Legality of Cannabis by U.S. Jurisdiction

Cannabis in Mozambique is illegal; the drug is locally referred to as suruma.[1]


There are several theories as to how and when cannabis arrived in Mozambique, with one recurring theory being that it was introduced from India either by Arab traders or by Portuguese merchants.[2] In the 1580s Portuguese Dominican missionary João dos Santos noted that cannabis was used in Mozambique to suppress hunger.[3]


Aside from indigenous production, Mozambique also serves as a transit point for cannabis and hashish smuggled from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Africa, and on to Europe and Canada.[4][5]


The Portuguese-Mozambican journalist Carlos Cardoso (d. 2000) proposed that Mozambique legalize cannabis, both for industrial use,[1] and for export to the Netherlands.[6]


  1. ^ a b Paul Fauvet; Marcelo Mosse (2003). Carlos Cardoso: Telling the Truth in Mozambique. Juta and Company Ltd. pp. 269–. ISBN 978-1-919930-31-2.
  2. ^ Vera Rubin (1 January 1975). Cannabis and Culture. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 83–. ISBN 978-3-11-081206-0.
  3. ^ Stewart Williams; Barney Warf (2 October 2017). Drugs, Law, People, Place and the State: Ongoing regulation, resistance and change. Taylor & Francis. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-1-351-79109-0.
  4. ^ William R. Brownfield (May 2011). International Narcotics Control Strategy Report: Volume I: Drug and Chemical Control. DIANE Publishing. pp. 455–. ISBN 978-1-4379-8272-5.
  5. ^ Paul V. Daly (July 1996). The Supply of Illicit Drugs to the United States: The Nnicc Report. DIANE Publishing. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-0-7881-3942-0.
  6. ^ Sheona Shackleton; Charlie Shackleton; Patricia Shanley (28 March 2011). Non-Timber Forest Products in the Global Context. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-3-642-17983-9.