Substance-induced psychosis
Other namesSubstance-induced psychotic disorder, drug-induced psychosis, substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder, toxic psychosis
SpecialtyPsychiatry, addiction psychiatry

Substance-induced psychosis (commonly known as toxic psychosis or drug-induced psychosis) is a form of psychosis that is attributed to substance use. It is a psychosis that results from the effects of chemicals or drugs, including those produced by the body itself.[citation needed] Various psychoactive substances have been implicated in causing or worsening psychosis in users.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Psychosis manifests as disorientation, visual hallucinations and/or haptic hallucinations.[1] It is a state in which a person's mental capacity to recognize reality, communicate, and relate to others is impaired, thus interfering with the capacity to deal with life demands.[2] While there are many types of psychosis, substance-induced psychosis can be pinpointed to specific chemicals.

Transition to schizophrenia[edit]

A 2019 systematic review and meta-analysis by Murrie et al found that the pooled proportion of transition from substance-induced psychosis to schizophrenia was 25% (95% CI 18%–35%), compared with 36% (95% CI 30%–43%) for brief, atypical and not otherwise specified psychoses [3]. Type of substance was the primary predictor of transition from drug-induced psychosis to schizophrenia, with highest rates associated with cannabis (6 studies, 34%, CI 25%–46%), hallucinogens (3 studies, 26%, CI 14%–43%) and amphetamines (5 studies, 22%, CI 14%–34%). Lower rates were reported for opioid (12%), alcohol (10%) and sedative (9%) induced psychoses. Transition rates were slightly lower in older cohorts but were not affected by sex, country of the study, hospital or community location, urban or rural setting, diagnostic methods, or duration of follow-up [4].

Substances[edit]

Psychotic states may occur after using a variety of legal and illegal substances. Usually such states are temporary and reversible, with fluoroquinolone-induced psychosis being a notable exception. Drugs whose use, abuse, or withdrawal are implicated in psychosis include the following:

International Classification of Diseases[edit]

Psychoactive substance-induced psychotic disorders outlined within the ICD-10 codes F10.5—F19.5:

F17.5 is reserved for tobacco-induced psychosis, but is traditionally not associated with the induction of psychosis.

The code F15.5 also includes caffeine-induced psychosis, despite not being specifically listed in the DSM-IV. However, there is evidence that caffeine, in extreme acute doses or when severely abused for long periods of time, may induce psychosis.[31][32]

Medication[edit]

Other illicit drugs[edit]

Other illegal drugs (not listed above), including:

Plants[edit]

Plants:

Nonmedicinal substances[edit]

Substances chiefly nonmedicinal as to source:

References[edit]

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