GPR65

GPR65
Identifiers
AliasesGPR65, TDAG8, hTDAG8, G protein-coupled receptor 65
External IDsOMIM: 604620 MGI: 108031 HomoloGene: 2675 GeneCards: GPR65
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 14 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 14 (human)[1]
Chromosome 14 (human)
Genomic location for GPR65
Genomic location for GPR65
Band14q31.3Start88,005,135 bp[1]
End88,014,811 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GPR65 214467 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_003608

NM_008152

RefSeq (protein)

NP_003599

NP_032178

Location (UCSC)Chr 14: 88.01 – 88.01 MbChr 12: 98.27 – 98.28 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Psychosine receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR65 gene.[5][6] GPR65 is also referred to as TDAG8.

Species, tissue, and subcellular distribution[edit]

GPR65 (TDAG8) is primarily expressed in lymphoid tissues (spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, and leukocytes),[7] and as a GPCR, the protein is localized to the plasma membrane.

Function[edit]

Ligand binding[edit]

In 2001, GPR65 was reported to be a specific receptor for psychosine (d-galactosyl-β-1,1′ sphingosine) as well as several other related glycosphingolipids.[8] However, the specific binding of psychosine to GPR65 has been contested as the reported ligand binding did not satisfy the appropriate pharmacological criteria.[9]

More recently, 3-[(2,4-dichlorophenyl)methylsulfanyl]-1,6-dimethylpyridazino[4,5-e][1,3,4]thiadiazin-5-one (referred to as BTB09089) was found to be a specific agonist for GPR65.[10] Furthermore, [(S)-phenyl(pyridin-4-yl)methyl] 4-methyl-2-pyrimidin-2-yl-1,3-thiazole-5-carboxylate (referred to as ZINC62678696) was found to act as a BTB09089 negative allosteric modulator.[11]

pH sensing[edit]

GPR65 senses extracellular pH.[12] Levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a secondary messenger associated with activation of GPCRs in the cAMP-dependent pathway, were found to be elevated in neutral to acidic extracellular pH (pH 7.0-6.5) in cells expressing GPR65. In cells with mutated GPR65, this pH-sensing effect was reduced or eliminated. In the presence of psychosine, however, the levels of cAMP increased at a shifted, more acidic pH range. As such, psychosine displayed an inhibitory effect as an antagonist when GPR65 was stimulated with an increasing concentration of protons (increasingly acidic pH). This finding directly contested the previous reporting of psychosine as an activating ligand for GPR65.

The pH-sensing ability of GPR65 was further tested and confirmed, as it was found that cAMP levels increased when GPR65 was stimulated by pH values less than pH 7.2.[13]

GPR65 senses pH by protonation of histidine residues on its extracellular domain, and when activated, GPR65 enables the downstream signaling through the Gq/11, Gs, and G12/13 pathways.[14] The ability of GPR65 to sense pH can modulate several cellular functions in various biological systems including the immune, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and nervous systems.[15]

GPR65's ability to sense pH plays a prominent role in tumor development.[16] GPR65 is highly expressed in a variety of human tumors. Tumor development is associated with low extracellular pH due to changes in metabolism of rapidly dividing cells. GPR65 enables tumor growth by sensing the acidic environment. It was found that overexpression of GPR65 prevents tumor cell death in acidic conditions in vitro and facilitates tumor growth in vivo.

Immune[edit]

GPR65 reduces immune-mediated inflammation by regulating cytokine production of T cells (including IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β) and macrophages.[17]

Cardiovascular[edit]

After myocardial infarction, anaerobic respiration and severe inflammation occurs—both of which are accompanied by an acidic environment. GPR65 knockout mice showed a decline in survival and cardiac function after myocardial infarction, which indicates that GPR65-mediated pH sensing is physiologically relevant. GPR65 exhibits a cardioprotective effect against myocardial infarction by reducing CCL20 expression and the migration of IL-17A-producing γδT cells that express CCR6, a receptor for CCL20.[18]

Visual[edit]

Retinal function is sensitive to changes in pH. It was found that GPR65 is overexpressed in the retina of mouse models of retinal degeneration and that the receptor supports the survival of photoreceptors in a degenerating retina by sensing pH and activating microglia after light-injury.[19]

Gastrointestinal[edit]

Vagal afferents expressing GPR65 innervate intestinal villi. These GPR65-expressing vagal afferents detect nutrients in the intestinal lumen and also slow gut motility.[20]

Depression[edit]

GPR65 was identified as a potential target linking inflammation and depression. GPR65 knockout mice exhibited a significant reduction in mobility in a forced swim test as well as higher consumption of sucrose—both of which are behaviors associated with depression.[21]

History/Discovery[edit]

In 1996, Choi et al. first identified GPR65 (TDAG8) as a G protein-coupled receptor whose expression was induced during activation-induced apoptosis of T cells.[22] The group sought to identify which genes were necessary during T cell receptor-mediated death of immature thymocytes, and using differential mRNA display, they found that TDAG8 expression was induced upon activation of T cells. Because this gene was found to be associated with T-cell death (apoptosis), it was named TDAG8, or T Cell Death Associated Gene 8.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000140030 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000021886 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Kyaw H, Zeng Z, Su K, Fan P, Shell BK, Carter KC, Li Y (June 1998). "Cloning, characterization, and mapping of human homolog of mouse T-cell death-associated gene". DNA and Cell Biology. 17 (6): 493–500. doi:10.1089/dna.1998.17.493. PMID 9655242.
  6. ^ "Entrez Gene: GPR65 G protein-coupled receptor 65". Cite web requires |website= (help)
  7. ^ Choi JW, Lee SY, Choi Y (February 1996). "Identification of a putative G protein-coupled receptor induced during activation-induced apoptosis of T cells". Cellular Immunology. 168 (1): 78–84. doi:10.1006/cimm.1996.0051. PMID 8599842.
  8. ^ Im DS, Heise CE, Nguyen T, O'Dowd BF, Lynch KR (April 2001). "Identification of a molecular target of psychosine and its role in globoid cell formation". The Journal of Cell Biology. 153 (2): 429–34. doi:10.1083/jcb.153.2.429. PMC 2169470. PMID 11309421.
  9. ^ Im DS (March 2004). "Discovery of new G protein-coupled receptors for lipid mediators". Journal of Lipid Research. 45 (3): 410–8. doi:10.1194/jlr.R300006-JLR200. PMID 14657204.
  10. ^ Onozawa Y, Fujita Y, Kuwabara H, Nagasaki M, Komai T, Oda T (May 2012). "Activation of T cell death-associated gene 8 regulates the cytokine production of T cells and macrophages in vitro". European Journal of Pharmacology. 683 (1–3): 325–31. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.03.007. PMID 22445881.
  11. ^ Huang XP, Karpiak J, Kroeze WK, Zhu H, Chen X, Moy SS, Saddoris KA, Nikolova VD, Farrell MS, Wang S, Mangano TJ, Deshpande DA, Jiang A, Penn RB, Jin J, Koller BH, Kenakin T, Shoichet BK, Roth BL (2015). "Allosteric ligands for the pharmacologically dark receptors GPR68 and GPR65". Nature. 527 (7579): 477–83. doi:10.1038/nature15699. PMC 4796946. PMID 26550826.
  12. ^ Wang JQ, Kon J, Mogi C, Tobo M, Damirin A, Sato K, Komachi M, Malchinkhuu E, Murata N, Kimura T, Kuwabara A, Wakamatsu K, Koizumi H, Uede T, Tsujimoto G, Kurose H, Sato T, Harada A, Misawa N, Tomura H, Okajima F (October 2004). "TDAG8 is a proton-sensing and psychosine-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (44): 45626–33. doi:10.1074/jbc.M406966200. PMID 15326175.
  13. ^ Ishii S, Kihara Y, Shimizu T (March 2005). "Identification of T cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) as a novel acid sensing G-protein-coupled receptor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (10): 9083–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M407832200. PMID 15618224.
  14. ^ Yang L, Sanderlin E, Justus C, Krewson E (2 March 2015). "Emerging roles for the pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors in response to acidotic stress". Cell Health and Cytoskeleton. 2015 (7): 99–109. doi:10.2147/CHC.S60508.
  15. ^ Yang L, Sanderlin E, Justus C, Krewson E (2 March 2015). "Emerging roles for the pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors in response to acidotic stress". Cell Health and Cytoskeleton. 2015 (7): 99–109. doi:10.2147/CHC.S60508.
  16. ^ Ihara Y, Kihara Y, Hamano F, Yanagida K, Morishita Y, Kunita A, Yamori T, Fukayama M, Aburatani H, Shimizu T, Ishii S (October 2010). "The G protein-coupled receptor T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) facilitates tumor development by serving as an extracellular pH sensor". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (40): 17309–14. doi:10.1073/pnas.1001165107. PMC 2951433. PMID 20855608.
  17. ^ Onozawa Y, Fujita Y, Kuwabara H, Nagasaki M, Komai T, Oda T (2012). "Activation of T cell death-associated gene 8 regulates the cytokine production of T cells and macrophages in vitro". European Journal of Pharmacology. 683 (1–3): 325–31. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.03.007. PMID 22445881.
  18. ^ Nagasaka A, Mogi C, Ono H, Nishi T, Horii Y, Ohba Y, Sato K, Nakaya M, Okajima F, Kurose H (August 2017). "The proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor T-cell death-associated gene 8 (TDAG8) shows cardioprotective effects against myocardial infarction". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 7812. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-07573-2. PMC 5552703. PMID 28798316.
  19. ^ Ail D, Rüfenacht V, Caprara C, Samardzija M, Kast B, Grimm C (August 2015). "Increased expression of the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor Gpr65 during retinal degeneration". Neuroscience. 301: 496–507. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.06.039. PMID 26117715.
  20. ^ Williams EK, Chang RB, Strochlic DE, Umans BD, Lowell BB, Liberles SD (2016). "Sensory Neurons that Detect Stretch and Nutrients in the Digestive System". Cell. 166 (1): 209–21. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.05.011. PMC 4930427. PMID 27238020.
  21. ^ Vollmer LL, Schmeltzer SN, Ahlbrand R, Sah R (October 2015). "A potential role for the acid-sensing T cell death associated gene-8 (TDAG8) receptor in depression-like behavior". Physiology & Behavior. 150: 78–82. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.03.012. PMC 4546899. PMID 25770699.
  22. ^ Choi JW, Lee SY, Choi Y (February 1996). "Identification of a putative G protein-coupled receptor induced during activation-induced apoptosis of T cells". Cellular Immunology. 168 (1): 78–84. doi:10.1006/cimm.1996.0051. PMID 8599842.

Further reading[edit]