Doctrine of signatures
The doctrine of signatures, dating from the time of Dioscorides and Galen, states that herbs resembling various parts of the body can be used by herbalists to treat ailments of those body parts. A theological justification, as stated by botanists such as William Coles, was that God would have wanted to show men what plants would be useful for.
It is today considered to be pseudoscience, and has led to many deaths and severe illnesses. For instance birthwort, once used widely for pregnancies, is carcinogenic and very damaging to the kidneys, owing to its aristolochic acid content. As a defense against predation, many plants contain toxic chemicals the action of which is not immediately apparent, or easily tied to the plant rather than other factors.
Paracelsus (1493–1541) developed the concept, writing that "Nature marks each growth ... according to its curative benefit", and it was followed by Giambattista della Porta in his Phytognomonica (1588).
The writings of Jakob Böhme (1575–1624) spread the doctrine of signatures. He suggested that God marked objects with a sign, or "signature", for their purpose. Plants bearing parts that resembled human body-parts, animals, or other objects were thought to have useful relevance to those parts, animals or objects. The "signature" could sometimes also be identified in the environments or specific sites in which plants grew. Böhme's 1621 book The Signature of All Things gave its name to the doctrine. The English physician-philosopher Sir Thomas Browne in his discourse The Garden of Cyrus (1658) uses the Quincunx pattern as an archetype of the 'doctrine of signatures' pervading the design of gardens and orchards, botany and the Macrocosm at large.
The botanist William Coles (1626–1662) supposed that God had made 'Herbes for the use of men, and hath given them particular Signatures, whereby a man may read ... the use of them.' Coles's The Art of Simpling and Adam in Eden, stated that walnuts were good for curing head ailments because in his opinion, "they Have the perfect Signatures of the Head". Regarding Hypericum, he wrote, "The little holes whereof the leaves of Saint Johns wort are full, doe resemble all the pores of the skin and therefore it is profitable for all hurts and wounds that can happen thereunto."
A theological justification was made for this philosophy: "It was reasoned that the Almighty must have set his sign upon the various means of curing disease which he provided".
For the late medieval viewer, the natural world was vibrant with images of the Deity: 'as above, so below,' a Hermetic principle expressed as the relationship between macrocosm and microcosm; the principle is rendered sicut in terra. Michel Foucault expressed the wider usage of the doctrine of signatures, which rendered allegory more real and more cogent than it appears to a modern eye:
Up to the end of the sixteenth century, resemblance played a constructive role in the knowledge of Western culture. It was resemblance that largely guided exegesis and the interpretation of texts; it was resemblance that organized the play of symbols, made possible knowledge of things visible and invisible, and controlled the art of representing them." (The Order of Things , p. 17)
Signatures of some plants used in herbalism
The concept of signatures is reflected in the common names of some plants whose shapes and colors reminded herbalists of the parts of the body where they were thought to do good, as for instance:
- Eyebright, used for eye infections
- Hedge woundwort, thought to have antiseptic qualities
- Liverwort, either Marchantiophyta or Hepatica – used to treat the liver
- Lungwort – used for pulmonary infections
- Spleenwort, Asplenium – used to treat the spleen
- Toothwort, Dentaria – used for tooth ailments
The phrase "signatures of all things" appears in the beginning of episode 3 in James Joyce's novel Ulysses. The character Stephen Dedalus walking along the beach, thinking to himself "Signatures of all things I am here to read, seaspawn and seawrack, the nearing tide, that rusty boot". The Canadian poet Anne Szumigalski, 1922–1999, entitled her third full-length collection "Doctrine of Signatures".
The signatures are described as post hoc attributions and mnemonics, of value only in creating a system for remembering actions attributed to medical herbs. There is no scientific evidence that plant shapes and colors help in the discovery of medical uses of plants.
Despite this, the discovery of Aspirin marks a prominent success story of the Doctrine of Signatures. It was discovered in 1763, when Edward Stone (natural philosopher), walking one day through a meadow near Chipping Norton while suffering from "agues", was prompted to search for a treatment near the brackish waters that were known to cause it. He broke off and nibbled at the bark of a nearby willow tree and was struck by its extremely bitter taste. Knowing that the bark of the Peruvian cinchona tree − from which quinine (used in the treatment of malarial fevers) is derived − has a similarly bitter taste, he surmised that the willow might also have therapeutic properties.
- Magical thinking
- Naturalistic fallacy
- Sympathetic magic
- Simon, Matt (14 August 2014). "Fantastically Wrong: The Strange History of Using Organ-Shaped Plants to Treat Disease". Wired. Condé Nast. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- Robertson, John. "Aristolochia, birthwort". The Poison Garden. John Robertson. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "Doctrine of Signatures". Science Museum. Retrieved February 8, 2014.
- Pearce, J.M.S. (May 16, 2008). "The Doctrine of Signatures" (PDF). European Neurology. karger.com. 60 (1): 51–52. doi:10.1159/000131714. PMID 18520149. Retrieved August 31, 2008.
- White (1896), p. 38.
- McDougal, Kevin (2013). "Hedge Woundwort". Retrieved February 8, 2014.
- Stern (1991), p. 338.
- "The Tudors" (PDF). Birmingham Botanical Gardens. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
- Irvine, Alexander (1860). The Phytologist: A Botanical Journal, Volume 4. William Pamplin. p. 308.
As late as 1657 we find William Coles, who was a herbarist ... speaking of Spleenwort, or Miltwort, tells us that the learned Crollius, amongst the signatures of parts, doth set down Ceterach to have the signature of the spleen, and that therefore it is profitable for all diseases thereof;
- Bennett, Bradley C. (2007). "Doctrine of Signatures: An Explanation of Medicinal Plant Discovery or Dissemination of Knowledge?". Economic Botany. 61 (3): 246–255. doi:10.1663/0013-0001(2007)61[246:DOSAEO]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0013-0001. Retrieved 2008-08-31.
- Buchanan, Scott (2014). The Doctrine of Signatures, A Defence of Theory in Medicine. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis. p. 142. ISBN 0415614155.
- David M. Hillis (12 May 2011). Principles of Life. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-4641-6298-5.
- Stern, Kingsley R. (1991). Introductory Plant Biology (5th ed.). Wm. C. Brown Publishers. ISBN 0-697-09947-4.
- White, Andrew Dickson (1896). A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. Vol. 2. D. Appleton and Company.
- Boehme, Jakob (1651) Signatura Rerum (The Signature of All Things). Gyles Calvert.
- --- Translation by J. Ellistone.
- Buchanan, Scott Milross (1938) The doctrine of signatures: a defense of theory in medicine.
- Cole, W. (1657) Adam in Eden or Nature's Paradise. J Streater for Nathanial Brooke.
- Conrad, L.I.; M Neve, V Nutton and R Porter (1995). The Western Medical Tradition, 800 BC – 1800 AD. Cambridge University Press.
- Porter, Roy (1997) The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to the Present. HarperCollins.