Coordinates: 13°30′N 144°48′E / 13.500°N 144.800°E / 13.500; 144.800

Guam

Guåhan
Nickname(s): 
Tånó y Chamorro  (Chamorro) (English: "Land of the Chamorro")
Motto: 
Tånó I' Man Chamorro  (Chamorro) (English: "Land of the Chamorros")
Anthem: "Stand Ye Guamanians"
Location of Guam
Location of Guam (circled in red)
Sovereign stateUnited States
Before annexationSpanish East Indies
Cession from SpainApril 11, 1899
CapitalHagåtña
Largest cityDededo
Official languages
Ethnic groups
(2010)
37.3% Chamorro
26.3% Filipino
7.1% White
7% Chuukese
2.2% Korean
2% Other Asian
1.6% Chinese
1.6% Palauan
1.5% Japanese
1.4% Pohnpeian
9.4% Multiracial
0.6% other[1]
Religion
75% Catholicism
17.7% Protestantism
1.1% Buddhism
4.5% other
1.7% unaffiliated[2]
Demonym(s)Guamanian
GovernmentDevolved presidential constitutional dependency
• Governor
Lou Leon Guerrero (D)
Josh Tenorio (D)
LegislatureLegislature of Guam
United States Congress
Michael San Nicolas (D)
Area
• Total
540 km2 (210 sq mi)
Highest elevation
1,334 ft (407 m)
Population
• 2021 estimate
168,801[1] (177th)
• Density
299/km2 (774.4/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2016 estimate
• Total
$5.79 billion[1]
• Per capita
$35,600[1]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.901
very high
CurrencyUnited States dollar (US$) (USD)
Time zoneUTC+10:00 (ChST)
Date formatmm/dd/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+1-671
USPS abbreviation
GU
ISO 3166 code
Internet TLD.gu

Guam (/ˈɡwɑːm/ (About this soundlisten); Chamorro: Guåhan [ˈɡʷɑhɑn]) is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the Micronesia subregion of the western Pacific Ocean.[3][4] It is the westernmost point and territory of the United States; in Oceania, it is the largest and southernmost of the Mariana Islands and the largest island in Micronesia. Guam's capital is Hagåtña, and the most populous city is Dededo.

Residents of Guam are American citizens by birth. Indigenous Guamanians are the Chamorros, who are related to the Austronesian peoples of Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Micronesia, and Polynesia. As of 2021, Guam's population is 168,801. Chamorros are the largest ethnic group, but a minority on the multi-ethnic island. The territory spans 210 square miles (540 km2; 130,000 acres) and has a population density of 775 per square mile (299/km2).

The Chamorro people settled the island approximately 3,500 years ago. Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, while in the service of Spain, was the first European to visit the island on March 6, 1521. Guam was colonized by Spain in 1668. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Guam was an important stopover for the Spanish Manila Galleons. During the Spanish–American War, the United States captured Guam on June 21, 1898. Under the Treaty of Paris, signed December 10, 1898, Spain ceded Guam to the U.S. effective April 11, 1899.

Before World War II, Guam was one of five American jurisdictions in the Pacific Ocean, along with Wake Island in Micronesia, American Samoa and Hawaii in Polynesia, and the Philippines. On December 8, 1941, hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Guam was captured by the Japanese, who occupied the island for two and a half years. During the occupation, Guamanians were subjected to forced labor, incarceration, torture and execution.[5][6][7] American forces recaptured the island on July 21, 1944, which is commemorated as Liberation Day.[8] Since the 1960s, Guam's economy has been supported primarily by tourism and the U.S. military, for which Guam is a major strategic asset.[9]

An unofficial but frequently used territorial motto is "Where America's Day Begins," which refers to the island's proximity to the International Date Line.[10][11] Guam is among the 17 non-self-governing territories listed by the United Nations, and has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983.[12]

History[edit]

Pre-Contact era[edit]

Map showing the Neolithic Austronesian migrations into the islands of the Indo-Pacific

Guam, along with the Mariana Islands, were the first islands settled by humans in Remote Oceania. Incidentally it is also the first and the longest of the ocean-crossing voyages of the Austronesian peoples, and is separate from the later Polynesian settlement of the rest of Remote Oceania. They were first settled around 1500 to 1400 BC by migrants departing from the Philippines. This was followed by a second migration from the Caroline Islands by the first millennium AD, and a third migration from Island Southeast Asia (likely the Philippines or eastern Indonesia) by 900 AD.[13][14]

Chamorro hunter with spear from the Boxer Codex (1590)

The original inhabitants of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands were the Chamorro people.[15]:16 The ancient Chamorro society had four classes: chamorri (chiefs), matua (upper class), achaot (middle class), and mana'chang (lower class).[15]:20–21 The matua were located in the coastal villages, which meant they had the best access to fishing grounds, whereas the mana'chang were located in the island's interior. Matua and mana'chang rarely communicated with each other, and matua often used achaot as intermediaries. There were also "makåhna" or "kakahna," shamans with magical powers and "'suruhånu" or "suruhåna," healers who used different kinds of plants and natural materials to make medicine. Belief in spirits of ancient Chamorros called "Taotao mo'na" still persists as a remnant of pre-European culture. It is believed that "suruhånu" or "suruhåna" are the only ones who can safely harvest plants and other natural materials from their homes or "hålomtåno" without incurring the wrath of the "Taotao mo'na." Their society was organized along matrilineal clans.[15]:21

The Chamorro people raised colonnades of megalithic capped pillars called latte stones upon which they built their homes. Latte stones are stone pillars that are found only in the Mariana Islands; they are a recent development in Pre-Contact Chamorro society. The latte-stone was used as a foundation on which thatched huts were built.[15]:26 Latte stones consist of a base shaped from limestone called the haligi and with a capstone, or tåsa, made either from a large brain coral or limestone, placed on top.[15]:27–28 A possible source for these stones, the Rota Latte Stone Quarry, was discovered in 1925 on Rota.[15]:28

Magellan's travel to Guam[edit]

The first European to travel to Guam was Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan, sailing for the King of Spain, King Charles I, later King Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor), when he sighted the island on March 6, 1521, during his fleet's circumnavigation of the globe.[15]:41–42 When Magellan arrived on Guam, he was greeted by hundreds of small outrigger canoes that appeared to be flying over the water due to their considerable speed. These outrigger canoes were called Proas and resulted in Magellan naming Guam Islas de las Velas Latinas ("Islands of the Lateen sails"). Antonio Pigafetta (one of Magellan's original 18) said that the name was "Island of Sails," but he also writes that the inhabitants "entered the ships and stole whatever they could lay their hands on," including "the small boat that was fastened to the poop of the flagship."[16]:129 "Those people are poor, but ingenious and very thievish, on account of which we called those three islands Islas de los Ladrones ("Islands of thieves")."[16]:131

Spanish colonization and the Manila galleons[edit]

Reception of the Manila Galleon by the Chamorro in the Ladrones Islands, ca. 1590 Boxer Codex

Despite Magellan's visit, Guam was not officially claimed by Spain until January 26, 1565, by General Miguel López de Legazpi.[15]:46 From 1565 to 1815, Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, the only Spanish outposts in the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, were an important resting stop for the Manila galleons, a fleet that covered the Pacific trade route between Acapulco and Manila.[15]:51 To protect these Pacific fleets, Spain built several defensive structures that still stand today, such as Fort Nuestra Señora de la Soledad in Umatac. Guam is the biggest single segment of Micronesia, the largest islands between the island of Kyushu (Japan), New Guinea, the Philippines, and the Hawaiian Islands.

Spanish colonization commenced on June 15, 1668, with the arrival of Diego Luis de San Vitores and Pedro Calungsod, who established the first Catholic church.[15]:64 The islands were part of the Spanish East Indies, and in turn part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, based in Mexico City. Other reminders of colonial times include the old Governor's Palace in Plaza de España and the Spanish Bridge, both in Hagatña. Guam's Cathedral Dulce Nombre de Maria was formally opened on February 2, 1669, as was the Royal College of San Juan de Letran.[15]:68 Guam, along with the rest of the Mariana and Caroline Islands, were treated as part of Spain's colony in the Philippines. While the island's Chamorro culture has indigenous roots, the cultures of both Guam and the Northern Marianas have many similarities with Spanish culture due to three centuries of Spanish rule.[9]

Internal conflicts[edit]

Intermittent warfare lasting from July 23, 1670, until July 1695, plus the typhoons of 1671 and 1693, and in particular the smallpox epidemic of 1688, reduced the Chamorro population from 50,000 to 10,000, finally to less than 5,000.[15]:86 Precipitated by the death of Quipuha, and the murder of Father San Vitores and Pedro Calungsod by local rebel chief Matapang, tensions led to a number of conflicts. Captain Juan de Santiago started a campaign to conquer the island, which was continued by the successive commanders of the Spanish forces.[15]:68–74

After his arrival in 1674, Captain Damian de Esplana ordered the arrest of rebels who attacked the population of certain towns. Hostilities eventually led to the destruction of villages such as Chochogo, Pepura, Tumon, Sidia-Aty, Sagua, Nagan and Ninca.[15]:74–75 Starting in June 1676, the first Spanish Governor of Guam, Capt. Francisco de Irrisarri y Vinar, controlled internal affairs more strictly than his predecessors in order to curb tensions. He also ordered the construction of schools, roads and other infrastructure.[15]:75–76

In 1680, Captain Jose de Quiroga arrived and continued some of the development projects started by his predecessors. He also continued the search for the rebels who had assassinated Father San Vitores, resulting in campaigns against the rebels which were hiding out in some islands, eventually leading to the death of Matapang, Hurao and Aguarin.[15]:77–78 Quiroga brought some natives from the northern islands to Guam, ordering the population to live in a few large villages.[15]:78–79 These included Jinapsan, Umatac, Pago, Agat and Inarajan, where he built a number of churches.[15]:79 By July 1695, Quiroga had completed the conquest of Guam, Rota, Tinian and Aguigan.[15]:85

Expulsion of the Jesuits[edit]

The island of Guajan (Guam), detail from Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Islas Filipinas (1734)

On February 26, 1767, Charles III of Spain issued a decree confiscating the property of the Jesuits and banishing them from Spain and her possessions.[15]:101 As a consequence, the Jesuit fathers on Guam departed on November 2, 1769, on the schooner Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, abandoning their churches, rectories and ranches.[15]:102–103

The arrival of Governor Don Mariano Tobias, on September 15, 1771, brought agricultural reforms, including making land available to the islanders for cultivation, encouraged the development of cattle raising, imported deer and water buffalo from Manila, donkeys and mules from Acapulco, established cotton mills and salt pans, free public schools, and the first Guam militia.[15]:107–109 Later, he was transferred to Manila in June 1774.[15]:113

Post-Napoleonic era[edit]

Following the Napoleonic Wars, many Spanish colonies in the Western Hemisphere had become independent, shifting the economic dependence of Guam from Mexico to the Philippines.[15]:144 Don Francisco Ramon de Villalobos, who became governor in 1831, improved economic conditions including the promotion of rice cultivation and the establishment of a leper hospital.[15]:148–149

Otto von Kotzebue visited the island in November 1817,[15]:127 and Louis de Freycinet in March 1819.[15]:134 Jules Dumont d'Urville made two visits, the first in May 1828.[15]:139 The island became a rest stop for whalers starting in 1823.[15]:145

A devastating typhoon struck the island on August 10, 1848, followed by a severe earthquake on January 25, 1849, which resulted in many refugees from the Caroline Islands, victims of the resultant tsunami.[15]:151 After a smallpox epidemic killed 3,644 Guamanians in 1856, Carolinians and Japanese were permitted to settle in the Marianas.[15]:157 Guam received nineteen Filipino prisoners after their failed 1872 Cavite mutiny.[15]:160

American capture[edit]

Main street of Hagåtña, ca. 1899-1900

After almost four centuries as part of the Kingdom of Spain, the United States occupied the island following Spain's defeat in the 1898 Spanish–American War, as part of the Treaty of Paris of 1898. Guam was transferred to the United States Navy control on December 23, 1898, by Executive Order 108-A from 25th President William McKinley.

Guam came to serve as a station for American merchant and warships traveling to and from the Philippines (another American acquisition from Spain) while the Northern Mariana Islands were sold by Spain to Germany for part of its rapidly expanding German Empire. A U.S. Navy yard was established at Piti in 1899, and a United States Marine Corps barracks at Sumay in 1901.[17]:13

Following the Philippine–American War of 1899–1902, rebel nationalist leader Apolinario Mabini was exiled to Guam in 1901 after his capture.[18]:vi Following the German defeat in World War I, the Northern Mariana Islands became part of the South Seas Mandate, a League of Nations Mandate in 1919 with the nearby Empire of Japan as the mandatory ("trustee") as a member nation of the victorious Allies in the "Great War".[9]

A marine seaplane unit was stationed in Guam from 1921 to 1930, the first in the Pacific.[17]:13 Pan American World Airways established a seaplane base on the island for its trans-Pacific San Francisco-Manila-Hong Kong route, and the Commercial Pacific Cable Company had earlier built a telegraph/telephone station in 1903 for its trans-oceanic communication line.[17]:15

World War II[edit]

U.S. Marines walk through the ruins of Hagåtña, July 1944

During World War II, Guam was attacked and invaded by Japan on Monday, December 8, 1941, shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In addition, Japan made major military moves into Southeast Asia and the East Indies islands of the South Pacific Ocean against the British and Dutch colonies, opening a new wider Pacific phase in the Second World War. The Japanese renamed Guam Ōmiya-jima (Great Shrine Island).

The Northern Mariana Islands had become a League of Nations mandate assigned to Japan in 1919, pursuant to the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. Chamorros indigenous island people from the Northern Marianas were brought to Guam to serve as interpreters and in other capacities for the occupying Japanese force. The Guamanian Chamorros were treated as an occupied enemy by the Japanese military. After the war, this would cause resentment between the Guamanian Chamorros and the Chamorros of the Northern Marianas. Guam's Chamorros believed their northern brethren should have been compassionate towards them, whereas having been administered by Japan for over 30 years, the Northern Mariana Chamorros were loyal to the Japanese government.

The Japanese occupation of Guam lasted for approximately 31 months. During this period, the indigenous people of Guam were subjected to forced labor, family separation, incarceration, execution, concentration camps and forced prostitution. Approximately 1,000 people died during the occupation, according to later Congressional committee testimony in 2004. Some historians estimate that war violence killed 10% of Guam's then 20,000 population.[19]

The United States returned and fought the Battle of Guam from July 21 to August 10, 1944, to recapture the island from Japanese military occupation. More than 18,000 Japanese were killed as only 485 surrendered. Sergeant Shoichi Yokoi, who surrendered in January 1972, appears to have been the last confirmed Japanese holdout, having held out for 28 years in the forested back country on Guam.[20] The United States also captured and occupied the nearby Northern Marianas Islands.

North Field was established in 1944, and was renamed for Brigadier General James Roy Andersen of the old U.S. Army Air Forces as Andersen Air Force Base.

Post-war[edit]

After World War II, the Guam Organic Act of 1950 established Guam as an unincorporated organized territory of the United States, provided for the structure of the island's civilian government, and granted the people U.S. citizenship. The Governor of Guam was federally appointed until 1968, when the Guam Elective Governor Act provided for the office's popular election.[21]:242 Since Guam is not a U.S. state, U.S. citizens residing on Guam are not allowed to vote for president and their congressional representative is a non-voting member.[9] They do, however, get to vote for party delegates in presidential primaries.[22]

Vietnam War and later[edit]

B-52 at Andersen Air Force Base, during Operation Linebacker II in the Vietnam War, 1972

Andersen Air Force Base played a major role in the Vietnam War. The host unit was later designated the 36th Wing (36 WG), assigned to the Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) Thirteenth Air Force (13AF). In September 2012, 13 AF was deactivated and its functions merged into PACAF. The multinational Cope North military exercise is an annual event.[23]

Since 1974, about 124 historic sites in Guam have been recognized under the U.S. National Register of Historic Places. During the 1970s Dr. Maryly Van Leer Peck started an engineering program, expanded University of Guam and founded Guam Community College. Guam temporarily hosted 100,000 Vietnamese refugees in 1975, and 6,600 Kurdish refugees in 1996.[17]:17

On August 6, 1997, Guam was the site of the Korean Air Flight 801 aircraft accident. The Boeing 747–300 jetliner was preparing to land when it crashed into a hill, killing 228 of the 254 people on board.

In August 2017, North Korea warned that it might launch mid-range ballistic missiles into waters within 18 to 24 miles (29 to 39 km) of Guam, following an exchange of threats between the governments of North Korea and the United States.[24][25]

In 2018, a Government Accountability Office report stated that Agent Orange was used as a commercial herbicide in Guam during the Vietnam and Korean Wars.[26][27] An analysis of chemicals present in the island's soil, together with resolutions passed by Guam's legislature, suggest that Agent Orange was among the herbicides routinely used on and around military bases Anderson Air Force Base, Naval Air Station Agana, Guam. Despite the evidence, the Department of Defense continues to deny that Agent Orange was ever stored or used on Guam. Several Guam veterans have collected an enormous amount of evidence to assist in their disability claims for direct exposure to dioxin containing herbicides such as 2,4,5-T which are similar to the illness associations and disability coverage that has become standard for those who were harmed by the same chemical contaminant of Agent Orange used in Vietnam.[28][29]

Geography[edit]

Guam from space

Guam lies between 13.2° and 13.7°N and 144.6° and 145.0°E. It is 30 miles (50 kilometers) long and 4 to 12 miles (6 to 19 kilometers) wide, giving it an area of 212 square miles (549 square kilometers) (three-fourths the size of Singapore) and making it the 32nd largest island of the United States. It is the southernmost and largest island in the Marianas as well as the largest in Micronesia.[30] Guam's Point Udall is the westernpoint point of the U.S., as measured from the geographic center of the United States.[31][32]

The Mariana chain of which Guam is a part was created by collision of the Pacific and Philippine Sea tectonic plates. Guam is the closest land mass to the Mariana Trench, the deep subduction zone that runs east of the Marianas. Due to its location on the Mariana Plate just westward of where the Pacific Plate subducts the Mariana and the Philippine Sea Plates, Guam occasionally experiences earthquakes.[33] In recent years,[when?] most with epicenters near Guam have had magnitudes ranging from 5.0 to 8.7. Unlike Anatahan in the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam is not volcanically active, though vog (volcanic smog) from Anatahan affects it due to proximity.[34]

Guam's highest point is Mount Lamlam at 1,334 feet (407 meters) above sea level.[35] As the base of Mount Lamlam lies in the Mariana Trench, Mount Lamlam has a claim to be the world's highest mountain at 37,820 feet (11,530 m).[36][37] Challenger Deep, at 35,797 feet (10,911 meters) the deepest surveyed point in the Oceans, lies southwest of Guam.

A coral table reef surrounds most of Guam, and the limestone plateau provides the source for most of the island's fresh water. Steep coastal cliffs dominate the north, while mountains inform the topography of the island's southern end; lower hills typify the area in between.[1]

Climate[edit]

Guam has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen Af), though its driest month of March almost averages dry enough to qualify as a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen Am). The weather is generally hot and humid throughout the year with little seasonal temperature variation. Hence, Guam is known to have equable temperatures year-round. Trade winds are fairly constant throughout the year, but there is often a weak westerly monsoon influence in summer. Guam has two distinct seasons: Wet and dry season. The dry season runs from January through May and June being the transitional period. The wet season runs from July through November with an average annual rainfall between 1981 and 2010 of around 98 inches or 2,490 millimeters. The wettest month on record at Guam Airport has been August 1997 with 38.49 inches (977.6 mm) and the driest was February 2015 with 0.15 inches (3.8 mm). The wettest calendar year has been 1976 with 131.70 inches (3,345.2 mm) and the driest was in 1998 with 57.88 inches (1,470.2 mm). The most rainfall in a single day occurred on October 15, 1953, when 15.48 inches or 393.2 millimeters fell.

The mean high temperature is 86 °F or 30 °C and mean low is 76 °F (24.4 °C). Temperatures rarely exceed 90 °F (32.2 °C) or fall below 70 °F (21.1 °C). The relative humidity commonly exceeds 84 percent at night throughout the year, but the average monthly humidity hovers near 66 percent. The highest temperature ever recorded in Guam was 96 °F (35.6 °C) on April 18, 1971, and April 1, 1990.[38] The record low of 69 °F (21 °C) was set on February 1, 2021.[39]

Guam lies in the path of typhoons[40] and it is common for the island to be threatened by tropical storms and possible typhoons during the wet season. The highest risk of typhoons is from August through November, where typhoons and tropical storms are most probable in the western Pacific. They can, however, occur year-round. The most powerful typhoon to pass over Guam recently was Super Typhoon Pongsona, with sustained winds of 144 miles per hour (232 km/h), gusts to 173 miles per hour (278 km/h), which struck Guam on December 8, 2002, leaving massive destruction.

Since Typhoon Pamela in 1976, wooden structures have been largely replaced by concrete structures.[41][42] During the 1980s, wooden utility poles began to be replaced by typhoon-resistant concrete and steel poles. After the local Government enforced stricter construction codes, many home and business owners built their structures out of reinforced concrete with installed typhoon shutters.

Climate data for Guam (Guam International Airport) (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 94
(34)
93
(34)
93
(34)
96
(36)
94
(34)
95
(35)
95
(35)
94
(34)
93
(34)
93
(34)
92
(33)
91
(33)
96
(36)
Average high °F (°C) 84.9
(29.4)
84.9
(29.4)
85.8
(29.9)
87.3
(30.7)
87.9
(31.1)
87.9
(31.1)
87.1
(30.6)
86.5
(30.3)
86.7
(30.4)
86.8
(30.4)
86.5
(30.3)
85.6
(29.8)
86.5
(30.3)
Daily mean °F (°C) 80.2
(26.8)
79.9
(26.6)
80.7
(27.1)
81.9
(27.7)
82.6
(28.1)
82.6
(28.1)
81.9
(27.7)
81.4
(27.4)
81.4
(27.4)
81.7
(27.6)
81.8
(27.7)
81.2
(27.3)
81.4
(27.4)
Average low °F (°C) 75.5
(24.2)
75.0
(23.9)
75.6
(24.2)
76.5
(24.7)
77.2
(25.1)
77.4
(25.2)
76.6
(24.8)
76.3
(24.6)
76.2
(24.6)
76.5
(24.7)
77.2
(25.1)
76.8
(24.9)
76.4
(24.7)
Record low °F (°C) 66
(19)
65
(18)
66
(19)
68
(20)
70
(21)
70
(21)
70
(21)
70
(21)
70
(21)
67
(19)
68
(20)
68
(20)
65
(18)
Average rainfall inches (mm) 4.96
(126)
4.53
(115)
2.77
(70)
3.58
(91)
4.30
(109)
7.09
(180)
12.14
(308)
17.15
(436)
14.17
(360)
11.80
(300)
9.17
(233)
5.98
(152)
97.64
(2,480)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 18.8 15.7 16.8 17.0 19.3 22.6 24.7 25.3 24.3 25.1 23.4 22.1 255.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 176.7 186.0 217.0 213.0 220.1 195.0 155.0 142.6 132.0 133.3 135.0 142.6 2,048.3
Source 1: NOAA (normals)[43]
Source 2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only 1961–1990)[44]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
191011,806
192013,27512.4%
193018,50939.4%
194022,29020.4%
195059,498166.9%
196067,04412.7%
197084,99626.8%
1980105,97924.7%
1990133,15225.6%
2000154,80516.3%
2010159,3582.9%
2021 (est.)168,8015.9%

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the 2010 United States Census, the largest ethnic group are the native Chamorros, accounting for 37.3% of the total population. Asians (including Filipinos, Koreans, Chinese, and Japanese) accounts for 33% of the total population. Other Pacific island ethnic groups (including those of Chuukese, Palauan, and Pohnpeians) accounts for 10% of the total population. 9.4% are of multiracial (two or more races). White Americans account for 7.1% of the total population. The estimated interracial marriage rate is over 40%.[1]

Language[edit]

The official languages of the island are English and Chamorro. Filipino is also a common language across the island. Other Pacific island languages and many Asian languages are spoken in Guam as well. Spanish, the language of administration for 300 years, is no longer commonly spoken on the island, although vestiges of the language remain in proper names, loanwords, and place names and it is studied at university and high schools.

Religion[edit]

The most common religion is Catholicism. According to the Pew Research Center, the religious denominations constitute of the following, in 2010:[2][incomplete short citation]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints reported 2,550 members[45] in 5 congregations[46] as of December 31, 2019.[47] On May 4, 2019, The church broke ground for a temple in Yigo. [48]

Culture[edit]

Post-European-contact Chamorro Guamanian culture is a combination of American, Spanish, Filipino, other Micronesian Islander and Mexican traditions. Few indigenous pre-Hispanic customs remained following Spanish contact. Hispanic influences are manifested in the local language, music, dance, sea navigation, cuisine, fishing, games (such as batu, chonka, estuleks, and bayogu), songs, and fashion.

During Spanish rule (1668–1898) the majority of the population was converted to Roman Catholicism and religious festivities such as Easter and Christmas became widespread. Post-contact Chamorro cuisine is largely based on corn, and includes tortillas, tamales, atole, and chilaquiles, which are a clear influence from Mesoamerica, principally Mexico, from Spanish trade with Asia.

The modern Chamorro language has many historical parallels to modern Philippine languages in that it is an Austronesian language which has absorbed much Spanish vocabulary. The language lies within the Malayo-Polynesian languages subgroup, along with such languages as Tagalog, Indonesian, Hawaiian, and Maori. Unlike most other languages of the Pacific Islands, Chamorro does belong to the Oceanic subgroup of the Austronesian languages.

Chamorro performers

As with Filipinos, many Chamorros have Spanish surnames, although also like most Filipinos few of the inhabitants are themselves descended from the Spaniards. Instead, Spanish names and surnames became commonplace after their conversion to Roman Catholic Christianity and the historical event of the imposition of the Catálogo alfabético de apellidos in Guam and other territories of the Spanish East Indies, most notably the Philippines.

Due to foreign cultural influence from Spain, most aspects of the early indigenous culture have been lost, though there has been a resurgence in preserving any remaining pre-Hispanic culture in the last few decades. Some scholars have traveled throughout the Pacific Islands conducting research to study what the original Chamorro cultural practices such as dance, language, and canoe building may have been like.

Two aspects of indigenous pre-Hispanic culture that withstood time are chenchule' and inafa'maolek. Chenchule' is the intricate system of reciprocity at the heart of Chamorro society. It is rooted in the core value of inafa'maolek. Historian Lawrence Cunningham in 1992 wrote, "In a Chamorro sense, the land and its produce belong to everyone. Inafa'maolek, or interdependence, is the key, or central value, in Chamorro culture ... Inafa'maolek depends on a spirit of cooperation and sharing. This is the armature, or core, that everything in Chamorro culture revolves around. It is a powerful concern for mutuality rather than individualism and private property rights."

The core culture or Pengngan Chamorro is based on complex social protocol centered upon respect: from sniffing over the hands of the elders (called mangnginge in Chamorro), the passing down of legends, chants, and courtship rituals, to a person asking for permission from spiritual ancestors before entering a jungle or ancient battle grounds. Other practices predating Spanish conquest include galaide' canoe-making, making of the belembaotuyan (a string musical instrument made from a gourd), fashioning of åcho' atupat slings and slingstones, tool manufacture, Måtan Guma' burial rituals, and preparation of herbal medicines by Suruhanu.

Master craftsmen and women specialize in weavings, including plaited work (niyok- and åkgak-leaf baskets, mats, bags, hats, and food containments), loom-woven material (kalachucha-hibiscus and banana fiber skirts, belts and burial shrouds), and body ornamentation (bead and shell necklaces, bracelets, earrings, belts, and combs made from tortoise shells and Spondylus).

While only a few masters exist to continue traditional art forms, the resurgence of interest among the Chamorros to preserve the language and culture has resulted in a growing number of young Chamorros who seek to continue the ancient ways of the Chamorro people.

Sports[edit]

Guam's most popular sport is American football, followed by basketball and baseball respectively. Soccer and other sports are also somewhat popular.[49]

Guam hosted the Pacific Games in 1975 and 1999. At the 2007 Games, Guam finished 7th of 22 countries and 14th at the 2011 Games.

The Guam men's national basketball team and also the Guam women's national basketball team are traditionally one of the top teams in the Oceania region behind the Australia men's national basketball team and the New Zealand national basketball team. As of 2015, it is the reigning champion of the Pacific Games Basketball Tournament. Guam is home to various basketball organizations, including the Guam Basketball Association.[50][51]

The Guam national football team was founded in 1975 and joined FIFA in 1996. Guam was once considered one of FIFA's weakest teams, and experienced their first victory over a FIFA-registered side in 2009, when they defeated Mongolia in the East Asian Cup.

The national team plays at the Guam National Football Stadium and are known as the "matao" team. Matao is the definition of highest level or "noble" class. The team did exceptionally well under former head coach Gary White. As of 2017, the Matao is led by Karl Dodd, the current head coach. The top football division in Guam is the Guam Men's Soccer League. Rovers FC and Guam Shipyard are the league's most competitive and successful clubs, both have won nine championships in the past years. Guam entered the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualification Group D. Guam hosted qualifying games on the island for the first time in 2015. During the qualifying round, Guam clinched their first FIFA World Cup Qualifying win by defeating the Turkmenistan national football team. Since then, the team has experienced moderate success in the qualifying round with a record of 2–1–1.[52]

Guam is represented in rugby union by the Guam national rugby union team. The team has never qualified for a Rugby World Cup. Guam played their first match in 2005, an 8–8 draw with the India national rugby union team. Guam's biggest win was a 74–0 defeat of the Brunei national rugby union team in June 2008.

Economy[edit]

Beaches at the tourist center of Tumon

Guam's economy depends primarily on tourism, Department of Defense installations and locally owned businesses. Under the provisions of a special law by Congress, it is Guam's treasury rather than the U.S. treasury that receives the federal income taxes paid by local taxpayers (including military and civilian federal employees assigned to Guam).[53]

Tourism[edit]

Lying in the western Pacific, Guam is a popular destination for Japanese tourists. Its tourist hub, Tumon, features over 20 large hotels, a Duty Free Shoppers Galleria, Pleasure Island district, indoor aquarium, Sandcastle Las Vegas–styled shows and other shopping and entertainment venues. It is a relatively short flight from Asia or Australia compared to Hawaii, with hotels and seven public golf courses accommodating over a million tourists per year. Although 75% of the tourists are Japanese, Guam also receives a sizable number of tourists from South Korea and the United States.[54] Significant sources of revenue include duty-free designer shopping outlets, and the American-style malls: Micronesia Mall, Guam Premier Outlets, the Agana Shopping Center, and the world's largest Kmart.[55]

Terminal at Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport. The airport hosts a hub of United Airlines, Guam's largest private-sector employer.

The economy had been stable since 2000 due to increased tourism. It was expected to stabilize with the transfer of U.S. Marine Corps' 3rd Marine Expeditionary Force, currently in Okinawa, Japan, (approximately 8,000 Marines, along with their 10,000 dependents), to Guam between 2010 and 2015. However, the move was delayed until late 2020, the number of marines decreased to 5,000, and expected to be complete in 2025.[56] In 2003, Guam had a 14% unemployment rate, and the government suffered a $314 million shortfall.[57] As of 2019 the unemployment rate had dropped to 6.1%. By September 2020, however, the unemployment rate had risen again to 17.9%.[58]

The Compacts of Free Association between the United States, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau accorded the former entities of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands a political status of "free association" with the United States. The Compacts give citizens of these island nations generally no restrictions to reside in the United States (also its territories), and many were attracted to Guam due to its proximity, environmental, and cultural familiarity. Over the years, it was claimed by some in Guam that the territory has had to bear the brunt of this agreement in the form of public assistance programs and public education for those from the regions involved, and the federal government should compensate the states and territories affected by this type of migration. Over the years, Congress had appropriated "Compact Impact" aids to Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Hawaii, and eventually this appropriation was written into each renewed Compact. Some, however, continue to claim the compensation is not enough or that the distribution of actual compensation received is significantly disproportionate.[57]

As of 2008 Guam's largest single private sector employer, with about 1,400 jobs, was Continental Micronesia, a subsidiary of Continental Airlines;[59] it is now a part of United Airlines, a subsidiary of Chicago-based United Airlines Holdings, Inc.[60] As of 2008 the Continental Micronesia annual payroll in Guam was $90 million.[61]

Telecommunications[edit]

In 2012 Michael Calabrese, Daniel Calarco, and Colin Richardson of Slate stated that the island has "tremendous bandwidth" and internet prices comparable to those of the U.S. Mainland due to being at the junction of undersea cables.[62]

Government and politics[edit]

Incumbent governor Lou Leon Guerrero

Guam is governed by a popularly elected governor and a unicameral 15-member legislature, whose members are known as senators. Its judiciary is overseen by the Supreme Court of Guam.

The District Court of Guam is the court of United States federal jurisdiction in the territory. Guam elects one delegate to the United States House of Representatives, currently Democrat Michael San Nicolas. The delegate does not have a vote on the final passage of legislation, but is accorded a vote in committee, and the privilege to speak to the House. U.S. citizens in Guam vote in a presidential straw poll for their choice in the U.S. presidential general election, but since Guam has no votes in the Electoral College, the poll has no real effect. However, in sending delegates to the Republican and Democratic national conventions, Guam does have influence in the national presidential race. These delegates are elected by local party conventions.[9]

Political status[edit]

In the 1980s and early 1990s, there was a significant movement in favor of this U.S. territory becoming a commonwealth, which would give it a level of self-government similar to Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands.[53] In a 1982 plebiscite, voters indicated interest in seeking commonwealth status.[63] However, the federal government rejected the version of a commonwealth that the government of Guam proposed, because its clauses were incompatible with the Territorial Clause (Art. IV, Sec. 3, cl. 2) of the U.S. Constitution. Other movements advocate U.S. statehood for Guam, union with the state of Hawaii, or union with the Northern Mariana Islands as a single territory, or independence.[64]

A Commission on Decolonization was established in 1997 to educate the people of Guam about the various political status options in its relationship with the U.S.: statehood, free association and independence. The island has been considering another non-binding plebiscite on decolonization since 1998, however, the group was dormant for some years. In 2013, the commission began seeking funding to start a public education campaign. There were few subsequent developments until late 2016. In early December 2016, the Commission scheduled a series of education sessions in various villages about the current status of Guam's relationship with the U.S. and the self-determination options that might be considered.[65] The commission's current Executive Director is Edward Alvarez and there are ten members. The group is also expected to release position papers on independence and statehood but the contents have not yet been completed.[64]

The United Nations is in favor of greater self-determination for Guam and other such territories. The UN's Special Committee on Decolonization has agreed to endorse the Governor's education plan. The commission's May 2016 report states: "With academics from the University of Guam, [the Commission] was working to create and approve educational materials. The Office of the Governor was collaborating closely with the Commission" in developing educational materials for the public.[66]

The United States Department of the Interior had approved a $300,000 grant for decolonization education, Edward Alvarez told the United Nations Pacific Regional Seminar in May 2016. "We are hopeful that this might indicate a shift in [United States] policy to its Non-Self-Governing Territories such as Guam, where they will be more willing to engage in discussions about our future and offer true support to help push us towards true self-governances and self-determination."[67]

On July 31, 2020, the Government of Guam joined the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO).[68][69]

Villages[edit]

Drawing of Umatac in 1846

Guam is divided into 19 municipal villages:

Military bases[edit]

The aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) enters Apra Harbor for a scheduled port visit

Currently, Joint Region Marianas maintains jurisdiction over installations which cover approximately 39,000 acres (16,000 ha), or 29% of the island's total land area. These include:

The U.S. military has proposed building a new aircraft carrier berth on Guam and moving 8,600 Marines, and 9,000 of their dependents, to Guam from Okinawa, Japan. Including the required construction workers, this buildup would increase Guam's population by a total of 79,000, a 49% increase over its 2010 population of 160,000. In a February 2010 letter, the United States Environmental Protection Agency sharply criticized these plans because of a water shortfall, sewage problems and the impact on coral reefs.[70] By 2012, these plans had been cut to have only a maximum of 4,800 Marines stationed on the island, two thirds of whom would be there on a rotational basis without their dependents.[71]

Transportation and communications[edit]

Guam Highway 8 route marker

Most of the island has state-of-the-art mobile phone services and high-speed internet widely available through either cable or DSL. Guam was added to the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) in 1997 (country code 671 became NANP area code 671),[72] removing the barrier of high-cost international long-distance calls to the U.S. mainland.

Guam is also a major hub for submarine cables between the Western U.S., Hawaii, Australia and Asia. Guam currently serves twelve submarine cables, with most continuing to China.

In 1899, the local postage stamps were overprinted "Guam" as was done for the other former Spanish colonies, but this was discontinued shortly thereafter and regular U.S. postage stamps have been used ever since. Because Guam is also part of the U.S. Postal System (postal abbreviation: GU, ZIP code range: 96910–96932), mail to Guam from the U.S. mainland is considered domestic and no additional charges are required. Private shipping companies, such as FedEx, UPS, and DHL, however, have no obligation to do so, and do not regard Guam as domestic.

The speed of mail traveling between Guam and the states varies depending on size and time of year. Light, first-class items generally take less than a week to or from the mainland, but larger first-class or Priority items can take a week or two. Fourth-class mail, such as magazines, are transported by sea after reaching Hawaii. Most residents use post office boxes or private mail boxes, although residential delivery is becoming increasingly available. Incoming mail not from the Americas should be addressed to "Guam" instead of "USA" to avoid being routed the long way through the U.S. mainland and possibly charged a higher rate (especially from Asia).

Construction at the Port of Guam, 2014

The Port of Guam is the island's lifeline because most products must be shipped into Guam for consumers. It receives the weekly calls of the Hawaii-based shipping line Matson, Inc. whose container ships connect Guam with Honolulu, Hawaii, Los Angeles, California, Oakland, California and Seattle, Washington. The port is also the regional transhipment hub for over 500,000 customers throughout the Micronesian region. The port is the shipping and receiving point for containers designated for the island's U.S. Department of Defense installations, Andersen Air Force Base and Commander, Naval Forces Marianas and eventually the Third Marine Expeditionary Force.

Guam is served by the Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport. The island is outside the United States customs zone,[73] so Guam is responsible for establishing and operating its own customs and quarantine agency and jurisdiction.[74][75][76][77] Therefore, the U.S. Customs and Border Protection only carries out immigration (but not customs) functions. Since Guam is under federal immigration jurisdiction, passengers arriving directly from the United States skip immigration and proceed directly to Guam Customs and Quarantine.

However, due to the Guam and CNMI visa waiver program for certain countries, an eligibility pre-clearance check is carried on Guam for flights to the States. For travel from the Northern Mariana Islands to Guam, a pre-flight passport and visa check is performed before boarding the flight to Guam. On flights from Guam to the Northern Mariana Islands, no immigration check is performed. Traveling between Guam and the States through a foreign point, however, does require a passport.

Most residents travel within Guam using personally owned vehicles. The local government currently outsources the only public bus system (Guam Regional Transit Authority), and some commercial companies operate buses between tourist-frequented locations.

Ecology[edit]

Invasive species[edit]

Guam has experienced severe impacts from invasive species upon the natural biodiversity of the island. These include the local extinction of endemic bird species after the introduction of the brown tree snake, an infestation of the Asiatic rhinoceros beetle destroying coconut palms, and the effect of introduced feral mammals and amphibians.

Wildfires[edit]

Wildfires plague the forested areas of Guam every dry season despite the island's humid climate. Most fires are caused by humans with 80% resulting from arson.[78] Poachers often start fires to attract deer to the new growth. Invasive grass species that rely on fire as part of their natural life cycle grow in many regularly burned areas. Grasslands and "barrens" have replaced previously forested areas leading to greater soil erosion. During the rainy season, sediment is carried by the heavy rains into the Fena Lake Reservoir and Ugum River, leading to water quality problems for southern Guam. Eroded silt also destroys the marine life in reefs around the island. Soil stabilization efforts by volunteers and forestry workers (planting trees) have had little success in preserving natural habitats.[79]

Aquatic preserves[edit]

Having previously experienced extensive dredging, Tumon Bay is now a marine wildlife preserve.

Efforts have been made to protect Guam's coral reef habitats from pollution, eroded silt and overfishing, problems that have led to decreased fish populations. This has both ecological and economic value, as Guam is a significant vacation spot for scuba divers. In recent years, the Department of Agriculture, Division of Aquatic and Wildlife Resources has established several new marine preserves where fish populations are monitored by biologists.[80] These are located at Pati Point, Piti Bomb Holes, Sasa Bay, Achang Reef Flat, and Tumon Bay.[81] Before adopting U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards, portions of Tumon Bay were dredged by the hotel chains to provide a better experience for hotel guests.[82][83] Tumon Bay has since been made into a preserve. A federal Guam National Wildlife Refuge in northern Guam protects the decimated sea turtle population in addition to a small colony of Mariana fruit bats.[84]

Harvest of sea turtle eggs was a common occurrence on Guam before World War II. The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) was harvested legally on Guam before August 1978, when it was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) has been on the endangered list since 1970. In an effort to ensure protection of sea turtles on Guam, routine sightings are counted during aerial surveys and nest sites are recorded and monitored for hatchlings.

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Library at the University of Guam

The University of Guam (UOG) and Guam Community College, both fully accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, offer courses in higher education.[85] UOG is a member of the exclusive group of only 106 land-grant institutions in the entire United States. Pacific Islands University is a small Christian liberal arts institution nationally accredited by the Transnational Association of Christian Colleges and Schools. They offer courses at both the undergraduate and graduate levels.

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

The Guam Department of Education serves the entire island of Guam. In 2000, 32,000 students attended Guam's public schools, including 26 elementary schools, eight middle schools, and six high schools and alternative schools. Guam Public Schools have struggled with problems such as high dropout rates and poor test scores.[86][87] Guam's educational system has always faced unique challenges as a small community located 6,000 miles (9,700 km) from the U.S. mainland with a very diverse student body including many students who come from backgrounds without traditional American education.[88] An economic downturn in Guam since the mid-1990s has compounded the problems in schools.[89]

Before September 1997, the U.S. Department of Defense partnered with Guam Board of Education.[90] In September 1997, the DoDEA opened its own schools for children of military personnel.[91] DoDEA schools, which also serve children of some federal civilian employees, had an attendance of 2,500 in 2000. DoDEA Guam operates three elementary/middle schools and one high school.[92]

Public libraries[edit]

The Umatac Outdoor Library, built in 1933, was the first library in southern Guam

Guam Public Library System operates the Nieves M. Flores Memorial Library in Hagåtña and five branch libraries.[93]

Health care[edit]

The Government of Guam maintains the island's main health care facility, Guam Memorial Hospital, in Tamuning.[94] U.S. board certified doctors and dentists practice in all specialties. In addition, the U.S. Naval Hospital in Agana Heights serves active-duty members and dependents of the military community.[95] There is one subscriber-based air ambulance located on the island, CareJet, which provides emergency patient transportation across Guam and surrounding islands.[96] A private hospital, the Guam Regional Medical City, opened its doors in early 2016.[97]

Film-making[edit]

Over the years, a number of films have been shot on Guam, including Shiro's Head (directed by the Muna brothers) and the government-funded Max Havoc: Curse of the Dragon (2004). Although set on Guam, No Man Is an Island (1962) was not shot there, but instead shot in the Philippines. Likewise, in the 2015 film Pixels, the scene of the first alien attack takes place at Andersen AFB.[98] More recently, a 2020 Netflix film Operation Christmas Drop was also shot on Guam. It is one of the first movies filmed in Guam to receive wide recognition.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Australia-Oceania :: Guam (Territory of the US)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Guam". Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
  3. ^ "U.S. Territories". DOI Office of Insular Affairs. Archived from the original on February 9, 2007. Retrieved February 9, 2007.
  4. ^ "Definitions of Insular Area Political Organizations". U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2007. Office of Insular Affairs. Retrieved October 31, 2008.
  5. ^ War Restitution Act : hearing before the Subcommittee on Insular and International Affairs of the Co...|National Library of Australia Archived April 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Catalogue.nla.gov.au (September 20, 1994). Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  6. ^ "Statement of David B. Cohen Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Insular Affairs Before the House Committee on Resources Regarding the Report of the Guam War Claims Review Commission|July 21, 2004 Archived January 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine." Office of Insular Affairs. Retrieved September 19, 2012.
  7. ^ Higuchi, Wakako (2001). "The Japanisation Policy for the Chamorros of Guam, 1941–1944" (PDF). The Journal of Pacific History. 36 (1): 19–35. doi:10.1080/00223340120049424. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 20, 2013.
  8. ^ "Guam police arrest suspect in memorial theft". Marine Corps Times. Associated Press. July 7, 2007. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved April 5, 2010.
  9. ^ a b c d e Rogers, Robert F. (1995). Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-1678-0.
  10. ^ Mack, Doug (2017). The Not-Quite States of America: Dispatches From the Territories and Other Far-Flung Outposts of the USA. W.W. Norton. p. 114. ISBN 9780393247602.
  11. ^ Grabowski, John F. (1992). U.S. Territories and Possessions (State Report Series). Chelsea House. p. 39. ISBN 9780791010532.
  12. ^ "Non-Self-Governing Territories – Official U.N. Website". Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  13. ^ Hung, Hsiao-chun; Carson, Mike T.; Bellwood, Peter; Campos, Fredeliza Z.; Piper, Philip J.; Dizon, Eusebio; Bolunia, Mary Jane Louise A.; Oxenham, Marc; Chi, Zhang (2015). "The first settlement of Remote Oceania: the Philippines to the Marianas". Antiquity. 85 (329): 909–926. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00068393.
  14. ^ Zotomayor, Alexie Villegas (March 12, 2013). "Archaeologists say migration to Marianas longest ocean-crossing in human history". Marianas Variety News and Views: 2. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Carano, Paul; Sanchez, Pedro C. (1964). A Complete History of Guam. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company. OCLC 414965.
  16. ^ a b Nowell, Charles E. (1962). Magellan's voyage around the world; three contemporary accounts. Evanston: Northwestern University Press. OCLC 347382. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2019.
  17. ^ a b c d Rottman, G. (2004) Guam 1941 & 1944: Loss and Reconquest. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84176-811-3
  18. ^ Mabini, A., 1969, The Philippine Revolution, Republic of the Philippines, Dept. of Education, National Historical Commission
  19. ^ Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Archived January 1, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Transaction Publishers, 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8
  20. ^ Kristofferson, Nicholas D. (September 26, 1997). "Shoichi Yokoi, 82, Is Dead; Japan Soldier Hid 27 Years". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009.
  21. ^ Rogers, Robert F. (1995). Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  22. ^ Curry, Tom (May 28, 2008). "Nominating, but not voting for president: Clinton-Obama struggle spotlights Guam, American Samoa, Puerto Rico". NBC News. Archived from the original on August 15, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  23. ^ US, Japan, Australia to hold Cope North 2017 February 9, 2017 Guam Post Retrieved March 27, 2017.
  24. ^ Horton, Alex (August 9, 2017). "Why North Korea threatened Guam, the tiny U.S. territory with big military power". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 10, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
  25. ^ Daniels, Jeff (August 10, 2017). "North Korea's missile threat to Guam crafted for 'maximum drama,' says former CIA analyst". CNBC News. Archived from the original on August 11, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
  26. ^ O'Connor, John (November 17, 2018). "GAO: Agent Orange components used on Guam". The Guam Daily Post. Archived from the original on November 1, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  27. ^ Mithcell, Jon (August 7, 2012). "Poisons in the Pacific: Guam, Okinawa and Agent Orange". The Japan Times. Archived from the original on November 1, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  28. ^ Dimond, Diane (September 25, 2013). "Were Vets Who Served in Guam Exposed to Agent Orange and Denied Benefits?". The Hero Project. The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  29. ^ Eugenio, Haidee V (March 13, 2019). "US bill seeks help for 52,000 exposed to herbicides like Agent Orange on Guam, other islands". Pacific Daily News. Archived from the original on March 14, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  30. ^ "Education Resources: Regional Information, Guam| PacIOOS". Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS). Retrieved March 16, 2021.
  31. ^ "The Most Extreme Points of the United States". WorldAtlas. May 28, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
  32. ^ "Congressional Record - Proceedings and Debates of the 106th Congress, First Session - House of Representatives (Vol. 145, No. 34)" (PDF). govinfo.gov. March 4, 1999. p. H982. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
  33. ^ Mueller, Charles S.; et al. "Seismic Hazard Assessment for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands" (PDF). U. S. Geological Survey. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 23, 2018. Retrieved September 23, 2018.
  34. ^ "Home page of the Anahatan volcano". USGS-CNMI, November 8, 2007. Retrieved November 8, 2007 from "Home page of Anatahan Volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands". Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved November 8, 2007..
  35. ^ "Geography of Guam". Official site of Guam, April 19, 2014. Retrieved April 19, 2014, from "Guam's Geography". Archived from the original on October 27, 1996. Retrieved May 2, 2016..
  36. ^ McMahon, Mary (January 23, 2021). "How do Scientists Determine the World's Tallest Mountain?". Info Bloom. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
  37. ^ Fichtl, Marcus (August 31, 2017). "Guam's Mount Lamlam technically world's tallest mountain, though most of it is underwater". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
  38. ^ "Climatological Report". National Weather Service. February 26, 2014. Archived from the original on March 7, 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
  39. ^ Lloyd, Bruce (February 1, 2021). "Guam sets a 71-year record for cold temperature on Saturday". Pacific Daily News. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
  40. ^ "National Weather Service Dedicated Forecast Office in Typhoon Alley". US NOAA NWS. April 27, 2000. Archived from the original on January 7, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  41. ^ "Guam Catastrophe Model". Risk Management Solutions. Archived from the original on February 7, 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2007.
  42. ^ "Winds". PacificWorlds.com. Archived from the original on August 27, 2007. Retrieved June 16, 2007.
  43. ^ "NOWData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on July 8, 2015. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  44. ^ "Climatological Information for Guam, Pacific Islands, United States". Hong Kong Observatory. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  45. ^ This number includes all baptized members including those no longer attending.
  46. ^ LDS Meetinghouse Locator.Nearby Congregations (Wards and Branches).
  47. ^ "Facts and Statistics: Statistics by Country: Northern Mariana Islands", Newsroom, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, retrieved January 15, 2021
  48. ^ Yigo Guam Temple, churchofjesuschristtemples.org, retrieved January 22, 2021
  49. ^ Robert Balajadia (January 10, 2014). "GUAM'S FAVORITE PRO TEAMS". Guam Sports Network. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  50. ^ "GBA: Bombers hold off MVP for season 3 title". Archived from the original on July 17, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
  51. ^ Tomas, Jojo Santo (April 9, 2020). "Samoa Pacific Games: Guam basketball teams notch wins". Pacific Daily News. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  52. ^ FIFA.com. "2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™ - Qualifiers - Asia - FIFA.com". FIFA.com. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
  53. ^ a b Lin, Tom C.W., Americans, Almost and Forgotten Archived September 21, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, 107 California Law Review (2019)
  54. ^ "Guam Visitors Bureau Tourist Statistics". Archived from the original on August 27, 2007. Retrieved August 27, 2007.. visitguam.org
  55. ^ Jordan, Mary; Sullivan, Kevin (January 2, 1999). "KMART IS AN EASY SELL ON GUAM". Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 14, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2017.
  56. ^ "IIIMEF Move". Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  57. ^ a b "2004 Guam Yearbook" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2005. Retrieved July 19, 2007.
  58. ^ "Guam BLS". Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  59. ^ Kerrigan, Kevin. "Guam Will Be The Pacific Hub for Merged Airlines". Archived from the original on May 11, 2010. Retrieved August 20, 2016.. Pacific News Center (May 5, 2010). Retrieved October 5, 2010. "Continental Micronesia is Guam's single largest employer. About 1400 jobs here on dependent on the airline."
  60. ^ "Company Information Archived November 29, 2012, at WebCite." (Archive) United Continental Holdings. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
  61. ^ Blair, Chad (May 30, 2008). "'Air Mike' a rare bright spot in local aviation". Pacific Business News. Archived from the original on June 17, 2008.
  62. ^ Calabrese, Michael; Daniel Calarco; Colin Richardson (May 24, 2012). "The Most Expensive Internet in America". Slate. Archived from the original on December 18, 2019. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  63. ^ Natividad, Lisalinda (May 30, 2012). "Statement of the Non-Self Governing Territory of Guam to the Pacific Regional Seminar on the implementation of the third decade for the eradication of colonialism: current realities and prospects in Quito, Ecuador" (PDF). United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved February 21, 2019.
  64. ^ a b "Commission on Decolonization 2014". Guampedia. Guampedia. December 3, 2016. Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  65. ^ Raymundo, Shawn (December 8, 2016). "Commission to launch series of decolonization meetings". Pacific Daily News. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  66. ^ "Secretary-General Urges Concrete Action to Advance Decolonization Agenda as Pacific Regional Seminar Convenes". United Nations. United Nations. May 31, 2016. Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017. "Let us seize this opportunity to identify concrete actions to advance the decolonization agenda," Mr. Ban said ... according to the United Nations Charter and relevant General Assembly resolutions, a full measure of self-government could be achieved through independence, integration or free association with another State. The choice should be the result of the freely expressed will and desire of the peoples of the Non-Self-Governing Territories.
  67. ^ "Secretary-General Urges Concrete Action to Advance Decolonization Agenda as Pacific Regional Seminar Convenes". United Nations. United Nations. May 31, 2016. Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
  68. ^ "UNPO Welcomes 5 New Members!". unpo.org. August 3, 2020. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  69. ^ "Guam: Territory to be Inducted into UNPO". unpo.org. July 31, 2020. Archived from the original on August 9, 2020. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  70. ^ McAvoy, Audrey (February 25, 2010). "EPA sharply criticizes military's Guam plan". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
  71. ^ Parrish, Karen (July 20, 2012). "Carter: Guam Central to Asia-Pacific Strategy." Archived September 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine American Forces Press Service.
  72. ^ J. N. Deak (August 5, 1996). "PL-NANP-004" (PDF). North American Numbering Plan Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
  73. ^ 19 U.S.C. § 1401(h) Archived July 31, 2018, at the Wayback Machine .
  74. ^ 19 C.F.R. § 7.2(b) (2018) Archived July 31, 2018, at the Wayback Machine .
  75. ^ "People of Territory of Guam v. Sugiyama, 846 F. 2d 570 – Court of Appeals, 9th Circuit 1988 – Google Scholar". Archived from the original on September 21, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  76. ^ "People of Territory of Guam v. SUGIYAMA, 859 F. 2d 1428 – Court of Appeals, 9th Circuit 1988 – Google Scholar". Archived from the original on September 21, 2020. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  77. ^ 5 Guam Code Ann. § 73126 (2005) Archived April 12, 2019, at the Wayback Machine .
  78. ^ "Territory of Guam Fire Assessment January 2004" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 24, 2009. Retrieved March 24, 2009., pp. 6–7, guamforestry.org
  79. ^ National Park Service. "Fire and Guam". United States Department of the Interior. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007. Retrieved June 16, 2007.
  80. ^ Brown, Valerie. "Guam's Marine Preserves". Pacific Daily News. Retrieved June 16, 2007.
  81. ^ "Sea Life". Guam Visitors Bureau. Archived from the original on May 31, 2020. Retrieved May 20, 2020.
  82. ^ "Management of Contaminated Harbor Sediments in Guam" (PDF). EPA Guam Report. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 8, 2007.
  83. ^ Packbier, Paul E.R. "Tumon Bay – Engineering a Better Environment". Directions Magazine; June/July 1996. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
  84. ^ Holmes III, Rolston (2001). "Environmental Ethics in Micronesia, Past and Present, Part II—Guam Today: Still "on the Edge." Colonial Legacy and American Presence". International Society for Environmental Ethics Newsletter. 12 (3). Archived from the original on June 9, 2007. Retrieved June 16, 2007.
  85. ^ "Politics Trumps Performance in Guam School System". Pacific Islands Report. June 15, 2006. Archived from the original on October 6, 2007. Retrieved June 16, 2007.
  86. ^ "Merrow Report: First to Worst". Archived from the original on August 10, 2007. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
  87. ^ "State Comparisons". 1996. Archived from the original on July 13, 2007. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
  88. ^ Grace, Ted; Teresita Salos (1966). "Guam's Education Marches On". Peabody Journal of Education. 44 (1): 37–39. doi:10.1080/01619566609537383.
  89. ^ "An act to establish a guam parental school choice program". 1999. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
  90. ^ "Rats, other problems face Guam schools Archived January 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine." Pacific Stars and Stripes. October 3, 1993.
  91. ^ Guam School to Be Renamed in Honor of NASA Astronaut William McCool|SpaceRef – Your Space Reference. SpaceRef (August 21, 2003). Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  92. ^ "District and School Contact Information". pac.dodea.edu. Archived from the original on May 9, 2006. Retrieved May 10, 2006.
  93. ^ "Guam Public Library System – A Report To Our Citizens" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on September 18, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2008.
  94. ^ Welcome to the official Guam Memorial Hospital Authority Website! – Tonyt Archived November 24, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Gmha.org. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  95. ^ U.S Naval Hospital Guam Archived June 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. United States Navy
  96. ^ "Guam's CareJet Program Resumes Service". Air Medical Net. September 10, 2012. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  97. ^ Sablan, Jerick (January 4, 2016). "No. 5: Guam Regional Medical City opens". Pacific Daily News. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  98. ^ "guam under pacman attack". YouTube. Archived from the original on September 21, 2020. Retrieved November 16, 2018.

Further reading[edit]

  • Maga, Timothy P. Defending Paradise: The United States and Guam, 1898–1950 (Garland, 1988).
  • Rogers, Robert F. Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam (U of Hawaii Press, 1995).
  • Spear, Jane E. "Guamanian Americans." Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, edited by Thomas Riggs, (3rd ed., vol. 2, Gale, 2014), pp. 263–273. online

External links[edit]