Cannabis Indica

Carum carvi - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-172.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Carum
C. carvi
Binomial name
Carum carvi

Caraway, also known as meridian fennel[1] and Persian cumin[1] (Carum carvi), is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae,[2] native to western Asia, Europe, and North Africa.[3][4][5][6]

The plant is similar in appearance to other members of the carrot family, with finely divided, feathery leaves with thread-like divisions, growing on 20–30 cm (8–12 in) stems. The main flower stem is 40–60 cm (16–24 in) tall, with small white or pink flowers in umbels. Caraway fruits, commonly (erroneously) called seeds, are crescent-shaped achenes, around 2 mm (116 in) long, with five pale ridges.

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,390 kJ (330 kcal)
49.90 g
Sugars0.64 g
Dietary fiber38.0 g
14.59 g
Saturated0.620 g
Monounsaturated7.125 g
Polyunsaturated3.272 g
19.77 g
Vitamin A equiv.
18 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0.383 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.379 mg
Niacin (B3)
3.606 mg
Vitamin B6
0.360 mg
Folate (B9)
10 μg
Vitamin C
21.0 mg
Vitamin E
2.5 mg
Vitamin K
0 μg
689 mg
16.23 mg
258 mg
568 mg
1351 mg
17 mg
5.5 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water9.87 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central


The etymology of caraway is complex and poorly understood. Caraway has been called by many names in different regions, with names deriving from the Latin cuminum (cumin), the Greek karon (again, cumin), which was adapted into Latin as carum (now meaning caraway), and the Sanskrit karavi, sometimes translated as "caraway", but other times understood to mean "fennel".[7]

English use of the term caraway dates back to at least 1440,[8] and is considered by Walter William Skeat to be of Arabic origin, though Gernot Katzer believes the Arabic al-karawya كراوية (cf. Spanish alcaravea) to be derived from the Latin carum.[7]

Chemical composition[edit]

When ground, caraway seeds yield up to 7.5% of volatile oil, mostly D-carvone, and 15% fixed oil of which the major fatty acids are oleic, linoleic, petroselinic, and palmitic acids.[9]

Phytochemicals identified in caraway seed oil include thymol, o-cymene, γ‑terpinene, trimethylene dichloride, β-pinene, 2-(1-cyclohexenyl), cyclohexanone, β-phellandrene, 3-carene, α-thujene, and linalool.[9]


Caraway was mentioned by the early Greek botanist Pedanius Dioscorides as a herb and tonic.[citation needed] It was later mentioned in the Roman Apicius as an ingredient in recipes.[10] Caraway was known in the Arab world as karauya, and cultivated in Morocco.[10]


Caraway fruits

The fruits, usually used whole, have a pungent, anise-like flavor and aroma that comes from essential oils, mostly carvone, limonene,[11] and anethole.[12] Caraway is used as a spice in breads, especially rye bread.[13] In the United States, the most common use of caraway is whole as an addition to rye bread – often called seeded rye or Jewish rye bread, where the recipe itself owes to East Slavic coriander and caraway flavoured rye bread (see Borodinsky bread). Caraway fruits are frequently used in Irish soda bread, along with raisins and currants.

Caraway is also used in desserts, liquors, casseroles, and other foods. Its leaves can be added to salads, stews, and soups, and are sometimes consumed as herbs, either raw, dried, or cooked, similar to parsley.[3] The root is consumed as a winter root vegetable in some places, similar to parsnips.[3][13]

Caraway fruits are found in diverse European cuisines and dishes, for example sauerkraut, and caraway seed cake. In Austrian cuisine it is used to season beef and, in German cuisine, pork. In Hungarian cuisine it is added to goulash, and in Norwegian cuisine and Swedish cuisine it is used for making caraway black bread.[13]

In Hungary and Serbia, caraway is commonly sprinkled over home-made salty scones (köményes pogácsa / pogačice s kimom). It is also used to add flavor to cheeses such as bondost, pultost, havarti, and Tilsit.

Caraway seeds are also frequently used as a spice in Switzerland and in Alsace, where it is commonly called cumin. This may cause confusion as the smell and taste of true cumin is very different.

Caraway oil is used to for the production of Kümmel liquor in Germany and Russia, Scandinavian akvavit, Icelandic brennivín.[13]

In Middle Eastern cuisine, caraway pudding, called meghli, is a popular dessert during Ramadan. It is typically made and served in the Levant area in winter and on the occasion of having a new baby. Caraway is also added to flavor harissa, a North African chili pepper paste. In Aleppian Syrian cuisine it is used to make the sweet scones named keleacha.

Caraway fruit oil is also used as a fragrance component in soaps, lotions, and perfumes. Caraway is also used as a breath freshener, and it has a long tradition of use in folk medicine.


Caraway is distributed through most of Europe, with the exception of the Mediterranean region. The only species that is cultivated is Carum carvi, its fruits being used in many ways in cooking and its essential oils in the preparation of certain medicines and liqueurs.[14] All other European species of Carum generally have smaller fruits; some grow on rocks in the mountains, chiefly in the Balkans, Italian Alps and Apennines.[citation needed]

The plant prefers warm, sunny locations and well-drained soil rich in organic matter. In warmer regions, it is planted in the winter as an annual. In temperate climates, it is planted as a summer annual or biennial. However, a polyploid variant (with four haploid sets=4n) of this plant was found to be perennial.[citation needed]

It is widely established as a cultivated plant. The Netherlands, Poland and Germany are the top caraway producers.[15] Finland supplies about 28% (2011) of the world's caraway production from some 1500 farms, the high output occurring possibly from its favorable climate and latitudes, which ensure long summer hours of sunlight.[16]


  1. ^ a b Caraway
  2. ^ USDA Plants Classification Report: Apiaceae Archived 2015-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b c "Caraway". Retrieved February 16, 2016.
  4. ^ "Anise Seed Substitute". Archived from the original on September 15, 2015. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
  5. ^ "English Malayalam Spice Names". November 7, 2008. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
  6. ^ "Caraway". Word Crops Database. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
  7. ^ a b Katzer's Spice Pages: Caraway Caraway (Carum carvi L.)
  8. ^ Walter William Skeat, Principles of English etymology, Volume 2, page 319. 1891 Words of Arabic Origin
  9. ^ a b Peter (Editor), K.V. (2012). Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Volume 2. Woodhead Publishing Limited. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-85709-039-3.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  10. ^ a b Pickersgill, Barbara (2005). Prance, Ghillean; Nesbitt, Mark (eds.). The Cultural History of Plants. Routledge. p. 157. ISBN 0415927463.
  11. ^ "Chemical Composition and Antiulcerogenic Activity of the Volatile Oil from Carum Carvi". Archived from the original on March 4, 2014.
  12. ^ María D. López; María J. Jordán; María J. Pascual-Villalobo (2008). "Toxic compounds in essential oils of coriander, caraway and basil active against stored rice pests". Journal of Stored Products Research. 44 (3): 273–278. doi:10.1016/j.jspr.2008.02.005.
  13. ^ a b c d Rodale's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Herbs
  14. ^ Tomanová, Eliška (1998). Wild Flowers. Prague, Czech Republic: Aventinum Nakladatelství. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-84067-046-2.
  15. ^ Peter, K.V. (2012). Handbook of herbs and spices Volume 2. p. 229.
  16. ^ "Finland a Global Leader in Caraway Exports". FinnFacts. April 22, 2013. Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2014.

External links[edit]

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