Curry tree

Curry tree
Curry Trees.jpg
Scientific classification
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M. koenigii
Binomial name
Murraya koenigii

(L.) Sprengel[1]

The curry tree (Murraya koenigii) also known as sweet neem or kadi patta or curry vepila, is a tropical to sub-tropical tree in the family Rutaceae (the rue family, which includes rue, citrus, and satinwood), which is native to India.

Its leaves are used in many dishes in Indian subcontinent. Often used in curries, the leaves are generally called by the name “curry leaves”, although they are also literally “sweet neem leaves” in most Indian languages (as opposed to ordinary neem leaves which are very bitter and in the family Meliaceae, not Rutaceae).

Description[edit]

The small flowers are white and fragrant.

Ripe and unripe fruits

It is a small tree, growing 4–6 m (13–20 feet) tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm (16 in) diameter. The aromatic leaves are pinnate, with 11–21 leaflets, each leaflet 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) long and 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) broad. The plant produces small white flowers which can self-pollinate to produce small shiny-black drupes containing a single, large viable seed. Though the berry pulp is edible—with a sweet but medicinal flavour—in general, neither the pulp nor seed is used for culinary purposes.[2]

The species name commemorates the botanist Johann König. The genus Murray commemorates Swedish physician and botanist Johan Andreas Murray who died in 1791.
[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The tree is native to the Indian subcontinent, and can be found growing wild throughout the country, in Sri Lanka, and east through Thailand.[3] Commercial plantations have been established in India, and more recently Australia.[3]

It grows best in well-drained soils in areas with full sun or partial shade, preferably away from the wind. Growth is more robust when temperatures are at least 65°F.[4]

Uses[edit]

The fresh leaves are valued as seasoning in the cuisines of Southeast Asia. They are most widely used in southern and west-coast Indian cooking, usually fried along with vegetable oil, mustard seeds and chopped onions in the first stage of the preparation. They are also used to make thoran, vada, rasam and kadhi. In Cambodia, the leaves are roasted and used as an ingredient in a soup, maju kreung.[4] In Java, the leaves are often stewed to flavor gulai. Though available dried, the aroma and flavor is greatly inferior.[3] The oil can be extracted and used to make scented soaps.[4]

The leaves of Murraya koenigii are also used as a herb in Ayurvedic and Siddha medicine in which they are believed to possess anti-disease properties,[5] but there is no high-quality clinical evidence for such effects.[4][5]

Propagation[edit]

Seeds must be ripe and fresh to plant; dried or shriveled fruits are not viable. One can plant the whole fruit, but it is best to remove the pulp before planting in potting mix that is kept moist but not wet.

Stem cuttings can be also used for propagation.

Chemical constituents[edit]

Chemical structure of girinimbine

Compounds found in curry tree leaves, stems, bark, and seeds contain cinnamaldehyde,[6] and numerous carbazole alkaloids, including mahanimbine,[7] girinimbine,[8] and mahanine.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Murraya koenigii. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
  2. ^ a b Henry, Trimen (1893). A hand-book to the flora of Ceylon. London: Dulau & Co. p. 219. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  3. ^ a b c Norman, Jill (2002). Herbs & Spices: The Cook’s Reference. New York, New York: DK Publishing. pp. 212, 213. ISBN 0789489392.
  4. ^ a b c d “Curry Leaf Tree (Murraya koenigii)”. Heritage Garden. Retrieved 2019-04-02.
  5. ^ a b Rashmee Z Ahmed (30 September 2004). “Traditional diabetes remedy offers hope”. The Times Of India.
  6. ^ Sankar Ganesh, Ravishankar Rai; et al. (2015). “In vitro antibiofilm activity of Murraya koenigii essential oil extracted using supercritical fluid CO2 method against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1″. Natural Product Research. 29 (24): 2295–2298. doi:10.1080/14786419.2015.1004673. ISSN 1478-6427. PMID 25635569.
  7. ^ “Mahanimbine”. PubChem. 2017.
  8. ^ “Girinimbine”. PubChem. 2017.

External links[edit]

Media related to Murraya koenigii at Wikimedia Commons