Help:IPA/Icelandic

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Icelandic language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-is}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Icelandic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Icelandic.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
c gys skew
kær cute
ç hjá hue
ð veður weather
f fyrir fun
ɣ laga (like Spanish trigo)
h hús hop
ʰc ekki skew (with an h sound before it)
ʰk þakka sky (with an h sound before it)
ʰp tappi spy (with an h sound before it)
ʰt stutt sty (with an h sound before it)
j jú yes
k göng sky
koma kite
l líf leap
stelpa (voiceless, like hl)
m miði moon
lampi (voiceless, like hm)
n níu noon
hnífur (voiceless, like hn)
ɲ lengi canyon
ɲ̊ banki (voiceless, like hny)
ŋ ungs sing
ŋ̊ þungt (voiceless, like hng)
p böl spy
páfi pie
r rós ring (trilled)
hreinn (voiceless, like hr)
s saga sing
t dagur sty
tala tie
θ þ think
v verk very
x sjúkt, sagt Bach
hver (rare)[note 1] why (without the winewhine merger)
Vowels[note 2]
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
a karl art
raka father
ɛ kenna bet
ɛː nema [note 3] roughly like yes
i fínt, sýndi leaf
líf, hlýt leave
ɪ yi kit
ɪː yfir, vita kid
ɔ loft RP/Australian hot
ɔː von [note 3] roughly like water
œ dökk Somewhat like nurse
œː öl [note 3] like French actuel but with lips rounded even at the end
u ungur boot
núna food
ʏ upp German Mütter, or [ɪ] with lips rounded
ʏː kul German schön
Diphthongs
ai ætla RP right
aiː æfing pie
au sjálfur mouth
auː páfi allow
ei engi pace
eiː heim pay
ou hóll goat
ouː kólna go
œi laust No English equivalent. It can be thought of as the sound in nurse followed by the sound in leaf.
œiː auga
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ◌ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable),
langur [ˈlauŋ̊kʏr̥]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hver is usually pronounced as "kver". [] is a part of a dialect from the Southern Region and is rare nowadays.
  2. ^ Vowels are usually long if they are stressed and followed by no more than one consonant double consonant. Vowel length is not phonemic.
  3. ^ a b c Long [ɛː, ɔː, œː] are most typically realized as smooth transitions from [ɪ, ʊ, ʏ] to [ɛː, ɔː, œː]. Thus, they are monophthongs phonologically and diphthongs phonetically (Árnason 2011:60, Gussmann 2011:71, 88).

Bibliography[edit]