^ abc/d/, /p/ and /t/ are never aspirated, unlike in English.
^The ⟨ng⟩ cluster in Tagalog is treated as a singular phoneme, being a singular Baybayin character. The medial "ng" sound in other languages such as linger are spelled as the cluster "ngg". Outside the country, both spelling patterns are also observed in the Romanization of Korean.
^ abcThe /r/ phoneme is generally an alveolar rhotic that varies freely between [ɾ][r] and [ɹ], and it exists as a distinct phoneme mostly in loanwords.
^For native words, /ɾ/ is normally a flapped form of /d/. The two phonemes were separated with the introduction of the Latin script during the Spanish era.
^ ab/f/ and /v/ are usually pronounced by younger speakers, who tend to have English-leaning pronunciations. Others would replace for these phonemes with /p/ and /b/, respectively, in a fashion similar to fortition.