WIN 55,212-2
WIN 55,212-2-2D-skeletal.svg
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Molar mass426.516 g·mol−1
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Pancreatic stellate cells. The cells in the lower frame are under the action of WIN 55,212-2. They are thought to assume a more "quiescent" phenotype. From Michalski et al., 2008.[2]

WIN 55,212-2 is a chemical described as an aminoalkylindole derivative, which produces effects similar to those of cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but has an entirely different chemical structure.[3][4][5]

WIN 55,212-2 is a potent cannabinoid receptor agonist[6] that has been found to be a potent analgesic[7] in a rat model of neuropathic pain.[8] It activates p42 and p44 MAP kinase via receptor-mediated signaling.[9]

At 5 μM WIN 55,212-2 inhibits ATP production in sperm in a CB1 receptor-dependent fashion.[10]

WIN 55,212-2, along with HU-210 and JWH-133, may prevent the inflammation caused by amyloid beta proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease, in addition to preventing cognitive impairment and loss of neuronal markers. This anti-inflammatory action is induced through agonist action at cannabinoid receptors, which prevents microglial activation that elicits the inflammation. Additionally, cannabinoids completely abolish neurotoxicity related to microglial activation in rat models.[citation needed]

WIN 55,212-2 is a full agonist at the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (Ki = 1.9 nM) and has much higher affinity than THC (Ki = 41 nM) for this receptor.[11] WIN 55,212-2 is also an agonist of the PPARα and PPARγ nuclear receptors.[12]

WIN 55,212-2 reduces voluntary wheel running in laboratory mice, but with effects that depend on both genetic background and sex.[13]

In the United States, all CB1 receptor agonists of the 3-(1-naphthoyl)indole class such as WIN 55,212-2 are Schedule I Controlled Substances.[14] WIN 55,212-2 is illegal in the UK.[15]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Controlled Drugs and Substance Act - Schedule II ""
  2. ^ Michalski, C.; et al. (2008). Gluud, Christian (ed.). "Cannabinoids Reduce Markers of Inflammation and Fibrosis in Pancreatic Stellate Cells". PLoS ONE. 3 (2): e1701. Bibcode:2008PLoSO...3.1701M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001701. PMC 2253501. PMID 18301776.
  3. ^ Compton, DR; et al. (1992). "Aminoalkylindole Analogs: Cannabimimetic Activity of a Class of Compounds Structurally Distinct from Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 263 (3): 1118–1126.
  4. ^ Ferraro, L.; Tomasini, M. C.; Gessa, G. L.; Bebe, B. W.; Tanganelli, S.; Antonelli, T. (2001). "The Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist WIN 55,212-2 Regulates Glutamate Transmission in Rat Cerebral Cortex: An in Vivo and in Vitro Study". Cerebral Cortex. 11 (8): 728–733. doi:10.1093/cercor/11.8.728. PMID 11459762.
  5. ^ Zhang, Q.; et al. (2002). "In vitro metabolism of R(+)-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(morpholinyl)methylpyrrolo 1,2,3-de1,4-benzoxazinyl-(1-naphthalenyl) methanone mesylate, a cannabinoid receptor agonist". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 30 (10): 1077–1086. doi:10.1124/dmd.30.10.1077. PMID 12228183.
  6. ^ Felder, C. C.; Joyce, K. E.; Briley, E. M.; Mansouri, J.; MacKie, K.; Blond, O.; Lai, Y.; Ma, A. L.; Mitchell, R. L. (1995). "Comparison of the pharmacology and signal transduction of the human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors". Molecular Pharmacology. 48 (3): 443–450. PMID 7565624.
  7. ^ Meng, I. D.; Manning, B. H.; Martin, W. J.; Fields, H. L. (1998). "An analgesia circuit activated by cannabinoids". Nature. 395 (6700): 381–383. doi:10.1038/26481. PMID 9759727.
  8. ^ Herzberg, U.; Eliav, E.; Bennett, G. J.; Kopin, I. J. (1997). "The analgesic effects of R(+)-WIN 55,212–2 mesylate, a high affinity cannabinoid agonist, in a rat model of neuropathic pain". Neuroscience Letters. 221 (2–3): 157–160. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(96)13308-5. PMID 9121688.
  9. ^ Bouaboula, M.; Poinot-Chazel, C.; Bourrié, B.; Canat, X.; Calandra, B.; Rinaldi-Carmona, M.; Le Fur, G.; Casellas, P. (1995). "Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by stimulation of the central cannabinoid receptor CB1". The Biochemical Journal. 312 (Pt 2): 637–641. doi:10.1042/bj3120637. PMC 1136308. PMID 8526880.
  10. ^ Morgan, D. J.; Muller, C. H.; Murataeva, N. A.; Davis, B. J.; MacKie, K. (2012). "Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) attenuates mouse sperm motility and male fecundity". British Journal of Pharmacology. 165 (8): 2575–2583. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01506.x. PMC 3423255. PMID 21615727.
  11. ^ Kuster, J. E.; et al. (1993). "Aminoalkylindole binding in rat cerebellum: selective displacement by natural and synthetic cannabinoids". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 264 (3): 1352–1363. PMID 8450470.
  12. ^ O'Sullivan SE (2016). "An update on PPAR activation by cannabinoids". Br J Pharmacol. 173 (12): 1899–910. doi:10.1111/bph.13497. PMC 4882496. PMID 27077495.
  13. ^ Keeney BK, et al. (2012). "Sex differences in cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) pharmacology in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 101 (4): 528–537. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2012.02.017.
  14. ^ 21 U.S.C. § 812: Schedules of controlled substances
  15. ^ "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2013".

External links[edit]

  • Enzo Life Sciences Win 55,212-2 Data Sheet
  • The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and evokes peripheral antihyperalgesia via calcineurin. 2006 Jul 18; PMID 16849427
  • Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease Pathology by Cannabinoids: Neuroprotection Mediated by Blockade of Microglial Activation
  • New Scientist: Hope for cannabis-based drug for Alzheimer's