Cannabis Indica

Lemon balm
Lemon balm plant.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Melissa
Species:
M. officinalis
Binomial name
Melissa officinalis

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis)[note 1] is a perennial herbaceous plant in the mint family and native to south-central Europe, the Mediterranean Basin, Iran, and Central Asia, but now naturalized elsewhere.

It grows to a maximum height of 100 cm (39 in). The leaves have a mild lemon scent. During summer, small white flowers full of nectar appear. It is not to be confused with bee balm (genus Monarda), although the white flowers attract bees, hence the genus Melissa (Greek for "honey bee").

The leaves are used as a herb, in teas, and also as a flavouring. The plant is used to attract bees for honey production. It is grown as an ornamental plant and for its oil (to use in perfumery). The tea of lemon balm, the essential oil, and the extract are used in traditional and alternative medicine, including aromatherapy. Lemon balm has been cultivated at least since the 16th century. Modern research is being conducted to establish the safety and effects of the plant on humans.

Description[edit]

An illustration of Melissa officinalis from Flora von Deutschland Österreich und der Schweiz (1885)

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a perennial herbaceous plant in the mint family Lamiaceae,[1] and native to south-central Europe, the Mediterranean Basin, Iran, and Central Asia, but now naturalized in the Americas and elsewhere.[5] The second name, officinalis (Latin, 'of the shop'), originates from the use of the herb by apothecaries, who sold herbal remedies directly to their customers.[6]

Lemon balm plants grow bushy and upright to a maximum height of 100 cm (39 in). The heart-shaped leaves are 2–8 centimetres (0.79–3.15 in) long, and have a rough, veined surface. They are soft and hairy with scalloped edges, and have a mild lemon scent. During summer, small white or pale pink flowers appear. The plants live for ten years; the crop plant is replaced after five years to allow the ground to rejuvenate.[7]

Historical uses[edit]

The medicinal use of lemon balm can be dated to over 2000 years ago through the Greeks and the Romans. It is mentioned by the Greek polymath Theophrastus in his Historia Plantarum, written in c.300 BC,[8] as "honey-leaf" (μελισσόφυλλον).[9] Lemon balm was formally introduced into Spain in the 7th century, from which its use and domestication spread throughout Europe.[8] Its use in the Middle Ages is noted by herbalists, writers, philosophers, and scientists. The Swiss physician and alchemist Paracelsus called it the "elixir of life".[10][11][page needed] He believed that lemon balm had the power to restore health and vitality.[12]

Lemon balm was a favourite plant of the Tudors, who scattered the leaves across their floors.[13] It was in the herbal garden of the English botanist John Gerard in the 1590s,[14][page needed] who considered it especially good for feeding and attracting honeybees.[12] Especially cultivated for honey production, according to the authors Janet dampney and Elizabeth Pomeroy, "bees were thought never to leave a garden in which it was grown".[13] It was introduced to North America by the first colonists from Europe; it was cultivated in the Gardens of Monticello, designed by the American statesman Thomas Jefferson.[15]

The English botanist Nicholas Culpeper considered lemon balm to be ruled by the planet Jupiter in Cancer, and suggested it to be used for "weak stomachs", to cause the heart to become "merry", to help digestion, to open "obstructions of the brain", and to expel "melancholy vapors" from the heart and arteries.[16]

Traditionally, an alchemical tincture of lemon balm was the first tincture an aspiring alchemist made.[17] In traditional Austrian medicine, M. officinalis leaves have been prescribed as a herbal tea, or as an external application in the form of an essential oil, for the treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, liver, and bile.[18][page needed]

Current uses[edit]

Lemon balm is the main ingredient of Carmelite water, which is sold in German pharmacies.[19] In alternative medicine it is proposed to be a sleep and digestive aid.[by whom?][20]

The plant is grown and sold as an ornamental plant, and for attracting bees. The essential oil is used as a perfume ingredient.[21] It is used in toothpastes.[22]

Lemon balm is used as a flavouring[21] in ice cream and herbal teas, often in combination with other herbs such as spearmint. It is a common addition to peppermint tea, mostly because of its complementing flavor.[citation needed] Lemon balm is also used with fruit dishes or candies. It can be used in fish dishes and is the main ingredient in lemon balm pesto.[23]:15–16 Its flavour comes from geraniol (3–40%), neral (3–35%), geranial (4–85%) (both isomers of citral), (E)-caryophyllene (0–14%), and citronellal (1–44%).[24] It is also one of the ingredients in Spreewald gherkins.[citation needed]

Lemon balm essential oil is popular in aromatherapy.[25]

Cultivation[edit]

a bumblebee feeding on a lemon balm flower

Melissa officinalis is native to Europe, central Asia and Iran, but is now naturalized around the world.[3][23] It grows easily from seed, preferring rich, moist soil.[26]

Lemon balm seeds require light and a minimum temperature of 20 °C (68 °F) to germinate. The plant grows in clumps and spreads vegetatively (a new plant can grow from a fragment of the parent plant), as well as by seed. In mild temperate zones, the plant stems die off at the start of the winter, but shoot up again in spring. Lemon balm grows vigorously.[citation needed]

As of 1992, Hungary, Egypt, and Italy are the major producing countries of lemon balm.[4] The leaves are harvested by hand in June and August in the northern hemisphere, on a day when the weather is dry, to prevent the crop from turning black if damp.[7]

The cultivars of M. officinalis include:

  • M. officinalis 'Citronella'
  • M. officinalis 'Lemonella'
  • M. officinalis 'Quedlinburger'
  • M. officinalis 'Lime'
  • M. officinalis 'Mandarina'
  • M. officinalis 'Variegata'
  • M. officinalis 'Aurea'
  • M. officinalis 'Quedlinburger Niederliegende', an improved variety bred for high essential oil content.[citation needed]

Essential oil production[edit]

Ireland is a major producer of lemon balm essential oil, which has a pale yellow colour and a lemon scent.[4] The essential oil is commonly co-distilled with lemon oil, citronella oil or other essential oils.[citation needed] Yields are low; 0.014% for fresh leaves and 0.112% for dried leaves.[4]

Research[edit]

The plant seen in visible light, ultraviolet light and infrared

The composition and pharmacology of lemon balm have been studied.[27][page needed] Clinical studies in people have been limited, and cannot be used for generalized conclusions about the safety or efficacy of the herb and its components.[27][page needed]

According to William M. Setzer of the University of Alabama, the essential oil from the leaves of Melissa officinalis "have long been used as anxiolytics, mood elevators and a calming herb for patients with anxiety."[28] Research has shown that agitation in people with severe dementia can be reduced with the help of lemon balm.[29][30]

Chemistry[edit]

Lemon balm contains eugenol, tannins, and terpenes.[31] It also contains (+)-citronellal, 1-octen-3-ol, 10-α-cadinol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, α-cubebene, α-humulene, β-bourbonene, caffeic acid, caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, catechin, chlorogenic acid, cis-3-hexenol, cis-ocimene, citral A, citral B, copaene, δ-cadinene, eugenyl acetate, γ-cadinene, geranial, geraniol, geranyl acetate, germacrene D, isogeranial, linalool, luteolin-7-glucoside, methylheptenone, neral, nerol, octyl benzoate, oleanolic acid, pomolic acid ((1R)-hydroxyursolic acid), protocatechuic acid, rhamnazin, rosmarinic acid, stachyose, succinic acid, thymol, trans-ocimene and ursolic acid.[32][33] Lemon balm may contain traces of harmine.[34][page needed]

Rosmarinic acid appears to be the most important active component, but the interaction of the chemicals in lemon balm and herbs that it is used with, is poorly understood.[27][page needed] Lemon balm leaf contains 36.5 ± 0.8 mg rosmarinic acid per gram.[35]

Composition of lemon balm oil[36]
Component minimum % maximum %
Methyl Heptenone 2.2 8.6
Citronellal 1.0 8.4
Linalool 0.5 2.7
Neral 19.6 36.1
Geranial 25.3 47.5
Geranyl acetate 1.2 6.2
Carophyllene 1.9 9.7
Carophyllene oxide 0.5 9.0

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Other names for lemon balm include sweet balm,[1] bee herb,[1] balm,[2] common balm,[3] melissa balm,[4] and balm mint.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bahtiyarca Bagdat & Coşge 2006, p. 116.
  2. ^ Chisholm 1911, p. 283.
  3. ^ a b "Melissa officinalis". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e Axtell & Fairman 1992, p. 211.
  5. ^ "Melissa officinalis L., Sp. Pl.: 592 (1753)". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 14 February 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
  6. ^ Dampney & Pomeroy 1985, p. 11.
  7. ^ a b Axtell & Fairman 1992, p. 212.
  8. ^ a b Kennedy et al. 2002.
  9. ^ Theophrastus 1916, p. 464.
  10. ^ "Lemon Balm: An Herb Society of America Guide". The Herb Society of America. 2007. Archived from the original on 11 December 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  11. ^ Bown 1995.
  12. ^ a b Grieve 1971, p. 76.
  13. ^ a b Dampney & Pomeroy 1985, p. 12.
  14. ^ Gerard 1876.
  15. ^ Zirkle 2001, pp. 84–85.
  16. ^ Culpepper 1814, pp. 15–16.
  17. ^ Greer 2017, p. 289.
  18. ^ Vogl et al. 2013.
  19. ^ Hiller, Sabine (6 September 2010). "Using lemon balm in the kitchen". The Mayo News. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  20. ^ "Monograph: Lemon Balm". Health Canada. 17 March 2008. Archived from the original on 30 March 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  21. ^ a b "Taxon: Melissa officinalis L.". USDA: U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. Archived from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  22. ^ Dousti 2012, p. 88.
  23. ^ a b Herb Society of America. 2007 Lemon Balm: An Herb Society of America Guide Archived 2015-02-18 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Setzer 2009, p. 1309.
  25. ^ Masters, Susanne (22 February 2013). "The benefits of lemon balm". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  26. ^ Dampney & Pomeroy 1985, p. 36.
  27. ^ a b c Shakeri, Sahebkar & Javadi 2016.
  28. ^ Sharopov, Farukh S.; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Setzer, William N. (2015-02-17). "Aromatic Medicinal Plants from Tajikistan (Central Asia)". Medicines. 2 (1): 28–46. doi:10.3390/medicines2010028. ISSN 2305-6320. PMC 5532974. PMID 28933380.
  29. ^ Ballard, Clive G.; O'Brien, John T.; Reichelt, Katharina; Perry, Elaine K. (2002-07-15). "Aromatherapy as a Safe and Effective Treatment for the Management of Agitation in Severe Dementia: The Results of a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 63 (7): 553–558. doi:10.4088/JCP.v63n0703. ISSN 0160-6689.
  30. ^ Akhondzadeh, S.; Noroozian, M.; Mohammadi, M.; Ohadinia, S.; Jamshidi, A. H.; Khani, M. (2003-07-01). "Melissa officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 74 (7): 863–866. doi:10.1136/jnnp.74.7.863. ISSN 0022-3050. PMC 1738567. PMID 12810768.
  31. ^ Ehrlich, Steven D. (January 2, 2015). "Lemon balm". University of Maryland Medical Center. Archived from the original on March 7, 2018. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
  32. ^ "Feature extracts – Melissa officinalis". Nature Inspired Research Products. 2012. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved December 24, 2013.
  33. ^ Taylor, Leslie (December 17, 2012). "Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis)". Tropical Plant Database. Leslie Taylor. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
  34. ^ Harrington 2012.
  35. ^ Shekarchi et al. 2012, p. 4.
  36. ^ Axtell & Fairman 1992, p. 213.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Ulbricht, Catherine; Brendler, Thomas; Gruenwald, Joerg; Kligler, Benjamin; Keifer, David; Abrams, Tracee Rae; Woods, Jen; Boon, Heather; Kirkwood, Catherine DeFranco (2005). "Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.): an evidence-based systematic review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration". Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy. 5 (4): 71–114. doi:10.1080/J157v05n04_08. ISSN 1522-8940. PMID 16635970.(subscription required)

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