Photopharmacology, an emerging approach in medicine, involves activating and deactivating drugs with light. Clinicians use the energy of light to change the shape and chemical properties of a drug, resulting in different biological activity.[1] This is done to ultimately achieve control of when and where drugs are active in a reversible manner, and to prevent side effects and exposure to the environment of antibiotics.[2] Switching drugs "on" and "off" is achieved by introducing photoswitches such as azobenzene, spiropyran or diarylethene into the drug. Photopharmalogical drugs with a photoswitch have two different states, which light can toggle between. Since both states have a different structure, the activity of the drug is different, hence the "on" and "off" state of the drug.[3][4] An example is photostatin, which is an inhibitor that can be switched on and off in vivo to optically control microtubule dynamics.[5][6][need quotation to verify]

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  1. ^ "Szymanski Lab". www.szymanski-lab.nl. Retrieved 2020-04-23.
  2. ^ "Photopharmacology offers light-controlled drugs and therapies". optics.org. Retrieved 2020-04-23.
  3. ^ Velema, Willem A.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L. (12 February 2014). "Photopharmacology: Beyond Proof of Principle". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136 (6): 2178–2191. doi:10.1021/ja413063e. PMID 24456115.
  4. ^ Broichhagen, Johannes (2015). "A Roadmap to Success in Photopharmacology". Accounts of Chemical Research. 48 (7): 1947–1960. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.5b00129. PMID 26103428.
  5. ^ Borowiak, Malgorzata; Nahaboo, Wallis; Reynders, Martin; Nekolla, Katharina; Jalinot, Pierre; Hasserodt, Jens; Rehberg, Markus; Delattre, Marie; Zahler, Stefan (2015-07-16). "Photoswitchable Inhibitors of Microtubule Dynamics Optically Control Mitosis and Cell Death". Cell. 162 (2): 403–411. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.06.049. ISSN 0092-8674. PMID 26165941.
  6. ^ "Colourful chemotherapy". The Economist. July 11, 2015. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-05-01.