Legality of Cannabis by U.S. Jurisdiction

Legality of Cannabis by U.S. Jurisdiction is a mirror of the wikipedia page with the latest information for cannabis laws from each state, territory and jurisdiction. Washington D.C. included. Notice how an entity, not a state, is in charge of all of the other nation states. There is NO statute of law requiring any United States citizen to pay income tax. Look it up.

Map of cannabis laws in the US
Legality of cannabis in the United States
  Legal for recreational use
  Legal for medical use
  Illegal
 D  Decriminalized
Notes:
· Reflects law of states and territories, including laws which have not yet gone into effect. Does not reflect federal, tribal, or local laws.
· Hemp and hemp-derived products have been legal since the enactment of the 2018 Farm Bill.

In the United States, cannabis is legal in 38 of 50 states for medical use and 24 states for recreational use. At the federal level, cannabis is classified as a Schedule I drug under the Controlled Substances Act, determined to have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use, prohibiting its use for any purpose.[1] Despite this prohibition, federal law is generally not enforced against the possession, cultivation, or intrastate distribution of cannabis in states where such activity has been legalized.[2][3]

The medical use of cannabis is legal with a medical recommendation in 38 states, four out of five permanently inhabited U.S. territories,[a] and the federal District of Columbia (D.C.).[4] Ten other states have laws that limit the psychoactive compound tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), for the purpose of allowing access to products rich in cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating component of cannabis.[4] The Rohrabacher–Farr amendment, first passed in 2014, prohibits federal prosecution of individuals complying with state medical cannabis laws.[5]

The recreational use of cannabis has been legalized in 24 states, three U.S. territories, and D.C.[b] Another seven states have decriminalized its use.[c][6] Commercial distribution has been legalized in all jurisdictions where possession has been legalized, except for Virginia and D.C. Personal cultivation for recreational use is allowed in all of these jurisdictions except for Delaware, Illinois, New Jersey, and Washington state.

Cannabinoid drugs which have received approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for prescription use are Marinol and Syndros (synthetic THC is the active ingredient in both), Cesamet (nabilone), and Epidiolex (CBD). For non-prescription use, products with less than 0.3% delta-9 THC containing CBD, delta-8 THC, and other naturally-occurring cannabinoids derived from hemp (cannabis containing less than 0.3% delta-9 THC) are legal and unregulated[7] at the federal level, but legality and enforcement varies by state.[8][9][10]

By state[edit]

Legend:
  Legal for recreational use
  Legal for medical use
  Illegal
D Decriminalized
State Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes
 Alabama Illegal; Misdemeanor for first offense, any subsequent offense is a felony Legal to possess up to "70 daily dosages" at one time. Illegal.[11][12]
  • First-time may be punished as a misdemeanor, but further possession, or intent to sell, can result in felony charges.
  • Medical use legalized in May 2021 through bill signed by Governor Kay Ivey.[13]
  • Registered patients are permitted to possess a maximum of "70 daily dosages" of medical cannabis at one time. Doses of authorized cannabis products are capped at a maximum of 50 milligrams for the first 90 days.[11]
 Alaska Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g)[14] Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g)[15] Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of no more than 6 plants per person, or twelve plants in a household with two or more adults.[16]

Legalized by Measure 2 on November 4, 2014.[17]

 Arizona Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g)[18] Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) per 14 days. Legal for medical (See notes) & recreational use up to an amount of no more than 6 plants per person, or twelve plants in a household with two or more adults.[19]
  • Medical use legalized through Proposition 203 in 2010.[20][21][22]
  • Recreational use legalized through Proposition 207 on November 3, 2020.[23]
  • Medical patients may only cultivate if they're located further than 25 mi (40 km) from the nearest dispensary.
 Arkansas Illegal; Misdemeanor Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) per 14 days.[24] Illegal.[25]
  • Possession under 3 oz (85 g) a misdemeanor; cities of Fayetteville and Eureka Springs labeled cannabis their lowest law enforcement priority.
  • November 8, 2016: medical marijuana legalized when Issue 6 was approved by 53% of voters.[26]
 California Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g) Legal to possess up to 8 oz (230 g) Legal for recreational use up to an amount of six plants per household or acre of land.
  • July 1975: Senate Bill 95 reduced the penalty for possession of 1 oz (28 g) or less of cannabis to a citable misdemeanor.[27]
  • November 1996: first state to legalize medical marijuana when Proposition 215 was approved by 56% of voters.[28]
  • November 2016: Proposition 64 passed by 57% to 43%, legalizing sale and distribution, effective January 1, 2018.[29]
 Colorado Legal to possess up to 2 oz (57 g)[30] Legal to possess up to 2 oz (57 g) Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of six plants per person with no more than three of which being mature at one time.[31]
  • November 6, 2012: Colorado Amendment 64 approved by voters, legalizing the sale and possession of marijuana for non-medical use including cultivation of up to six plants with up to three mature.[32][33]
  • In Denver, there is a limit of 12 plants per household regardless of the number of adults.[34]
  • Colorado became the second state to legalize, going into effect four days after Washington state,[33] however, it was the first state for legal retail sales to become established.[35]
  • May 20, 2021: Colorado Governor Jared Polis signs HB 21–1090, a bill which increases possession limits from 1 oz to 2 oz for adults.
 Connecticut Legal to carry up to 1.5 oz (43 g) or possess up to 5 oz (140 g) locked inside a home or trunk of a vehicle Legal to possess up to 5 oz (140 g) per month Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of six plants with only three at a time being mature.
  • June 22, 2021: Connecticut Governor Ned Lamont signed SB 1201, a bill legalizing recreational marijuana for adults beginning July 1, 2021. Those between 18 and 20 would be subject to civil fine up to $150, and minors under 18 cannot be arrested for simple possession.[36]
 Delaware Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g) & 12 g (.4 oz) of concentrate Legal to possess up to 6 oz (171 g) Illegal[37]
  • May 13, 2011: Delaware legalizes medical cannabis through state legislature.[38]
  • February 10, 2012: Governor Jack Markell suspended medical marijuana after a Justice Department letter threatened federal prosecution
  • August 31, 2016: Jack Markell signed House Bill 400, expanding medical cannabis programs for those with a terminal illness.[39][40]
  • April 23, 2023: Bill to legalize recreational cannabis became law without governor's signature.[41]
 Florida Illegal Legal to possess up to three 70-day, or six 35-day "supply limits". One 35-day supply is limited to 2.5 oz (71 g). Illegal.[42]
  • November 8, 2016: medical marijuana legalized as of July 1, 2017, when voters passed Amendment 2 by 71%.[43]
  • In 2019, legislation under Senate Bill 182 was enacted, allowing individuals with eligible medical conditions to acquire smokable cannabis from authorized medical marijuana dispensaries.[44]
 Georgia Illegal; decriminalized in the cities of Atlanta,[45] Clarkston,[46] Forest Park,[47] Savannah, South Fulton,[48] Statesboro,[49] unincorporated Fulton County,[50] and Macon–Bibb County. CBD oil (less than 5% THC) Illegal
  • Misdemeanor possession of 1 oz (28 g) or less can be punished by a fine up to $1000 or up to 12 months in jail.[51] It is a felony for anyone to possess more than 1 oz (28 g), manufacture, deliver, distribute, dispense, administer, purchase, sell, or possess with intent to distribute marijuana and it is punishable by imprisonment for no less than one year and no more than ten years.[52] City and county level punishments for misdemeanor possessions vary.
  • April 16, 2015: use of low-THC CBD oil legalized for medical use, but in-state cultivation, production, and sale remains illegal.[53]
 Hawaii D Illegal; Decriminalized up to .1 oz (3 g)[54] Legal to possess up to 4 oz (114 g). Legal only for medical patients up to an amount not exceeding 7 plants per person.[55]
  • June 15, 2000: Governor Ben Cayetano signed bill legalizing medical marijuana. First state legislature to do so.[56][57]
  • July 14, 2015: Governor David Ige signed bill allowing medical cannabis dispensaries.[58]
  • July 14, 2016: Governor Ige signed law expanding medical cannabis programs.[59]
  • June 25, 2019: Governor Ige announced that he would not veto a bill passed by the legislature to decriminalize less than 3 g of marijuana. Law went into effect January 11, 2020.[54]
 Idaho Illegal; Misdemeanor (85 g (3.0 oz) or less) CBD oil (less than 0.1% THC) Illegal; Felony
  • Possession of 85 g (3.0 oz) or less a misdemeanor up to 1-year prison or fine up to $1,000 or both. More than 3 oz (85 g) but less than 1 lb (0.45 kg) a felony up to 5 years in prison or fine up to $10,000 or both.[60]
  • 2015: the Idaho Attorney General stipulated that CBD must both contain zero THC and be derived from one of the five identified parts of the cannabis plant, otherwise it is illegal in Idaho under current law.[61]
  • 2021: Senate Bill 1017 is signed into law by Governor Brad Little expanding legal CBD access from 0.0% to 0.1% THC.[62]
 Illinois Legal to possess up to 30 g (1.1 oz)[63] Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) per 14 day period. Legal only for medical patients up to an amount of 5 plants per person.[64]
  • Cannabis Control Act of 1978 allowed for medical marijuana but was never implemented.[65][66]
  • August 1, 2013: Gov. Pat Quinn signed bill legalizing medical marijuana effective January 1, 2014.[67]
  • May 31, 2019: the General Assembly passed the Illinois Cannabis Regulation and Tax Act to legalize recreational marijuana use beginning January 1, 2020, allowing adults age 21 and over to possess up to 30 g (1.1 oz).[68] With Gov. J. B. Pritzker's signature on June 25, Illinois became the first state in the nation to legalize adult marijuana sales through an act of state legislature.[69][63]
 Indiana Illegal; Misdemeanor (up to 6 months in jail, $1000 fine) CBD oil (less than 0.3% THC) legal for any use Illegal
  • 1913: prohibited
  • Decriminalized in Marion County[70]
  • Delta-8 products allowed[71]
 Iowa Illegal; Misdemeanor Legal to possess up to an amount of THC not exceeding 4.5 grams per 90 day period. Illegal; Felony
  • 2014: CBD oil legalized for less than 3% THC.[1]
  • 2017: Medical program expanded to include more qualifying conditions.[72]
  • 2020: THC limit changed to 4.5 grams per 90 days.[73]
 Kansas Illegal; Misdemeanor CBD oil (containing 0% THC) legal for any use Illegal
  • 1927: prohibited
  • 2018: CBD oil exempted from the definition of marijuana.[74][75][76]
 Kentucky Illegal; Misdemeanor (8 oz (230 g) or less) Legal to possess an "uninterrupted 30-day supply" Illegal; Misdemeanor (5 plants or less)
  • 2014: CBD legalized
  • 2022: Governor Andy Beshear signed an executive order, effective January 1, 2023, to pardon anyone possessing up to 8 ounces of cannabis if purchased legally in another state and a doctor certifies that patient has one of 21 qualifying conditions.[77][78]
  • 2023: Senate Bill 47 to legalize medical use signed into law.[79]
 Louisiana D Illegal; Decriminalized up to 14 grams (0.49 ounces) Legal to possess up to a "30-day supply" Illegal[80]
  • 1924: prohibited
  • 2015: medical cannabis legalized
  • 2020: House Bill 819 is signed in to law by Governor John Bel Edwards expanding cannabis access to "any condition" that a doctor "considers debilitating to an individual patient and is qualified through his medical education and training to treat."
  • 2021: Decriminalization signed into law by Governor Edwards.[81]
 Maine Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of six plants with no more than three at a time being mature. There is no limit on the amount of seedlings that can be grown at once.[82]
 Maryland Legal to possess up to 1.5 oz (42 g) & 12 g (.4 oz) of concentrate beginning July 1, 2023 Legal to possess up to 120 g (4.2 oz) or 36 g (1.3 oz) of concentrate Legal for recreational use up to two plants per household. Registered medical cannabis patients can grow four plants per household.[87]
 Massachusetts Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g) in public or 10 oz (280 g) at home Legal to possess up to 10 oz (280 g) per every 2-month period Legal for recreational use up to an amount of six plants per person or twelve plants maximum for 2 or more adults in a household.[91]
  • 2008: decriminalized cannabis by 63% vote on Question 2. 1 oz (28 g) or less punishable by $100 fine.[92][93]
  • 2012: medical marijuana legalized when Question 3 passed by 60%.[94][95]
  • 2016: legalized recreational marijuana when Question 4 passed by 54%.[96]
 Michigan Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) in public or 10 oz (280 g) at home Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) Legal for recreational use up to an amount of 12 plants per household.[97]
 Minnesota Legal to possess up to 2 lbs (2 oz in public), 8 g of concentrate, and 800 mg of infused edibles Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) every 14 days. Legal for recreational use up to an amount of 8 plants of which only 4 can be mature at a time[98]
  • 1976: decriminalization[99]
  • 2014: medical cannabis legalized[100]
  • 2022: Legislation is passed to allow the sale and consumption of food and beverage products containing 5 mg of THC per serving and 50 mg per package.[101]
  • 2023: Governor Tim Walz signs House File 100 to legalize cannabis for recreational use, effective August 1, 2023.[102]
 Mississippi D Illegal; Decriminalized up to 30 g (1.1 oz) or less for first offense. Legal to possess up to 3 oz (85 g) per month Illegal.
  • 1978: decriminalized
  • 2014: CBD legalized
  • 2020: medical cannabis legalized through Initiative 65,[103][104] which was subsequently overturned by the Supreme Court of Mississippi[105]
  • 2022: Medical use made legal again through bill signed by Governor Tate Reeves.[106][107]
 Missouri Legal to possess up to 3 oz (85 g) Legal to possess up to 6 oz (170 g) per month Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of six plants per person or twelve plants for 2 or more adults in a household with a license.
  • 2014: decriminalized; CBD legalized
  • 2018: Missouri voters approved Amendment 2, allowing for the distribution and regulation of medical cannabis.
  • 2022: Missouri voters approved Amendment 3, legalizing recreational use for adults 21 and older.
 Montana Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g) & 8 g of concentrates Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g) Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of four plants per person or 8 maximum per household, no more than 4 plants are allowed to be mature at one time.
 Nebraska D Illegal; Decriminalized (first offense only) CBD Oil (containing up to 0.3% THC) legal for any use Illegal

Possession up to 1 oz (28 g) fined up to $300 for first offense, with potential mandatory drug education. Second offense fine up to $500 and up to five days' jail, third offense up to $500 fine and maximum one week jail.[108]

 Nevada Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) & one fourth of an oz (7 g) of concentrate Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) Legal for medical & recreational use only for people that live at least 25 mi (40 km) from the nearest dispensary. Limit is 6 plants for recreational use and 12 plants for medical use.[109][110]
  • November 7, 2000: medical marijuana legalized with 65% vote on Question 9.[111][112]
  • November 8, 2016: recreational marijuana legalized when Question 2 passed by 54%.[113]
  • Home cultivation allowed if at least 25 mi (40 km) from store.[114]
  • June 8, 2023: Legal Adult-use possession limits increased from 1 oz & one eighth of an oz of concentrate to 2.5 oz & one quarter of an oz of concentrate.[115]
 New Hampshire D Illegal; Decriminalized up to 0.75 oz (21 g) or less Legal to possess up to 2 oz (57 g) Illegal.[116]
  • July 23, 2013: medical marijuana legalized when Governor Maggie Hassan signed HB 573.[117][118]
  • July 11, 2015: Governor Hassan expanded medical marijuana law.[119]
  • July 18, 2017: Governor Chris Sununu signed bill decriminalizing up to 0.75 oz (21 g).[120]
 New Jersey Legal to possess up to 6 oz (170 g).[121] Licensed delivery services allowed.[122] Legal to possess up to 3 oz (85 g) per month Illegal.[123][124]
  • January 18, 2010: medical marijuana law signed by Governor Jon Corzine. Maximum 1 year in prison and 1,000 dollar fine for possession of up to 50 grams.[125][126] September 19, 2016: Governor Chris Christie signed Assembly Bill 457 adding PTSD as a qualifying condition for medical marijuana, effective immediately.[127]
  • November 3, 2020: recreational use legalized by referendum.[128][129]
  • February 22, 2021: enabling legislation for cannabis legalization signed by Governor Phil Murphy. The bill includes provisions for transportation (delivery) and cultivation licensure.[130]
 New Mexico Legal to possess up to 2 oz (57 g) Legal to possess up to 8 oz (230 g) per 90-day period Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount not to exceed 16 plants, of which no more than 4 can be mature at one time, for medical use, and 6 mature plants, or twelve per household, for recreational use.
 New York Legal to possess up to 5 lb (2,300 g) of cannabis or 24 g of concentrates at home and 3 oz (85 g) in public or gifting without remuneration.[137] Legal to possess a 60-day supply. Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of three mature and three immature plants per person, with a limit of twelve per household.[138]
  • July 14, 2014: medical marijuana legalized when Governor Andrew Cuomo signed legislation allowing edibles, oils, pills, and vaporization, but not smoking.[139][140]
  • June 20, 2019: full decriminalization bill passed legislature and signed into law by Governor Cuomo. The bill decriminalizes amounts under 2 oz (57 g), providing for a $50 fine for under 1 oz (28 g) and $100 for under 2 oz. It also eliminates the "in public view" loophole whereby police would demand suspects empty their pockets, thus causing the cannabis to be in public view.[141] The law took effect on August 30, 2019.[142]
  • March 31, 2021: Marijuana legalization law signed by the governor.[143]
 North Carolina D Illegal; Decriminalized up to 42 g (1.5 oz) or less CBD oil Illegal
  • 1977: decriminalized
  • 2015: CBD legalized
 North Dakota D Illegal; Decriminalized up to 14 g (0.49 oz) or less Legal to possess up to 3 oz (85 g) Illegal.[144]
  • November 8, 2016: legalized medical marijuana when voters passed Measure 5 by 64%.[145]
  • May 2019: decriminalized[146]
 Ohio Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) and up to 15 grams of cannabis concentrates. Legal to possess a 90-day supply. Legal to grow 6 plants per adult, maximum 12 plants per household.
  • November 3, 2015: A recreational use initiative fails to pass.[147]
  • June 8, 2016: Governor John Kasich signed legislation legalizing medical marijuana.[148]
  • November 7, 2023: Ohio voters passed a ballot referendum legalizing recreational cannabis.[149]
 Oklahoma Illegal Legal to possess up to 8 oz (230 g), 1 oz (28 g) of concentrate, and 72 oz (2 kg) of edibles in a residence. Patients are able to possess up to 3 oz (85 g) in public. Legal only for medical patients up to an amount of six plants & 6 seedlings per person.[150]
 Oregon Legal to possess up to 2 oz (57 g) in public or 8 oz (230 g) at home[154] Legal to possess up to 24 oz (680 g) Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of six mature plants & 18 seedlings for medical patients or four plants per household for recreational use.[155]
  • 1973: Oregon became the first state to decriminalize cannabis.[156]
  • November 4, 2014: voters approved Measure 91 providing for possession and sale of set amounts of cannabis.[157][158]
  • Cannabis sentencing reform signed July 1, 2015, by Governor Kate Brown.[159][160]
  • More medical cannabis reforms signed July 28, 2015, by Governor Brown, effective October 1, 2015.[161][162]
  • Governor Brown signed 25% cannabis sales tax.[163]
  • January 1, 2022: Limit on personal possession increased from 1 oz to 2 oz.[164]
 Pennsylvania Illegal; Decriminalized In Philadelphia and Pittsburgh up to 30 g (1.1 oz)[165] Legal to possess up to a 90-day supply Illegal.[166]
  • April 17, 2016: medical use law signed by Governor Wolf. Possession of 30 g (1.1 oz) or less up to 30 days in jail and fine up to $500. More than 30g a misdemeanor up to a year in jail and $5000 fine.[167]
 Rhode Island Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g) Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of 12 plants & 12 seedlings for medical patients or six plants of which no more than 3 are mature for recreational use.[168][169]

Legalized by bills signed on May 25, 2022.[170][171]

 South Carolina Misdemeanor[172] Cannabis oil (less than 0.9% THC) Illegal
  • 2014: Governor Nikki Haley signed Senate Bill 1035, "Julian's Law", allowing children with severe epilepsy to be treated with CBD oil if recommended by a physician.[173]
 South Dakota Misdemeanor Legal to possess up to 3 oz (85 g) Legal for medical patients up to an amount not exceeding 3 plants; more in some cases.[174]

Possession of 2 oz or less a Class 1 misdemeanor punishable by a maximum of 1 year in prison and a maximum fine $2,000.[175]

Medical use legal effective July 1, 2021.

  • November 3, 2020: Medical and recreational use legalized by separate referendums.[176][177]
  • February 8, 2021: Recreational legalization referendum (Amendment A) overturned by circuit court judge as unconstitutional.[178]
  • On November 24, 2021, the South Dakota Supreme Court ruled 4-1 that Amendment A was unconstitutional, striking down recreational legalization.[179]
 Tennessee Illegal; Misdemeanor (less than .5 oz (14 g); first or second offense only). Cannabis oil (less than 0.9% THC) Illegal; Misdemeanor (nine plants or less),
Felony (ten or more plants)

First-time possession one year supervised probation instead of one year in prison; possession of .5 oz (14 g) or more for resale a felony. CBD oil possession allowed as of May 4, 2015, if suffering seizures or epilepsy with recommendation of doctor.[180]

 Texas Illegal (De facto legal by refusal to arrest for less than 4 oz (112 g) in possession in Austin. A "cite and release" policy is in effect in Houston, Dallas, San Antonio, Austin, and residents of Travis County). CBD oil (no more than 1% THC and no less than 10% CBD) Illegal
  • December 2014: possession of up to 2 oz (57 g) of marijuana can result in a jail sentence of up to six months and fine of up to $2,000.[181]
  • June 1, 2015: governor Greg Abbott signed a bill legalizing CBD oil for medical use in patients with intractable epilepsy.[182]
  • May 2019: expanded the qualifying conditions of medical cannabis to include Parkinson's disease, ALS, autism, multiple sclerosis, spasticity, and terminal cancer.[183]
  • June 2021: Governor Greg Abbott signed a bill that expands limited medical program from 0.5% THC to 1.0% THC. Effective September 1, 2021.[184]
 Utah Illegal; Misdemeanor Legal to possess up to 4 oz (113 g) per 30-day period Illegal.[185]
  • 2014: HB 105 signed which allows use of low-THC cannabis oil for patients with epilepsy.[186]
  • March 2018: HB 195 signed which allows cannabis for certain terminally ill patients.[187]
  • Possession up to an 1 oz (28 g) 6-months prison and maximum fine $1,000. Over 10 oz (280 g) $10,000 fine. Selling any amount a felony with 5 years in prison and $5,000 fine.[188]
 Vermont Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g) Legal to possess up to 2 oz (57 g) Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of 9 plants, with only 2 at a time being mature for medical patients, or six plants for recreational use of which no more than two can be mature at one time.
  • May 19, 2004: medical marijuana legalized when Senate Bill 76 was enacted.[189]
  • June 2007: medical marijuana expanded by the enactment of SB 7.[190]
  • June 6, 2013: Governor Peter Shumlin signed HB200, decriminalizing 1 oz (28 g).[191]
  • January 2018: HB511 was enacted,[192][193][194] legalizing recreational use of 1 oz (28 g) and two plants,[195] taking effect on July 1, 2018.[196][197][198] First state legislature to legalize recreational marijuana.[199]
 Virginia Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g) in public; no limit applies at home.[200] Legislature has yet to authorize retail sales. Legal to possess up to 4 oz (113 g) per 30-day period; unlike recreational use, commercial sales of medical marijuana is legal. Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of 4 plants per household.[201]
  • April 2020: decriminalized up to 1 oz (28 g) (punishable by a $25 fine) per legislation signed by Governor Ralph Northam.[202]
  • April 7, 2021: Legalized for recreational use effective July 1, 2021.[203] Retail sales were scheduled to begin by January 1, 2024, but the legislature did not go on to develop the necessary legal framework.[204]
 Washington Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g) Legal to possess up to 3 oz (85 g), 48 oz (1.3 kg) of edibles, 21 g (.74 oz) of concentrate, & 216 oz (6.1 kg) of infused-liquids. Legal for medical patients only up to an amount of 6 plants.[205][206]
  • 2012: legalized by Washington Initiative 502. The law permits anyone over 21 to carry 1 oz (28 g), and it requires licensed sellers, distributors, and growers. Home growing is not allowed except for medical use.[207] First state to legalize recreational marijuana on December 6, 2012, four days before Colorado.[208]
 West Virginia Illegal; Misdemeanor Legal Illegal.[209]

"Compassionate Use Act for Medical Cannabis; providing for protections for the medical use of cannabis..."[210]

 Wisconsin Illegal; Misdemeanor on first offense, felony on subsequent offenses; decriminalized in the cities of Milwaukee and Madison[211][212] CBD oil Illegal; Felony
  • First possession a misdemeanor fine up to $1,000 or imprisonment up to 6 months, or both. Second offense a Class I felony fine up to $10,000 or imprisonment up to 3.5 years, or both.[213]
  • Medical CBD oil legalized in 2014 and 2017.[210]
  • In 2020, Madison, WI legalized the possession of up to 1 oz (28 g) of recreational cannabis, including smoking cannabis on public property (not including places where cigarettes are already banned, inside or within 1,000 feet (300 m) of a school, or behind the wheel).[214]
 Wyoming Illegal; Misdemeanor CBD oil Illegal

Being under the influence of marijuana is a misdemeanor up to 90 days in prison and fine up to $100. Possession of 3 oz (85 g) or less a misdemeanor up to 1 year in prison and fine up to $1000.[215]

Federal district[edit]

District Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes
 District of Columbia Legal to possess up to 2 oz (57 g). No commercial sales.[216] Legal to possess up to 8 oz (230 g) Legal for recreational use up to an amount of six plants with only three being mature at a time; there are no provisions for commercial recreational cultivation.
  • 1998: Initiative 59 was voted in to allow medical marijuana, but was blocked from taking effect by Congress until 2009.
  • 2014: D.C. Mayor Vincent Gray signed a bill that decriminalized possession of up to 1 oz (28 g) of marijuana in the U.S. capital for persons 18 years of age or older. The law made possession a civil violation with a penalty of $25, lower than most city parking tickets.
  • 2014, D.C. voted by ballot Initiative 71 to legalize recreational marijuana possession, cultivation, and transportation; commercial production and sale prohibited. The law went into effect February 26, 2015, following 30 days of congressional review.[217]

By inhabited territory[edit]

Territory Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes
 American Samoa Illegal Illegal Illegal
  • In 1999, the territory established a five-year mandatory minimum sentence for possession of any amount of any illegal drug, to explicitly include marijuana, even when medically prescribed in another jurisdiction.[218]
 Guam Legal to possess up to 1 oz (28 g) & 8 g of concentrate Legal to possess up to 2.5 oz (71 g) Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount not exceeding 6 mature & 12 immature plants for medical patients or up to 6 immature & 3 mature plants for recreational use.[219]
  • November 4, 2014: residents passed a ballot measure that allows cannabis for medical use only.[220]
  • March 2019: the Legislature of Guam passed a bill (by a close vote of 8–7) to legalize recreational cannabis. The Governor of Guam signed the bill into law on April 4, 2019, with immediate effect.[221]
 Northern Mariana Islands Legal Legal Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of 6 mature and 12 immature plants.[222]
  • September 21, 2018: Republican governor Ralph Torres signed a bill into law to legalize the recreational use of cannabis in the territory.[223][224]
 Puerto Rico Illegal Legal to possess up to a 30-day supply. Illegal.[225]
  • May 4, 2015: the governor of Puerto Rico signed an executive order legalizing medicinal marijuana in the U.S. territory.[226]
 U.S. Virgin Islands Legal to possess up to 2 oz (57 g), 1 oz (28 g) of edibles, & 14 g (.5 oz) of concentrate Legal to possess up to 4 oz (113 g) Legal for medical patients up to an amount of 12 plants. Cultivation for non-medical use is only legal for sacramental purposes.[227]
  • December 2014: possession of up to 1 oz (28 g) was decriminalized.[228]
  • January 2019: medical use was legalized.[229]
  • January 2023: Bill to legalize recreational use signed by Governor Albert Bryan on January 18, 2023.[230]

By tribal nation[edit]

Note: There are approximately 326 federally recognized Indian reservations in the United States. This table shows only reservations which are known to have legalized medical or recreational use of cannabis, and may not be a complete list of reservations that have done so.

Reservation Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes
Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe
(South Dakota)
Legal[231] Legal Illegal; Only one site has been allowed as the primary growing location. In summer 2015, the tribal authorities voted 5–1 to legalize recreational cannabis, making them the first reservation to do so following the 2013 Cole Memorandum.[231]
Oglala Lakota Sioux Tribe (South Dakota) Legal Legal Legal Legalized by referendum in March 2020, ordinance effective November 27, 2020.[232]
Suquamish Tribe
(Washington state)
Legal[233][234] Legal Legal In September 2015, the tribe signed the nation's first tribe-state cannabis pact, under which the tribe would operate a cannabis retail store with regulations paralleling those of Washington state.[235]
Squaxin Island Tribe
(Washington state)
Legal[236] Legal Legal Legalized in November 2015.[237]
Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians
(North Carolina)
Legal Legal[238] Illegal
St. Regis Mohawk Tribe
(New York)
Legal Legal Legal for medical & recreational use up to an amount of twelve plants. Legislation approved in June 2021 legalizing recreational use of cannabis and establishing a dispensary license program where all growing, processing, and sales must take place on tribal land.[242][243][244]

Legalization timeline[edit]

United States jurisdictions with legalized recreational cannabis
Jurisdiction Effective date Licensed sales since Legalization method
Washington (state) December 6, 2012 July 8, 2014 Initiated ballot measure
Colorado December 10, 2012[245] January 1, 2014 Initiated ballot measure
Alaska February 24, 2015 October 29, 2016 Initiated ballot measure
Washington, D.C. February 26, 2015 Never authorized Initiated ballot measure
Oregon July 1, 2015 October 1, 2015 Initiated ballot measure
California November 9, 2016 January 1, 2018 Initiated ballot measure
Massachusetts December 15, 2016 November 20, 2018 Initiated ballot measure
Nevada January 1, 2017 July 1, 2017 Initiated ballot measure
Maine January 30, 2017 October 9, 2020 Initiated ballot measure
Vermont July 1, 2018 October 1, 2022[246] Legislative bill
Northern Mariana Islands September 21, 2018 July 16, 2021[247] Legislative bill
Michigan December 6, 2018 December 1, 2019 Initiated ballot measure
Guam April 4, 2019 Not yet started Legislative bill
Illinois January 1, 2020 January 1, 2020 Legislative bill
Arizona November 30, 2020 January 22, 2021 Initiated ballot measure
Montana January 1, 2021 January 1, 2022[248] Initiated ballot measure
New Jersey February 22, 2021 April 21, 2022 Legislatively referred ballot measure
New York March 31, 2021 December 29, 2022[249] Legislative bill
New Mexico June 29, 2021[250] April 1, 2022[251][252] Legislative bill
Connecticut July 1, 2021 January 10, 2023[253] Legislative bill
Virginia July 1, 2021 Never authorized Legislative bill
Rhode Island May 25, 2022 December 1, 2022 Legislative bill
Missouri December 8, 2022 February 3, 2023[254] Initiated ballot measure
United States Virgin Islands January 18, 2023 Not yet started Legislative bill
Delaware April 23, 2023 Not yet started Legislative bill
Maryland July 1, 2023 July 1, 2023 Legislatively referred ballot measure
Minnesota August 1, 2023[102] Not yet started Legislative bill
Ohio December 7, 2023 Not yet started Initiated ballot measure


See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands
  2. ^ States that have legalized the use of recreational marijuana, including laws which have not yet gone into effect: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and Washington

    Territories that have legalized recreational marijuana include: Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands
  3. ^ Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Hampshire, North Carolina, North Dakota

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