In Mali, cannabis was considered an aphrodisiac.
Mali is part of a cannabis resin smuggling route that leads from Morocco to Egypt and Sudan, and onward to Europe. The networks are largely run by Malian Arabs who have community ties to Mauritania and Niger.
- United States. Congress. House. Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control (1977). Decriminalization of Marihuana: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, House of Representatives, Ninety-fifth Congress, First Session, March 14, 15, and 16, 1977. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 35.
- United States. Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse (1973). Drug use in America: problem in perspective: second report. For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off. p. 148.
- Christian Rätsch (March 2001). Marijuana Medicine: A World Tour of the Healing and Visionary Powers of Cannabis. Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. pp. 128–. ISBN 978-0-89281-933-1.
- Report of the International Narcotics Control Board (2007). DIANE Publishing. 2009. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-1-4379-0280-8.
- Frederic Wehrey; Anouar Boukhars (2 April 2013). Perilous Desert: Insecurity in the Sahara. Brookings Institution Press. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-0-87003-405-3.