Legality of Cannabis by U.S. Jurisdiction

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Cannabis has many different names, including more than 1,200 slang terms, and more than 2,300 names for individual strains.[1] Additionally, there are many names to describe the state of being under the influence of the substance.[2] This list is not exhaustive; it includes well-attested names.

The first recorded name for cannabis is the Chinese 麻 (Má), which is prehistoric.

Formal names[edit]

Ganja, a common English synonym for marijuana written in graffiti in Spain
Name About
"ang" or "an" A Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Semitic root from which the words for cannabis in "all modern languages" derive, per Alphonse de Candolle.[3]
"kan-" The proto-Kartvelian stem for hemp. It is more recent than the proto-Indo-European stem.[4]
"san-" and "kan-" or "gan-" The Proto-Indo-European stem for hemp/cannabis sativa, "san-" and "kan-" or "gan-", existed prior to the 5th century (400 CE).[4] Differently, "k(h)an-" indicates singing/making a sound.[5]: 415 
भांग (Bhang) Hindi,[6] sixteenth century, from Sanskrit "bhaṅgáḥ", "bhaṅgā" (see below).[7] Also recorded as Persian.[3]

Garcia de Orta recorded the name as "bangue",[8] as did Jan Huyghen van Linschoten.[9] Used in British English, it can also be spelt "bang", and retains much of the original meaning. In American English it may refer to hemp or a tea made from hemp that is either drunk or smoked.[7]

The Bhangmeter, a type of radiometer, is named as a pun on "Bhang".[10]

The dictionary definition of bhang at Wiktionary.

Bhaṅgā An ancient Sanskrit name originating before the 5th century (400 CE).[6]
Bhangi Swahili.[11]

Note: Bhangi is also a Hindi term for a person who uses bhang.[12]

Cáñamo Spanish,[13] from Greek "kánnabos" and Arabic "quinnan". Originally, also poetically used to refer to objects made of hemp.[14]

The dictionary definition of cáñamo at Wiktionary.

Canapa Italian;[15] an 1894 Italian botany study of the plant notes the word has the same etymology as the French "chanvre".[16]

The dictionary definition of canapa at Wiktionary.



English botanical name.[18] Assigned in the mid-eighteenth century, cannabis and hemp describe the entire cannabis plant for all its uses. Dried preparations of the plant are also called ganja, one of the oldest and most commonly used synonyms for marijuana.[19][20][18]

The dictionary definition of cannabis at Wiktionary.

Cần sa Vietnamese.[21]
Chamba Chichewa.[22]
Chanvre French;[6] Alphonse de Candolle, the first authority on cultivated plants,[23] wrote that like all other modern terms for cannabis, "chanvre" ultimately derives from proto-Indo-European "ang".[3]

The dictionary definition of chanvre at Wiktionary.

चरस (Charas) Hindi.[6]
Dagga Afrikaans[24] and English.[18]
Diamba Kimbundu.[25][26]
Esrar Turkish.[27]
ගංජා (Gaṁjā) Sinhala.[26]
Gandia Mauritius.[28]
Ganja Hindi[6][19][29] or Bengali.[3]
గంజాయి (Gan̄jāyi) Telugu.[26]
Gañjikā An ancient Sanskrit name originating before the 5th century (400 CE).[6]
Grifa Mexican Spanish.[30]
Hanf German.[6]
Hamp Danish.[31]
Hampa Swedish.[31]
Hamppu Finnish.[32]
Hashish Arabic.[33] Also "assis", per Jan Huyghen van Linschoten.[9]

Alphonse de Candolle described hashish as an "environmental material"; he included the Egyptians of the 18th century primarily cultivating cannabis for hashish in his list of places where the plant (which he primarily saw as a textile producer) was not popular.[3]

Hemp English, name for cannabis plant.[6][19]
Hennep Dutch.[34]
Hursīnī An ancient Sanskrit name originating before the 5th century (400 CE).[6]
Injaga Rwanda.[35]
Kanas Celtic.[3]
കഞ്ചാവ് (Kañcāv) Malayalam;[26] from the Dravidian root "kan" (eye), which can also refer to nipples, star on a peacock's tail, and buds.[5]: 450 
Kaņepes Latvian.[36]
កញ្ឆា (Kanhchhea) Khmer.[26]
Kan-jac Panamanian Spanish.[37]
Kάνναβις (Kánnabis) An ancient Greek name originating before the 5th century (400 CE).[38]
กัญชา (Kạỵchā) Thai.[39]
Kenevir Turkish.[40]
قنب (Kinnab or Quinnab) An ancient Arabic name originating before the 5th century (400 CE).[6] May also have been spelt "Cannab".[3]
Konopí Czech.[41]
Konopie Polish.[42]
Конопля (Konoplya) Russian;[43] derives from proto-Indo-European or proto-Kartvelian.[4]
Kunnabu An ancient Akkadian name originating before the 5th century (400 CE).[44]
麻 (Má) , a Chinese name for hemp, predates written history and has been used to describe medical marijuana since at least 2700 BCE. It is the earliest recorded name.[45][46] Hemp is recorded in the Book of Documents.[3][23]
Ma-kaña Bantu.[47]
Maconha Portuguese.[48]
Marijuana Mexican Spanish.[2]
Mbanje Shona.[49]
Pakalolo Hawaiian.[50]
Pango Portuguese.[26]
Potiguaya Spanish.[19]
삼 (Sam-gwa) Korean.[51]
Siddhi Bengali.[6]

Strains, cultivation and preparation[edit]

Three strain varieties at a recreational dispensary in Denver, Colorado

Commercial cannabis growers and retailers have given individual strains more than 2,300 names.[52] A 2022 study in PLOS One, drawing data from almost 90,000 samples from six US states, representing the largest quantitative chemical mapping of commercial dispensary-grade cannabis flower samples to date, found that “commercial labels do not consistently align with the observed chemical diversity.” In other words, many strain names do not necessarily reflect the actual cannabinoid content or its perceived effects.[53]

Name About
AK-47 Industry trade name for sativa-dominant hybrid strain. It may be named after an AK-47 assault rifle due to its gunpowder smell and potency,[54] or because the letters "AK" are the initials of the breeder and 47 is the number of days from planting to harvest.[55]
Acapulco Gold Traditional heirloom strain of cannabis[56] named for its location of origin (Acapulco) and typical color.[57]
Afghani Traditional heirloom strain of cannabis.[18]
African Traditional heirloom strain of cannabis.[18]
Amnesia Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56]
Amnesia Haze Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56][52]
Bhang Hindi (see above). Traditional Indian tea.[18]

Bhang is culturally significant in India, and is not technically banned, as the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985, specifically does not outlaw using seeds and leaves of the cannabis plant, of which the common tea drink is made. Bhang (referring to cannabis in general) can also be acquired medically.[58][59] The narcotics act does not list bhang/cannabis, instead documenting both charas and ganja (as cannabis plant products) separately;[59] in the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, cannabis leaves are not included in the definition of cannabis for Indian legal purposes.[60]

Blueberry Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56][52]
Blueberry Diesel Industry trade name for indica-dominant hybrid strain, a mix of Blueberry and Sour Diesel strains, its name is also a combination of theirs.[61]
Blue Dream Industry trade name for sativa-dominant hybrid strain.[52]
Blue Goo Industry trade name for sativa-dominant hybrid strain, a mix of Blue Dream and Agoo, a combination of which gives it its name.[52][62]
Bruce Banner Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[63]
Bubba Kush Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56]
Bubblegum Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56]
Bud English. Part of a cannabis plant.[18][64]
Budder English, from bud and butter. Industry trade name for cannabis extract.[65]
Cambodian red Traditional heirloom strain of cannabis.[18]
Cannabinoid Latin. Part of a cannabis flower.[66]
Cannabis See above
Cannabis edible English. Food product with cannabis content.[citation needed]
Cannabis indica Latin. Plant strains of cannabis.[67]
Cannabis ruderalis
Cannabis sativa
Cannabis tea English. Tea infused with cannabis.[68]
Charas Hindi. Traditional resin made from live cannabis plant.[18]
Charlotte's Web Industry trade name for cannabis sativa strain.[63]
Cola English. Part of a cannabis plant.[18][64]
Colombian Traditional heirloom strain of cannabis.[18]
Concentrate English. Industry trade name for cannabis extract.[65]
Critical Mass Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56]
Durban Poison Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56]
Extract English. Wax product.[69]
Feral cannabis or feral hemp Wild cannabis strain.[70]
Flower English. Part of a cannabis plant.[18]
GSD "Get Shit Done" A new 3:1 THCV to THC variety known as a natural alternative to caffeine that supposedly gives you energy and increases your productivity.
Girl Scout Cookies Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56][63]
Gorilla Glue Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[52]
Grape Ape Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[63]
Hashish Arabic. Traditional resin made from dead cannabis plant.[33]
Hash oil Arabic, English. Oil extract of hashish.[33]
Hawaiian Traditional heirloom strain of cannabis.[18]
Haze Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56]
Hemp English. Plant from which cannabis is derived.[17]
Hindu Kush Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56]
Jack Herer Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56][52]
Jamaican gold Traditional heirloom strain of cannabis.[18]
Joyride A new 1:1 THCV to THC variety that is known as "party weed" in the industry.
Kief Moroccan Arabic. Loose cannabis trichomes.[18]
Leaf English. Part of a cannabis plant.[18]
Live resin English. Industry trade name for cannabis extract.[71]
Matanuska Thunderfuck (MTF) Industry trade name for sativa-dominant cannabis strain.[72]
Maui Waui Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[52]
Mexican red Traditional heirloom strain of cannabis.[18]
Northern Lights Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56][52]
OG Kush Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56]
Panama red Traditional heirloom strain of cannabis.[18]
Paonia Purple Industry trade name for cannabis indica strain.[73][74]
Pineapple Express Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[citation needed]
Platinum OG Industry trade name for cannabis indica strain.[52]
Purple Haze Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56][52]
Resin English. Part of a cannabis flower.[64]
Root English. Part of a cannabis plant.[18]
Seed English. Part of a cannabis plant.[18]
Shatter English. Industry trade name for cannabis extract.[68]
Skunk Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56]
Sour Diesel Industry trade name for cannabis sativa strain.[56][52]
Stem English. Part of a cannabis plant.[18]
Strawberry Cough Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[56]
Super Lemon Haze Industry trade name for cannabis sativa strain.[75]
Terpene English. Part of a cannabis flower.[66][76]
Thai stick

Traditional heirloom strain of cannabis,[18][56] and method of preparation.[77] The strain is a high quality bud originating in northeast Thailand, where it was grown by hill tribes since antiquity. The name comes from a traditional Thai method of preparing cannabis to be smoked, which involved wrapping cannabis bud around a stick.[77] The stick was either bamboo or a hemp stalk, the bud may have been treated with hash oil before wrapping and would have been wrapped around the stick with fan leaves and/or silk string. The stick was then cured underground, and may be dipped in opium before smoking.[77][78] The Thai stick cigars used Thai bud Cannabis sativa, which also became known as Thai stick. When the original Thai sticks were popular, dealers would sell any buds bound in string or to a stick under the name. Most of the original bud was destroyed in the 1970s when the Thai government began its war on drugs. Making Thai stick-style cannacigars out of other strains continued around the world,[77][78] though the Thai government legalized medical cannabis again in 2018.[79]

Tincture English. Alcohol cannabis product.[80]
Tochigishiro Industry trade name for non-narcotic cannabis sativa strain.[81] It originates in Tochigi Prefecture, Japan, with the modern variety produced in Tochigi-shi.[82][83][84]
Trichome English. Part of a cannabis flower.[64]
Wax English. Industry trade name for cannabis extract.[68]
White Russian Hybrid cannabis strain. It is a mix of AK-47 and White Widow, of which its name is also a combination (AK-47 is Russian) and a pun on the alcoholic drink White Russian.[85]
White Widow Industry trade name for hybrid cannabis strain.[56][52]
Willie Nelson Industry trade name for cannabis strain.[52]
Zaza Industry trade name for cannabis, popularized via hip-hop music [86]

Medical cannabis[edit]

Advertisement for "Cannabis Americana" medical cannabis
Name About
Cannabidiol (CBD) Compound isolated from cannabis.[66]
Cannabinoid Therapeutic compounds in cannabis.[citation needed]
Cannabinol (CBN) Non-psychoactive compound isolated from cannabis.[citation needed]
Dronabinol Non-psychoactive THC.[citation needed]
Nabilone Synthetic cannabinoid.[citation needed]
Nabiximols Cannabis extract and botanical drug.[citation needed]
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Compound isolated from cannabis.[66]

Formal terms relating to cannabis consumption[edit]

Name About
Appetite Effect of consuming cannabis.[68]
Drink Method of consuming cannabis.[68]
Edible Method of consuming cannabis.[87]
Smoke Method of consuming cannabis.[87]
Topical Method of consuming cannabis.[88]
Vapor Method of consuming cannabis.[89]

Slang names and terms[edit]

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]