Party and play

Methamphetamine is the drug most associated with the term "party and play".

Party and play (also called chemsex) is the consumption of drugs to facilitate sexual activity. Sociologically, both terms refer to a subculture of recreational drug users who engage in high-risk sexual activities under the influence of drugs within groups.[1]

The term PnP is commonly used by gay men[1][not in citation given] and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in North America, while chemsex is more associated with the gay scene in Europe.[2]

The drug of choice is typically methamphetamine, known as tina or T,[3] but other drugs are also used, such as mephedrone, GHB, GBL[4] and alkyl nitrites (known as poppers).[5]

Some studies have found that people participating in such sex parties have a higher probability of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases by having unprotected anal sex with large numbers of sexual partners. For this reason, "chemsex" has been described as "a public health priority".[4]

Terminology[edit]

The practice is nicknamed "party 'n' play" ("PNP" or "PnP") by some participants. Others refer to it as "High 'n' Horny" ("HnH"). One academic study calls the practice "sexualized drug use" or SDU.[6]

Participants and drugs[edit]

A selection of poppers

Methamphetamine is often used recreationally for its effects as a potent aphrodisiac, euphoriant, and stimulant.[7] It has been further described that "an entire subculture known as party and play is based around methamphetamine use."[7] Gay men belonging to this subculture will typically meet up through internet dating sites to have sex.[7] On such sites, men often include notations such as "chems" or "PNP".[7] Since stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine drastically delay the need for sleep, increase sexual arousal, and tend to inhibit ejaculation, PNP sexual encounters can continue for many hours.[7]

Methamphetamine taken in excess of amounts prescribed or recommended will prolong symptoms of intoxication for up to eight hours.[8] In some cases, these sexual encounters will sometimes occur continuously for several days along with repeated methamphetamine use.[7] Methamphetamine is used to create euphoria, "heighten sexual appetite", and increase sexual stamina.[9]The crash following the use of methamphetamine in this manner is very often severe, with marked hypersomnia.[7]

Ketamine is very different from the main chemsex drugs, as it is a dissociative hallucinogen that distorts perceptions and creates a sense of detachment. Ketamine is used in chemsex encounters to "improve the experience of receptive anal intercourse or fisting".[10]

A study of sauna participants in Barcelona, Spain, in 2016, found that the most commonly used drugs in chemsex are "GHB/GBL, cocaine, ecstasy, silver bars (MDMA), poppers and Viagra".[11]

A 2014 study on chemsex in London, UK, indicated that the drugs associated with chemsex include mephedrone, GHB/GBL, crystal meth, ketamine, and cocaine.[12]

Internet posts by men seeking PNP experiences often resort to slang to identify what drug they are partying with.[13][14] These drugs tend to inhibit penile erection,[7][8] a phenomenon known by the slang term crystal penis or pilly willy. Consequently, many men who engage in PNP use erectile dysfunction drugs such as sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil.[15]

For some PNP participants, substance use may facilitate a process of "cognitive disengagement" from the fears and stipulations associated with sex in the time of HIV/AIDS. Popular discourses of "disinhibition" provide a commonly accepted alibi for activities engaged in when under the influence of substances.[15]

Risks[edit]

The same drug-induced loss of inhibitions makes PNP enthusiasts more vulnerable to more immediate threats, such as robbery, date rape, or assault, or murder, by someone whom they meet for sex.[16] Men in the chemsex scene have stated that sexual consent is not clearly defined and there can be a perception that anyone at a "party and play" get-together is assumed to consent.[17]

The term party and play - and pay has emerged as a warning that partying and playing leads to bareback sex which increases the chances of contracting HIV and may result in other consequences such as neurological damage[18] and resistance to HIV drugs.[13]

The use of crystal methamphetamine, mephedrone for chemsex are associated with "high-risk sexual behaviour...with little regard to consequences, poor ARV adherence for HIV, poor use of condoms, extended episodes of (often traumatic) sexual pursuits (e.g. fisting) typically lasting two to three days, [and] multiple sexual partners. [19] Men who have sex with men in the chemsex scene who inject drugs tend to use "clumsy injecting practices and knowledge", which increases the risks of injection problems.[20] As well, since most chemsex takes place in private home parties, it is hard for public health staff to reach these participants to inform them of safer practices, as compared to reaching gay men in nightclubs, who can be approached by outreach workers. [21]

Methamphetamine can cause sores and abrasions in the mouth which can turn typically low-HIV-risk sex acts such as oral sex into very-high-risk sexual activity.[22]

Statistics[edit]

Men who PNP with methamphetamine, cocaine, MDMA, and ketamine are twice as likely to have unprotected sex (meaning sex without using a condom), according to British research from 2006. The study also found that up to 20% of gay men from central London gyms had tried methamphetamine, the drug most associated with PNPing.[23]

History and cultural significance[edit]

Party and play has been associated with the sauna and bathhouse scene. Pictured is the Club Z bathhouse in Seattle.

Subcultures of psychoactive drug use have long existed within urban gay communities, since the disco era and before. These substances have been used for dancing, socializing, communal celebration and other purposes.[24] The rise of online websites and hookup apps in the 1990s gave men new ways of cruising and meeting sexual partners, including the ability to arrange private sexual gatherings in their homes.[25]

From the early 2000s, historic venues of gay socialization such as bars, clubs, and dance events reduced in number in response to a range of factors, including gentrification, zoning laws, licensing restrictions, and the increased number of closeted or under the influence sexually labile men, and the increasing popularity of digital technologies for sexual and social purposes.[26]

In this context, PNP emerged as an alternative form of sexualized partying that enabled participants to avoid the public scrutiny and potentially judgmental and anxiety provoking nature of the "public space". Newly popular drugs such as methamphetamine and GHB/GBL replaced dance drugs such as ecstasy within this context.[citation needed]

While PNP sessions tend to be organized around sex, there is some evidence that they can serve a range of social purposes for their participants, including the opportunity to meet other gay men, become friends, and engage in erotic play and experimentation. In some instances, PNP sessions play a part in the formation of loose social networks that are valued and relied upon by participants.[25] For other men, increasing reliance on hookup apps and websites to arrange sex may result in a sense of isolation that may exacerbate the risk of drug dependence, especially in the context of a lack of other venues for gay socializing and sexual community-formation.[26]

A 2014 study found that one of the key reasons for taking drugs before and during sex was to boost sexual confidence and reduce feelings of self-doubt, regarding feelings of "internalised homophobia" from society, concerns about an HIV diagnosis, or "guilt related to having or desiring gay sex.[27] A key self-confidence issue for study participants was "body image", a concern that was heightened by the focus on social networking apps on appearance, because on these apps, there is a focus on idealized male bodies that are "toned and muscular".[28] Men were also anxious about their sexual performance, and as such, taking drugs can reduce these anxieties and enable them to enjoy sex more.[29]

Criticism[edit]

It has been observed that reliable data and relevant research are generally lacking and this situation is generating a climate of moral panic. In an article published by The Guardian, it has been argued that an exaggerated reporting might give the public a distorted impression of the magnitude of this phenomenon – and that can only increase the level of collective anxiety.[30]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "PSA tackles PNP: TV ad warns against crystal meth usage in the gay male community". metroweekly.com. 2007-09-21. Archived from the original on September 21, 2007. Retrieved 2015-12-11.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  2. ^ "What is ChemSex". 2018-06-02. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  3. ^ Brown, Ethan (April 29, 2002). "Crystal Ball". NYMag.com. Retrieved 2015-12-11.
  4. ^ a b McCall, Hannah; Adams, Naomi; Mason, David; Willis, Jamie (2015-11-03). "What is chemsex and why does it matter?". BMJ. 351: h5790. doi:10.1136/bmj.h5790. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 26537832.
  5. ^ "How gay culture bottled a formula that has broken down boundaries". The Independent. 2016-01-22. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
  6. ^ Vol. 32, No. 3 Behavioral and Psychosocial Research Sexualized Drug Use (Chemsex) Is Associated with High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Infections in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: Data from the U-SEX GESIDA 9416 Study Alicia González-Baeza, Helen Dolengevich-Segal, Ignacio Pérez-Valero, Alfonso Cabello, María Jesús Téllez, José Sanz, Leire Pérez-Latorre, José Ignacio Bernardino, Jesús Troya, Sara De La Fuente, Otilia Bisbal, Ignacio Santos, Sari Arponen, Víctor Hontañon, José Luis Casado, and Pablo Ryan, the U-SEX GESIDA 9416 Study
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h San Francisco Meth Zombies (TV documentary). National Geographic Channel. August 2013. ASIN B00EHAOBAO.
  8. ^ a b "Desoxyn Prescribing Information" (PDF). United States Food and Drug Administration. December 2013. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  9. ^ Bourne A, Reid D, Hickson F, Torres Rueda S, Weatherburn P (2014) The Chemsex study: drug use in sexual settings among gay & bisexual men in Lambeth, Southwark & Lewisham. London: Sigma Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. www.sigmaresearch.org.uk/chemsex
  10. ^ Bourne A, Reid D, Hickson F, Torres Rueda S, Weatherburn P (2014) The Chemsex study: drug use in sexual settings among gay & bisexual men in Lambeth, Southwark & Lewisham. London: Sigma Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. www.sigmaresearch.org.uk/chemsex
  11. ^ Dávila, Percy Fernández. "ChemSex in the sauna ": An ethnographic study on the use of drugs in a gay sex venue in Barcelona". European ChemSex Forum. April 2016. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1895.7205, Londres, CEEISCAT; Stop Sida, DOI:10.13140/RG.2.1.1895.7205
  12. ^ Bourne A, Reid D, Hickson F, Torres Rueda S, Weatherburn P (2014) The Chemsex study: drug use in sexual settings among gay & bisexual men in Lambeth, Southwark & Lewisham. London: Sigma Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. www.sigmaresearch.org.uk/chemsex
  13. ^ a b Frederick, B.J. (2012). Partying with a purpose: Finding meaning in an online "party 'n' play" subculture [Masters thesis]. California State University, Long Beach.
  14. ^ Frederick, Brian J.; Perrone, Dina (2014-11-02). ""Party N Play" on the Internet: Subcultural Formation, Craigslist, and Escaping from Stigma". Deviant Behavior. 35 (11): 859–884. doi:10.1080/01639625.2014.897116. ISSN 0163-9625.
  15. ^ a b Race K (2009): Pleasure Consuming Medicine: The queer politics of drugs Durham: Duke University Press.
  16. ^ Frederick, BJ (11 July 2013). Dangerous Liaisons: The Risks of Using Gay/MSM 'Hookup' Technologies [Conference presentation]. International Congress on Gender Violence, International Institute for the Sociology of Law, Onati, Spain.
  17. ^ Zane, Zachary (11 September 2017). "It's Time to Talk About Chemsex and Consent". www.advocate.com. Advocate. Retrieved 7 July 2018. Consent often isn’t clearly defined among men who engage in chemsex. Various men have told me that consent is given up upon using drugs. “When I went into these situations, I went in with the knowledge that anything goes,” says Sam.
  18. ^ Brecht, M.L.; O’brien, A.; Von Mayrhauser, C.; Anglin, M.D. (2004). "Methamphetamine use behaviors and gender differences". Addict Behav. 29 (1): 89–106. doi:10.1016/S0306-4603(03)00082-0. PMID 14667423. Retrieved 2007-08-18.
  19. ^ "ChemSex and hepatitis C: a guide for healthcare providers" (PDF). /www.chelwest.nhs.uk. Chelseau West. December 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  20. ^ "ChemSex and hepatitis C: a guide for healthcare providers" (PDF). /www.chelwest.nhs.uk. Chelseau West. December 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  21. ^ "ChemSex and hepatitis C: a guide for healthcare providers" (PDF). /www.chelwest.nhs.uk. Chelseau West. December 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  22. ^ Moore, Patrick (June 17, 2005). "The Queer Issue: The Crystal Crisis". Archived from the original on February 6, 2008. Retrieved 2015-12-11.
  23. ^ "Up to 20 per cent of gay men have tried crystal meth". PinkNews. 2006-07-14. Retrieved 2015-12-11.
  24. ^ Race, K. (2011). Party Animals: The significance of drug practices in the materialization of urban gay identity. In Suzanne Fraser and David Moore (Eds.), The Drug Effect: Health, Crime and Society, (pp. 35-56). Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press.
  25. ^ a b Race, Kane (2015-03-01). "'Party and Play': Online hook-up devices and the emergence of PNP practices among gay men". Sexualities. 18 (3): 253–275. doi:10.1177/1363460714550913. ISSN 1363-4607.
  26. ^ a b Race, Kane (2014-09-01). "Complex Events: Drug Effects and Emergent Causality". Contemporary Drug Problems. 41 (3): 301–334. doi:10.1177/009145091404100303. ISSN 0091-4509.
  27. ^ Bourne A, Reid D, Hickson F, Torres Rueda S, Weatherburn P (2014) The Chemsex study: drug use in sexual settings among gay & bisexual men in Lambeth, Southwark & Lewisham. London: Sigma Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. www.sigmaresearch.org.uk/chemsex
  28. ^ Bourne A, Reid D, Hickson F, Torres Rueda S, Weatherburn P (2014) The Chemsex study: drug use in sexual settings among gay & bisexual men in Lambeth, Southwark & Lewisham. London: Sigma Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. www.sigmaresearch.org.uk/chemsex
  29. ^ Bourne A, Reid D, Hickson F, Torres Rueda S, Weatherburn P (2014) The Chemsex study: drug use in sexual settings among gay & bisexual men in Lambeth, Southwark & Lewisham. London: Sigma Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. www.sigmaresearch.org.uk/chemsex
  30. ^ "Gay men need clear information about 'chemsex', not messages about morality". The Guardian. 2015-11-10. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-07-09.

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