|Cultural origins||Early 1990s, California|
|Palm Desert Scene|
Stoner rock, also known as stoner metal or stoner doom, is a rock music fusion genre that combines elements of heavy metal and/or doom metal with psychedelic rock and acid rock. The name references cannabis consumption. The term desert rock is often used interchangeably with the term "stoner rock" to describe this genre; however, not all stoner rock bands would fall under the descriptor of "desert rock". Stoner rock is typically slow-to-mid tempo and features a heavily distorted, groove-laden bass-heavy sound, melodic vocals, and "retro" production. The genre emerged during the early 1990s and was pioneered foremost by Monster Magnet and the California bands Fu Manchu, Kyuss and Sleep. 
The descriptor "stoner rock" may originate from the title of the 1997 Roadrunner Records compilation Burn One Up! Music for Stoners. Desert rock is also used interchangeably as a descriptor, and was coined by a MeteorCity Records intern, around the time the label released the 1998 stoner rock compilation Welcome to MeteorCity.
Due to the similarities between stoner and sludge metal, there is often a crossover between the two genres. This hybrid has traits of both styles, but generally lacks stoner metal's laid back atmosphere and its usage of psychedelia. Bands such as Weedeater, High on Fire and Electric Wizard creatively fuse both styles.
The involvement of cannabis in the creation of "stoner rock/metal" can range between bands in the genre. Bands such as Sleep have involved the concept of cannabis to be part of the core of their albums and songs. The consumption of cannabis is common in the live performances of some stoner rock/metal bands, and bands such as Electric Wizard are known to have concerts with the band members and the crowd participating in smoking cannabis. Dopesmoker by Sleep received controversy because the 60-minute song is about cannabis, which resulted in conflict with Sleep's record company. Some members of the genre state that "stoner rock is a style, not life," which is interpreted as the band members do not participate in smoking cannabis or are influenced by cannabis. However, the style of their music reflects the sound of "stoner rock/metal." Bands such as King Caravan and Sea of Green have come under terms with this statement. Similarly, Matt Pike from the band High on Fire stated, "It's a very strong scene, but I don't think any of the stoner rock bands want to be labeled as stoner rock ... I might use the word 'stoner' in my lyrics, but I think we're metal, dude. I'd say I was crossover metal, actually, or progressive metal. It's kind of a tough thing to lump into a category, but I guess we get the stoner-rock label because of the whole pot thing."
Influences (1960s to mid-1980s)
Like most subgenres of music, the origins of stoner rock are hard to trace and pinpoint. Nevertheless, several known progenitors and signature songs are widely credited with helping to shape the genre. Blue Cheer is considered one of the pioneers of the style; as AllMusic author Greg Prato puts it, "When talks about 'stoner rock' come up, one band that tends to get overlooked is Blue Cheer." According to critic Mark Deming, Blue Cheer's first album, Vincebus Eruptum, "is a glorious celebration of rock & roll primitivism run through enough Marshall amps to deafen an army," not unlike the heaviness of MC5's Kick Out the Jams and the Velvet Underground's White Light/White Heat.
Rolling Stone claims, "What stoner rock delivers, slowed down and magnified, is the riff, the persistent legacy of Mississippi blues. Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath were the first to make a monolith of it." Sir Lord Baltimore have been called "the godfathers of stoner rock" and Leaf Hound have been cited for influencing countless bands in the stoner rock movement, including Kyuss and Monster Magnet. Buffalo's 1973 sophomore release Volcanic Rock has been "heralded as the first great stoner rock record," the song Sunrise (Come My Way) "has since been shamelessly cannibalized for its parts by more stoner-rock bands than you can shake a bong at," and the songs Till My Death and The Prophet have been likened to later stoner rock. Primevil's album Smokin' Bats at Campton's has been called a "touchstone" of stoner rock. Jim DeRogatis has said that stoner rock bands are "reaching back for inspiration to the psychedelic, proto-metallic jamming of bands like Cream, Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, and Hawkwind."
According to DeRogatis, the roots of stoner rock can be heard on Black Sabbath's Master of Reality, Hawkwind's 25 Years On 1973–1977 box set, the aforementioned Blue Cheer album, Deep Purple's Machine Head and Blue Öyster Cult's Workshop of the Telescopes. Black Sabbath's Master of Reality is often cited as the first album of the genre, and Martin Popoff states: "When 'Sweet Leaf' kicks in, one witnesses simultaneously the invention of stoner rock". Allmusic summarizes this unique fusion as follows: "Stoner metal bands updated the long, mind-bending jams and ultra-heavy riffs of bands like Black Sabbath, Blue Cheer, Blue Öyster Cult, and Hawkwind by filtering their psychedelia-tinged metal and acid rock through the buzzing sound of early Sub Pop–style grunge." However, Kyuss members Josh Homme and John Garcia have shrugged off the heavy metal influence, and instead cite punk rock and hardcore punk, particularly the sludgy hardcore of Black Flag's album My War as influences.
Early development (late 1980s–1990s)
The doom metal band Trouble introduced acid rock elements on their 1990 self-titled album, which became even more prominent on 1992's Manic Frustration. Similarly, the British doom metal band Cathedral increasingly moved toward a psychedelic/stoner sound over the course of their first three releases, culminating in the critically acclaimed 1993 album The Ethereal Mirror. During this same period, heavy metal band White Zombie achieved multi-platinum success with their two major label albums, significantly expanding the heavy music audience with their groove-based, sample-laden "psychedelic horror" sound.
During the early to mid-1990s, a number of southern-California bands developed the style that would be called stoner rock. In 1992, Kyuss emerged from the Palm Desert Scene with Blues for the Red Sun. Critics have hailed it as "a major milestone in heavy music," while NME described their music as an attempt to figuratively melt "a hundredweight of hot desert sand into metal". In 1992, San Jose doom metal band Sleep released their album Sleep's Holy Mountain, and along with Kyuss were heralded by the heavy metal press as leaders of the emerging stoner scene. These two bands were among the first to introduce a psychedelic groove to their doom-influenced sound. A year earlier, New Jersey's Monster Magnet released their debut album Spine of God, which displayed fewer metal influences but was psychedelic and sludgy, in the vein of their California peers. Together with these three bands, southern-Californians Fu Manchu, who released their eponymous album in 1994, are credited with being "one of the most enduring and influential bands" of the genre. In 1994, San Francisco's Acid King and Britain's Acrimony released their debut albums, both of which adopted this psychedelic approach to doom metal. Though more closely associated with the grunge movement (which itself sometimes influenced and occasionally overlapped with stoner rock), Soundgarden has also been cited as "stoner metal" or influential on the stoner rock genre, with their 1994 album Superunknown being described as a "stoner rock classic". Other influential bands from this era include Clutch, Sons of Otis and Corrosion of Conformity.
Middle years (1995–1999)
Kyuss broke up in 1995 after the release of their final album, with many members going on to develop the stoner and desert rock scene through new projects. In August 1997, Kyuss' Josh Homme founded The Desert Sessions at the now-famous Rancho De La Luna in Joshua Tree, California. This musical collective brings artists together for impromptu writing and recording sessions that yielded ten albums between 1997 and 2003. The project has included members from Kyuss, Fu Manchu, Soundgarden, Monster Magnet, Goatsnake, earthlings? and Eagles of Death Metal, as well as PJ Harvey, Dean Ween and others associated with the Palm Desert scene. Also in 1997, Roadrunner Records released the stoner rock compilation Burn One Up! Music for Stoners, which includes many of the aforementioned bands, as well as a track by Josh Homme's new band Queens of the Stone Age.
In September 1997 Jadd Shickler (of stoner band Spiritu) and Aaron Emmel founded an online store based in Albuquerque, New Mexico called All That's Heavy, which began selling hard-to-find releases of Kyuss, Monster Magnet, and Fu Manchu. They soon expanded the catalog to include artists who stylistically fit with those bands. After half a year they were contacted by the former proprietor for the first Kyuss fan website, who recommended All That's Heavy do a compilation of unsigned bands that Kyuss fans would enjoy. This resulted in the formation of MeteorCity Records and the release of the compilation Welcome to MeteorCity in 1998, which included established desert and stoner rock acts, as well as new bands established by John Garcia of Kyuss, Ed Mundell of Monster Magnet, and Pete Stahl of Goatsnake. The album was the first time that the new stoner rock bands Sixty Watt Shaman, Lowrider, The Atomic Bitchwax, Dozer, Goatsnake, and Los Natas were featured on record. According to MeteorCity founders:
"When this was happening, there wasn't really a [stoner rock] scene yet, there were just a lot of people around the world who were still sad about the end of Kyuss, as well as the end of Slo Burn, and who listened to stuff like Monster Magnet and Fu Manchu but wanted more. The label took off when we appeared with Welcome to Meteor City, as though the world was waiting for someone to do what we were doing."
MeteorCity soon signed a number of musicians and bands from the Palm Desert Scene, including Hermano, Unida and emerging Swedish stoner rock bands such as Lowrider, Dozer and The Mushroom River Band. During this time, The Hidden Hand and Spirit Caravan also began to gain popularity within the developing scene.
Mainstream exposure (2000–present)
In June 2000, Josh Homme's new project Queens of the Stone Age released their breakthrough album Rated R, which helped bring the stoner rock sound into the mainstream, despite the band themselves rejecting both the genre and their being labelled as such. 
Songs for the Deaf, their next release in 2002, included a single from the album peaking at No. 1 on the US Modern Rock Tracks. Another label focusing on the international stoner rock scene was Small Stone Records, which released a number of compilation albums of stoner rock bands doing covers of 1970s music, including Right in the Nuts: A Tribute to Aerosmith (2000), Sucking the 70's (2002), and Sucking the 70's – Back in the Saddle Again (2006).
In 2002, the Orquesta del Desierto was formed featuring key members of the major desert rock bands, and released two albums.
In 2009, the magazines Decibel and Terrorizer released issues featuring a list of the 100 greatest and most important albums of the 2000s, respectively. The stoner band Electric Wizard's Dopethrone was featured on both lists, being placed 10th on Decibel's list and 1st on the Terrorizer's one.
Since Kyuss' break-up, the success of the bandmates' other projects has caused the Kyuss back catalogue to become more widely listened to and their fanbase has inevitably swelled. The sound has been continued on by directly descendant bands Unida, Slo Burn, Hermano, Mondo Generator, Fu Manchu, Brant Bjork and the Bros, and at times by Queens of the Stone Age, who have since largely departed from Kyuss' stoner rock sound, and reject the label, preferring the term "desert rock".
The European Scene: Stoner Rock and beyond
As acknowledged by Dave Wyndorf, the lead singer of Monster Magnet, in a 2015 interview: "Europe is really good for psychedelic music." So much so that some US Stoner Rock bands will even choose to tour Europe rather than North America. . Founded by a French aficionado of Stoner Rock, the website MoreFuzz.com has been a big promoter of the Stoner Rock scene in Europe and internationally. Stoner Rock bands in Europe, much like their North American counterparts, mix elements of Heavy Rock music with psychedelia and Acid Rock. The influence of Black Sabbath or Blue Cheer can be heard - among other examples - in bands such as the Swedish Graveyard  and the German Kadavar. In addition to this mix, the influence of Krautrock - such as with Kungens Män, a Swedish band  -, or of Free jazz, - such as in the case of the Portuguese band Black Bombaim collaborating with the German free jazz saxophonist and clarinetist Peter Brötzmann  - can be heard as well. While instrumental Stoner Rock such as Karma to Burn are rare in the US, numerous European Stoner Rock bands, for their part, choose to remain instrumental. This is the case of Stoner Rock bands such as Radar Men From The Moon from the Netherlands , Mother Engine from Germany , Black Bombaim from Portugal , or Band In The Pit from Hungary (with some instrumental Stoner Rock jams exceeding 20 minutes). 
List of notable bands
- Acid King
- The Atomic Bitchwax
- Black Moth
- Black Mountain
- Black Sabbath
- Brant Bjork and the Bros
- Corrosion of Conformity
- CKY 
- Clutch 
- Dead Meadow
- Electric Wizard
- Fu Manchu
- Guía Luz Negra
- High on Fire
- Holy Mountain
- Indian Handcrafts
- Los Natas
- Masters of Reality
- Monster Magnet
- Orange Goblin
- Queens of the Stone Age
- Red Fang
- Royal Blood
- Saint Vitus
- Sir Lord Baltimore
- Sixty Watt Shaman
- Sleep Hollow Band
- Sleepy Sun
- Sons of Otis
- "Stoner age: Priestess marries metal and melody". Buffalo News. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
- Kelly, Kim (19 April 2017). "10 Stoner Metal Albums Ranked by a Metalhead Who Doesn't Smoke Weed". Noisey Vice. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- "10 ESSENTIAL STONER-METAL ALBUMS". Revolver Magazine. 20 April 2018. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
- Ellis, Iain (2008). Rebels Wit Attitude: Subversive Rock Humorists. Soft Skull Press. p. 258. ISBN 1-59376-206-2.
- "News: StonerRock.com and MeteorCity Part Ways". Bravewords.com. 19 May 2004. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- Lynskey, Dorian. "Kyuss: Kings of the stoner age". The Guardian. The Guardian. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Sharpe-Young, Garry. "MusicMight – Kyuss biography". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2007.
[Kyuss] almost single handed invented the phrase 'Stoner Rock'. They achieved this by tuning way down and summoning up a subterranean, organic sound...
- "Stoner Metal". Allmusic. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
Stoner metal could be campy and self-aware, messily evocative, or unabashedly retro.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Kyuss biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 10 December 2007.
...they are widely acknowledged as pioneers of the booming stoner rock scene of the 1990s...
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Sleep biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
- Brief History of Stoner Rock and Stoner Metal|Articles @ Ultimate-Guitar.Com
- Serba, John. "Bongzilla - Gateway". Allmusic. Retrieved 2 September 2008.
...sounding like a cross between Sleep's drowsy, Black Sabbath-like meanderings and Electric Wizard/Burning Witch-style gut-curdling, muddy sludge.
- Mason, Stewart. "Kylesa". Allmusic. Retrieved 2 September 2008.
...elements of hardcore punk, psychedelic stoner rock, technical speed metal, and good old-fashioned Black Sabbath sludge appear in their music.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Weedeater". Allmusic. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
- Violante, Isaiah. "High on Fire - Surrounded by Thieves". Pitchfork Media. Archived from the original on 7 December 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
...manufacturing that sludgy, choleric sound...
- MusicMight: High on Fire biography Archived 15 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Rivadavia, Eduardo & Koets, Tara. "Electric Wizard". Allmusic. Retrieved 2 September 2008.
...it so effortlessly bridged the stylistic gaps between doom, sludge, stoner, horror, and, at times, even space metal...
- "Sleep." Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4th ed. Ed. Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 7 Feb. 2017
- "Electric Wizard." Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4th ed. Ed. Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 7 Feb. 2017.
- PANTSIOS, ANASTASIA, and SPECIAL T. THE. "Stoner Rock is a Style, Not Life, Says One Who Plays it." The Plain Dealer, May 25, 2001, pp. 19. ProQuest Newsstand,
- DeRogatis, Jim. "Metal by any Other Name ... High on Fire Not `stoners'." Chicago Sun - Times, Sep 22 2000, pp. 5; Nc. ProQuest Newsstand,
- Prato, Greg. "Live Bootleg: London - Hamburg". Allmusic. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
- Deming, Mark. "Vincebus Eruptum -review". allmusic.com. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- Ratliff, Ben. "Rated R: Queens of the Stone Age: Review". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
- Sleazegrinder (March 2007). "The Lost Pioneers of Heavy Metal". Classic Rock.
- R, Reg (6 July 2008). "Album Of The Day-Buffalo-Volcanic Rock (1973)". Heavy Planet. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
The second Buffalo album, Volcanic Rock, is now heralded as the first great stoner rock record.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo (10 August 2013). "40 Years Ago: Buffalo's 'Volcanic Rock' Album Released". Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
Baxter is the true star of, and instigator behind, 'Volcanic Rock,' beginning with his blistering leads that launch album opener 'Sunrise (Come My Way),' which shares as much DNA with the MC5 as it does with Blue Cheer and Black Sabbath. Not surprisingly, the song has since been shamelessly cannibalized for its parts by more stoner-rock bands than you can shake a bong at.
- Pratt, Greg (4 January 2018). "Primitive Origins: Buffalo's "Volcanic Rock"". Decibel Magazine. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
“Till My Death” brings the good times back, as the band lays down some excellent proto-stoner riffs layered with a chorus that is very of-the-times melodic, the band taking a Zep songwriting structure but crashing and bashing it through a gritty Detroit filter. “The Prophet” then slows things down a bit, which is perfect: this band excels when going heavier and slower, and it’s also where their personality shines. Dave Tice’s vocals soar with a ton of ’70s gruff-guy grit ‘n’ melody, but they’re charming enough to make you wonder why this band didn’t get bigger than they did. A killer song, one that has enough metal heft to sound great to longhairs today, but also enough free-flowin’ ’70s vibes to make it a hit back then. Corrosion of Conformity (with Pepper Keenan) could cover this and it would fit right in any of their albums. We’re talking proto-doom, stoner, even nearing sludge here.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Smokin' Bats at Campton's". Allmusic. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
- DeRogatis, Jim. "The Drummers of Stoner Rock". Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- Steve Taylor, A to X of Alternative Music, Continuum, 2006, p.199
- Steven Rosen, Black Sabbath - Uncensored On the Record, Coda Books, 2011
- Martin Popoff, The Top 500 Heavy Metal Songs of All Time, Ecw Press, 2002, p.132
- Lynskey, Dorian (25 March 2011). "Kyuss: Kings of the stoner age". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
- Minsker, Evan. "White Zombie It Came From N.Y.C. (Retrospective Box Set Review)". Pitchfork. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Kyuss Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
Although they are widely acknowledged as pioneers of the booming stoner rock scene of the 1990s, the band enjoyed little commercial success during their brief existence [...]. Soon hailed as a landmark by critics and fans alike, the album (Blues for the Red Sun) took the underground metal world by storm and established the signature Kyuss sound once and for all: [...].
- Kyuss - Muchas Gracias: The Best Of - Album Reviews - NME.COM
- Kyuss biography Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Eduardo Rivadavia. "Monster Magnet biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Fu Manchu: In Search Of... (Review)". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- Deiterman, Corey (15 August 2014). "Five Songs That Show Soundgarden's Versatility". Houston Press. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- Green, Sasha. "Soundgarden – Superunknown [Reissue]". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- Smith, Sarah. "'Superunknown' revisited: Ranking the tracks from Soundgarden's 1994 classic". Faster Louder. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- Weiss, Jeff. "There Was No One Else on Earth Like Chris Cornell". Noisey. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
- Leafhound Records - Acrimony biography Archived 15 December 2007 at Archive.today
- "Queens of the Stone Age's Josh Homme Rules Out KYUSS Reunion". Blabbermouth.net. 8 May 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
- "Where to Start: MeteorCity". The Obelisk. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- Smith, Todd K. "Meteor City". The Cutting Edge. Retrieved 26 August 2011.
- QOTSA Reviews| 1999/11/24-Jam!: He Ain't Joshin
- "Artist Chart History - Queens of the Stone Age". Billboard. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- Callwood, Brett (18 April 2008). "Small Stone Records. Detroit's home-grown label". Metromix. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- Smith, Brian (28 May 2003). "Huge stones". Metro Times. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- "Meet & Greet: Small Stone Records". Detour Mag. 17 January 2008. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- "100 Greatest Metal Albums Of The Decade", Decibel Special Collector's Edition.
- "Terrorizer's Secret History #2", Terrorizer Souvenir Issue.
- "Special Feature: An Conversation with Dave Wyndorf of Monster Magnet". Doomed & Stoned. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- "THE GREAT, BIG MONSTER MAGNET INTERVIEW!". Doomed & Stoned. Doomed & Stoned. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- "Who is behind More Fuzz?". More Fuzz. More Fuzz. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- "Graveyard: Beyond 'Stoner Rock'". National Public Radio. National Public Radio. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- "(((O))) REVIEW: KUNGENS MÄN – CHEF". Echoes And Dust. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- "(((O))) : BLACK BOMBAIM & PETER BRÖTZMANN". Echoes And Dust. Echoes And Dust. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- "RADAR MEN FROM THE MOON". Prog Archives. Prog Archives. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- "Bands: MOTHER ENGINE". Echoes And Dust. Heavy Psych Sounds Records. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- "Black Bombaim interview with Tojo Rodrigues". Psychedelic Baby Mag. Psychedelic Baby Mag. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- "Baby Gorilla Records: Band In The Pit". Baby Gorilla Records. Baby Gorilla Records. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- Dare, Tom (18 April 2015). "Lori from Acid King on Desertfest, doom and David Bowie". Metal Hammer. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
Stoner metal pioneers Acid King emerged when the subgenre didn’t really exist yet.
- Kelly, Kim (20 April 2017). "10 Stoner Metal Albums Ranked by a Metalhead Who Doesn't Smoke Weed". Vice. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo. "Acrimony Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- Boyd, William (17 February 2016). "10 Stoner Rock Bands You Need To Hear In 2016". What Culture. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- Tate, Corey (17 June 2010). "Black Mountain Move To the Front of Stoner Rock". spacelab. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- Distefano, Alex (2 April 2014). "The Top 10 Stoner Metal Bands". OC Weekly. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Terich, Jeff; Blyweiss, Adam (20 April 2017). "10 Essential Stoner Rock Albums". Treblezine. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Boris". BBC. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
- Dome, Malcolm (16 October 2016). "10 Essential Stoner Rock Albums". Metal Hammer. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
- "A Hardcore Critical Analysis". CMJ. 142. September 2006.
- Stoner Rock Icons CKY Embrace Their Rebirth as a Trio|OC Weekly
- How Clutch threw out the rules and made metal music their own|Louder
- Rinaldi, Julian (24 December 2014). ""Camkan", Single Terbaru dari Feast". Gilanada. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
- Crawford, Allyson B. (12 April 2010). "High on Fire Create Stoner Metal, Don't Get Stoned". Noisecreep. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Monger, James Christopher. "Mastodon – Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Distefano, Alex (30 December 2013). "Neurosis - The Observatory - December 28, 2013". OC Weekly. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Heaney, Gregory. "Red Fang – Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Sleazegrinder (March 2007). "The Lost Pioneers of Heavy Metal". Classic Rock.
- Branson, Scott (11 April 2012). "Sleepy Sun: Spine Hits". PopMatters. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- Anderson, Jason. "Sons of Otis Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- Heaney, Greg. "Torche". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- Pratt, Greg (16 July 2013). "Trouble – The Distortion Field". Exclaim!. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
- Book, Ryan (9 September 2013). "True Widow: Band 'Circumambulates' Stoner Rock and Shoegaze On Way To Original Rock Hybrid". Music Times. Retrieved 7 February 2017.