Amotivational syndrome is characterized by detachment, blunted emotion and drives, and executive functions like memory and attention are impaired; it is primarily associated with long-term effects of cannabis use. Pacheco-Colón et al. (2018) concludes:
In conclusion, studies examining the effects of cannabis use on motivation and reward sensitivity have yielded mixed findings. We conclude that cross-sectional evidence supporting the presence of amotivational syndrome among cannabis users or an adverse cannabis-specific effect on motivation is currently equivocal.— Pacheco-Colón et al.
- Rovai, L; Maremmani, AG; Pacini, M; Pani, PP; Rugani, F; Lamanna, F; Schiavi, E; Mautone, S; Dell'Osso, L; Maremmani, I (2013). "Negative dimension in psychiatry. Amotivational syndrome as a paradigm of negative symptoms in substance abuse". Rivista di Psichiatria. 48 (1): 1–9. doi:10.1708/1228.13610. PMID 23438696.
- Pacheco-Colón I, Limia JM, Gonzalez R (August 2018). "Nonacute effects of cannabis use on motivation and reward sensitivity in humans: A systematic review". Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 32 (5): 497–507. doi:10.1037/adb0000380. PMC 6062456. PMID 29963875.
- Preston, John; John, O'Neal; Mary, Talaga (2013). Handbook of Clinical Psychopharmacology for Therapists (7th ed.). New Harbinger Publications. p. 193. ISBN 978-1608826643.