- List of sauces
- Morse, Kitty; Lucy Malouf (1998). Artichoke to Za’atar: Modern Middle Eastern Food. U of California P. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-8118-1503-1.
- Gil Marks (2008). Olive Trees and Honey: A Treasury of Vegetarian Recipes from Jewish Communities Around the World. “Northwest African Chili Paste (Harissa)”: Wiley. ISBN 0-544-18750-4.
- Linda Civitello (2011). Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People. John Wiley & Sons. p. 244. ISBN 978-1-118-09875-2.
- Jessica B. Harris (1998). The Africa Cookbook: Tastes of a Continent. Simon and Schuster. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-684-80275-6.
- Marshall Cavendish (2006). World and Its Peoples. Marshall Cavendish. p. 1282. ISBN 978-0-7614-7571-2.
- Sari Edelstein (2010). Food, Cuisine, and Cultural Competency for Culinary, Hospitality, and Nutrition Professionals. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 345. ISBN 978-1-4496-5968-4.
- Fayed, Saad. “Flank Steak with Harissa”. About.com. Retrieved 2009-08-02.]
- “Baby Eggplant with Harissa and Mint”. Ashbury’s Aubergines. Retrieved 2009-08-02.
- Jane Hughes (2013). The Adventurous Vegetarian: Around the World in 30 Meals. New Internationalist Publications, Limited. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-78026-124-9.
- Bruce Kraig; Colleen Taylor (2013). Street Food Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 200. ISBN 978-1-59884-955-4.
- Tunisian Harissa Export cepex.nat.tn Archived September 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Oxford Business Group. The Report: Tunisia 2008. Oxford Business Group. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-902339-93-1.
- Donna Wheeler; Paul Clammer; Emilie Filou (2010). Tunisia. Lonely Planet. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-74179-001-6.
- Oxford Business Group (2008). The Report: Algeria 2008. Oxford Business Group. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-902339-09-2.
- Ken Albala (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-313-37626-9.
- Martha Rose Shulman (2014). The Simple Art of Vegetarian Cooking: Templates and Lessons for Making Delicious Meatless Meals Every Day. Rodale. p. 254. ISBN 978-1-62336-130-3.
- Tunisian Harissa Recipesource.com
- The Japanese Discover Tunisian Harissa allvoices.com
- Tunisian Harissa Recipe
- Harissa Recipe Foodista