In the U.S. state of Rhode Island, marijuana has been legal statewide for medical use, within state regulations, since 2006. Possession of marijuana for non-medical use remains illegal. Several proposals to legalize the drug have been advanced in the Rhode Island General Assembly, but none have succeeded.
Rhode Island first banned the sale of cannabis without a prescription in 1918.:475
As of 2012, Rhode Island had some of the strictest mandatory minimums for large-scale cannabis possession in the United States. Possession of more than 5 kg results in a sentence of 20 years' imprisonment and fines of between $25,000 and $100,000.
Following the success of recreational cannabis ballot initiatives in four states and the District of Columbia in 2012 and 2014, advocates in Rhode Island, where there is no public ballot initiative process, pressed their legislature to allow a public vote on legalizing recreational cannabis. In 2016 advocates cited a recent Brown University poll showing 55% of state residents support legalization. A February 2017 poll showed 59% of Rhode Islanders in favor of full legalization.
In 2006 Rhode Island legalized medical marijuana, becoming the eleventh state to do so. The legislation was passed the year in 2005, winning approval in the state House by a vote of 52-10 and the state Senate by a vote of 33-1. Republican Governor Don Carcieri vetoed the legislation, but the Legislature overrode the veto, by a vote of 59–13 in the state House and 28-6 in the state Senate.
Under Rhode Island law, "Approved Qualifying Debilitating Medical Conditions" for medical marijuana are: cancer, glacoma, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, or a "chronic or debilitating disease or medical condition or its treatment that produces one or more of the following": cachexia (wasting syndrome); "severe, debilitating, chronic pain"; "severe nausea"; epilepsy or other seizures; "severe and persistent muscle spasms, including but not limited to those characteristic of multiple sclerosis or Crohn's disease"; and Alzheimer's disease-related agitation.
In October 2016, there were 15,470 patients in Rhode Island, along with three dispensaries (which are permitted to grow marijuana for their patients' use).
As of 2019, there are three medical cannabis dispensaries in Rhode Island: Thomas C. Slater Compassion Center in Providence, Summit Medical Compassion Center in Warwick, and Greenleaf Compassion Center in Portsmouth.
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