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Ibopamine is a sympathomimetic drug, designed as a prodrug of epinine, used in ophthalmology.[1] It induces mydriasis.[2] It also has been investigated for use in the treatment of congestive heart failure.[3]

It acts on D1[4][5] and α receptors as an agonist.[6]

Ibopamine was first prepared by Casagrande and co-workers.[7]

Instilled at 2% concentration, ibopamine exhibits several functions at ocular level such as pre- and post-operative mydriatic activity, D1 dopaminergic activity, etc.[8]


Due to the esterases existing in the aqueous humour and ocular tissues, ibopamine can be rapidly hydrolysed to epinine which is the active molecule responsible for the mydriatic effect.[9] The epinine, an analogue of dopamine, can stimulate dopamine receptors and to a lesser degree adrenergic receptors.[10] Thus it is believed that epinine is the pharmacologically active moiety. It has been shown that the half-life of ibopamine is short to about 2 minutes in the aqueous humour owing to the fast hydrolysis.[11] So ibopamine can not be found in the aqueous humor after instillation.


After being hydrolysed to epinine, ibopamine is able to stimulate the alpha-adrenergic and D1 dopaminergic receptors, thereby exhibiting mydriatic effects.[12] In some randomized clinical trials, the D1 dopaminergic activity of ibopamine led to an increased production of aqueous humour and intraocular pressure (IOP) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients.[13]


At systemic and local levels, ibopamine has been proved to be of low toxicity. It is well-tolerated since no obvious changes to the haematological and behavioural parameters have been observed after administration.[14] Ibopamine eye drop at 2% concentration, containing 1 mg of the compound, did not show any significant systemic side-effects and tachyphylaxis phenomena whereas the oral dosage is higher than 400 mg per day.[15]

Clinical Use[edit]

A fast and short-lasting mydriasis can be induced by ibopamine without systemic side-effects.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Magacho L, Costa ML, Dessimoni A, de Avila MP (2006). "Comparison between the 1% and 2% ibopamine provocative test in primary open-angle glaucoma patients: sensitivity, specificity and tolerability". Arq Bras Oftalmol. 69 (5): 695–9. doi:10.1590/S0004-27492006000500015. PMID 17187138.
  2. ^ Marchini G, Babighian S, Tosi R, Perfetti S, Bonomi L (June 2001). "Effects of 2% ibopamine on pupil, refraction, anterior segment anatomy and intraocular pressure". J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 17 (3): 215–23. doi:10.1089/108076801750295254. PMID 11436942.
  3. ^ van Veldhuisen DJ, Man in 't Veld AJ, Dunselman PH, et al. (November 1993). "Double-blind placebo-controlled study of ibopamine and digoxin in patients with mild to moderate heart failure: results of the Dutch Ibopamine Multicenter Trial (DIMT)". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 22 (6): 1564–73. doi:10.1016/0735-1097(93)90579-P. PMID 7901256.
  4. ^ Metra M, Missale C, Spano PF, Cas LD (May 1995). "Dopaminergic drugs in congestive heart failure: hemodynamic and neuroendocrine responses to ibopamine, dopamine, and dihydroergotoxine". J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 25 (5): 732–40. doi:10.1097/00005344-199505000-00008. PMID 7630152.
  5. ^ Lieverse AG, Girbes AR, Van Veldhuisen DJ, et al. (July 1995). "The effects of ibopamine on glomerular filtration rate and plasma norepinephrine remain preserved during prolonged treatment in patients with congestive heart failure". Eur. Heart J. 16 (7): 937–42. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.eurheartj.a061028. PMID 7498209.
  6. ^ Giuffre, Italo (2007). "IngentaConnect Ibopamine Stimulates -Adrenergic Receptors and D1 Dopaminergic Re..." Current Drug Therapy. 2 (2): 127–132. doi:10.2174/157488507780619112.
  7. ^ Casagrande, C.; Santangelo, F.; Saini, C.; Doggi, F.; Gerli, F.; Cerri, O. (1986). "Synthesis and chemical properties of ibopamine and of related esters of N-substituted dopamines-synthesis of ibopamine metabolites". Arzneimittelforschung. 36 (2A): 291–303. PMID 3707640.
  8. ^ Giuffre, Italo (2007). "Ibopamine Stimulates α-Adrenergic Receptors and D1 Dopaminergic Receptors in the Eye". Current Drug Therapy. 2 (2): 127–132. doi:10.2174/157488507780619112.
  9. ^ Soldati, Luciano; Gianesello, Valter; Galbiati, Isabella; Gazzaniga, Annibale; Virno, Michele (1993-02-01). "Ocular Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Rabbits of Ibopamine, a New Mydriatic Agent". Experimental Eye Research. 56 (2): 247–254. doi:10.1006/exer.1993.1032. PMID 8096462.
  10. ^ Rajfer, S. I.; Rossen, J. D.; Douglas, F. L.; Goldberg, L. I.; Karrison, T. (1986-04-01). "Effects of long-term therapy with oral ibopamine on resting hemodynamics and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure: relationship to the generation of N-methyldopamine and to plasma norepinephrine levels". Circulation. 73 (4): 740–748. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.73.4.740. ISSN 0009-7322. PMID 3948372.
  11. ^ Ugahary, Luana Cahya; Ganteris, Elisabeth; Veckeneer, Marc; Cohen, Adam C.; Jansen, Jan; Mulder, Paul G.H.; Meurs, Jan C. van (March 2006). "Topical Ibopamine in the Treatment of Chronic Ocular Hypotony Attributable to Vitreoretinal Surgery, Uveitis, or Penetrating Trauma". American Journal of Ophthalmology. 141 (3): 571–573. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2005.09.034. PMID 16490513.
  12. ^ Soldati, Luciano; Gianesello, Valter; Galbiati, Isabella; Gazzaniga, Annibale; Virno, Michele (1993-02-01). "Ocular Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Rabbits of Ibopamine, a New Mydriatic Agent". Experimental Eye Research. 56 (2): 247–254. doi:10.1006/exer.1993.1032. PMID 8096462.
  13. ^ Gregorio, Fabio De; Giraldi, Josè Pecori; Pannarale, Luigi; Saccucci, Silvia; Virno, Michele (1996-01-01). "Ibopamine in glaucoma diagnostics: a new pharmacological provocative test". International Ophthalmology. 20 (1–3): 151–155. doi:10.1007/BF00212962. ISSN 0165-5701.
  14. ^ Giuffre, Italo (2014-09-03). Ibopamine – A New Alpha-Adrenergic and D1-Dopaminergic Drug. Ophthalmology - Current Clinical and Research Updates. doi:10.5772/58380. ISBN 978-953-51-1721-6.
  15. ^ Giuffre, Italo (2007-05-01).