Macadamia oil

A bottle and dish of macadamia oil

Macadamia oil (or macadamia nut oil) is the non-volatile oil collected from the nut meat of the macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) tree, a native Australian nut. It is used in food as a frying or salad oil, and in cosmetic formulations as an emollient or fragrance fixative.

Physical properties[edit]

Macadamia integrifolia

Fresh macadamia nuts

Macadamia nuts contain over 75% of their weight as oil, the remainder is: 9.0% proteins, 9.3% carbohydrates, 1.5% moisture, 1.6% mineral matters and 2.0% fiber. The kernels of macadamia contain vitamin A1, B1, B2, niacin and essential elements such as calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium. The oil is a triglyceride oil and contains primarily monounsaturated fats up to 80–84%. Macadamia oil contains the highest percentage of monounsaturates when compared to both olive and canola oils.[1]

Macadamia integrifolia is an Australian tree with holly-like leaves that grows well in a moist organic soil and will survive temperatures of 24 °F. Seedlings bear in 5–7 years. The fruit is borne in a case enclosing an extremely hard spherical nut. The kernel is whitish, sweet and eaten raw or roasted. The flowers are white to cream and the leaves are in whorls of three. Propagation is by seed, grafting or air layering. It is grown commercially.[2]

Common names of the trees are, Australian nut and Queensland nut. Species are “smooth shelled macadamia” called Macadamia integrifolia and “rough shelled macadamia” called Macadamia tetraphylla. Macadamia ternifolia is also the name used for M. integrifolia. Macadamia integrifolia is native to Australia where it grows in rain forests and close to streams. Macadamia tetraphylla is native to Southeastern Queensland and Northeastern New South Wales. The oil content ranges from 65% to 75% and sugar content ranges from 6% to 8%. These factors result in variable colors and texture when the nuts are roasted under the same conditions.[2]

Macadamia oil is liquid at room temperature. The refined oil is clear, lightly amber-colored with a slightly nutty smell. It has a specific gravity of 900–920 and a flash point of over 300°.[3]

Oil accumulation does not commence until the nuts are fully grown and the shell hardens. It accumulates rapidly in the kernel during late summer when the reducing sugar content decreases. The composition of mature, roasted and salted macadamia nuts is shown. As with many oil seeds, the protein is low in methionine. Fresh kernels contain up to 4.6% sugar, mostly non-reducing sugar. The oil consists of mainly unsaturated fatty acids and is similar in both species, although the proportion of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids appears to be slightly higher in M. integrifolia (6.2:1 compared with 4.8:1). The fatty acid composition and the absence of cholesterol may lead to the promotion of macadamias as a high-energy health food. The major volatile components in roasted macadamia kernels are apparently similar to those found in other roasted nuts, although little detailed information is available.[4]

Uses in food[edit]

Macadamia oil can be used for frying due to its high heat capacity along with other properties useful as an edible oil:[citation needed]

Nutritive value (g/100g) of macadamia nuts roasted in oil and salted.[4]

Water (%) 2
Energy (KJ) 3064
Protein (g) 7.1
Fat (g) 78.6
Fatty acids Saturated (g) 11.4
Monounsaturated (g) 61.1
Polyunsaturated (g) 0.014
Carbohydrate (g) 14.3
Calcium (mg) 46.4
Phosphorus (mg) 203.6
Iron (mg) 1.8
Potassium (mg) 332.1
Sodium (mg) 264.3
Sodium – unsalted raw (mg) 7.1
Thiamin (mg) 0.21
Riboflavin (mg) 0.11
Nicotinic acid (mg) 2.14
Magnesium (mg) 0.12
Zinc (mg) 1.4
Manganese (mg) 0.38
Copper (mg) 0.33

Chemical makeup[edit]

Macadamia oil technical data[5]
Parameter Units Min Max
FFA (oleic acid) % 1.5
Peroxide value meqO2/Kg 5.0
Saponification value mg/KOH/gr
C:16:0 Palmitic % 7.0 10.0
C:16:1 Palmitoleic % 14.0 22.0
C:18:0 Stearic % 2.0 5.5
C:18:1 Oleic % 53.0 67.0
C:18:2 Linoleic % 1.0 5.0
C:20:0 Arachidic % 1.0 3.0
C:20:1 Gadoleic % 1.0 3.0
C:22:0 Behenic % 1.0
Extra Virgin Olive oil for comparison[6][7]
Parameter Units Min Max
FFA (oleic acid) % <0.8
Peroxide value meqO2/Kg <20.0
Saponification value mg/KOH/gr
C:16:0 Palmitic % 7.5 20.0
C:16:1 Palmitoleic % 0.3 3.5
C:18:0 Stearic % 0.5 5.0
C:18:1 Oleic % 55.0 83.0
C:18:2 Linoleic % 3.5 21.0
C:18:3 Linolenic % 0 <1.0
C:20:0 Arachidic % <0.6
C:20:1 Gadoleic % <0.4

Macadamia oil contains approximately 60% oleic acid, 19% palmitoleic acid, 1-3% linoleic acid and 1-2% α-linolenic acid. Some varieties contain roughly equal omega-6 and omega-3. Although macadamia is cultivated in many different parts of the world, the oil’s fatty acid profile is not greatly influenced by environmental factors. The oil displays chemical properties typical of a vegetable triglyceride oil. It is also very stable due to its low polyunsaturated fat content.[8]

Vegetable oils[9][10]
Type Processing
treatment
Saturated
fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids Polyunsaturated fatty acids Smoke point
Total mono[9] Oleic acid
(ω-9)
Total poly[9] linolenic acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic acid
(ω-6)
Avocado[11] 11.6 70.6 13.5 1 12.5 249 °C (480 °F)[12]
Canola[13] 7.4 63.3 61.8 28.1 9.1 18.6 238 °C (460 °F)[14]
Coconut[15] 82.5 6.3 6 1.7 175 °C (347 °F)[14]
Corn[16] 12.9 27.6 27.3 54.7 1 58

232 °C (450 °F)[17]

Cottonseed[18] 25.9 17.8 19 51.9 1 54 216 °C (420 °F)[17]
Flaxseed/Linseed[19] 9.0 18.4 18 67.8 53 13

107 °C (225 °F)

Grape seed   10.5 14.3 14.3   74.7 74.7 216 °C (421 °F)[20]
Hemp seed[21] 7.0 9.0 9.0 82.0 22.0 54.0

166 °C (330 °F)[22]

Olive[23] 13.8 73.0 71.3 10.5 0.7 9.8 193 °C (380 °F)[14]
Palm[24] 49.3 37.0 40 9.3 0.2 9.1 235 °C (455 °F)
Peanut[25] 20.3 48.1 46.5 31.5 31.4 232 °C (450 °F)[17]
Safflower[26] 7.5 75.2 75.2 12.8 0 12.8 212 °C (414 °F)[14]
Soybean[27] 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 238 °C (460 °F)[17]
Sunflower (standard, 65% linoleic)[28] 10.3 19.5 19.5 65.7 0 65.7
Sunflower (< 60% linoleic)[29] 10.1 45.4 45.3 40.1 0.2 39.8

227 °C (440 °F)[17]

Sunflower (> 70% oleic)[30] 9.9 83.7 82.6 3.8 0.2 3.6

227 °C (440 °F)[17]

Cottonseed[31] Hydrogenated 93.6 1.5 0.6 0.3
Palm[32] Hydrogenated 88.2 5.7 0
Soybean[33] Partially hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9
Values as percent (%) by weight of total fat.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Akhtar; et al. (2006). “Evaluation of basic properties of macadamia nut oil”. Gomal University Journal of Research, 22: 21–27. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  2. ^ a b “Madamia Integrifolia”. CRFG. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  3. ^ “MSDS Macadamia Nut Oil”. AAKO. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  4. ^ a b “Macadamia Nuts”. Retrieved 1 January 2016.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ “Macadamia Nut Oil” (PDF). McKinley Resources, Inc. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  6. ^ “Chemistry and quality of olive oil” (PDF). primefacts. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  7. ^ “Chemical Characteristics”. Olive Oil Source. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  8. ^ Kleemann, Michael (7 Mar 2010). “Organic & Natural Life – Business Opportunities”. xing.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
  9. ^ a b c “US National Nutrient Database, Release 28”. United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. All values in this column are from the USDA Nutrient database unless otherwise cited.
  10. ^ “Fats and fatty acids contents per 100 g (click for “more details”) example: avocado oil; user can search for other oils”. Nutritiondata.com, Conde Nast for the USDA National Nutrient Database, Standard Release 21. 2014. Retrieved 7 September 2017. Values from Nutritiondata.com (SR 21) may need to be reconciled with most recent release from the USDA SR 28 as of Sept 2017.
  11. ^ “Avocado oil, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  12. ^ What is unrefined, extra virgin cold-pressed avocado oil?, The American Oil Chemists’ Society
  13. ^ “Canola oil, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  14. ^ a b c d Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). “Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils”. Food Chemistry. 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.
  15. ^ “Coconut oil, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  16. ^ “Corn oil, industrial and retail, all purpose salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Wolke, Robert L. (May 16, 2007). “Where There’s Smoke, There’s a Fryer”. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
  18. ^ “Cottonseed oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  19. ^ “Linseed/Flaxseed oil, cold pressed, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  20. ^ Garavaglia J, Markoski MM, Oliveira A, Marcadenti A (2016). “Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health”. Nutr Metab Insights. 9: 59–64. doi:10.4137/NMI.S32910. PMC 4988453. PMID 27559299.
  21. ^ “Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis”. Journal of Dermatological Treatment. 2005. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  22. ^ https://www.veghealth.com/nutrition-tables/Smoke-Points-of-Oils-table.pdf
  23. ^ “Olive oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  24. ^ “Palm oil, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  25. ^ Vegetable Oils in Food Technology (2011), p. 61.
  26. ^ “Safflower oil, salad or cooking, high oleic, primary commerce, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  27. ^ “Soybean oil, salad or cooking, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  28. ^ “Sunflower oil, 65% linoleic, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  29. ^ “Sunflower oil, less than 60% of total fats as linoleic acid, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  30. ^ “Sunflower oil, high oleic – 70% or more as oleic acid, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  31. ^ “Cottonseed oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  32. ^ “Palm oil, industrial, fully hydrogenated, filling fat, fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  33. ^ “Soybean oil, salad or cooking, (partially hydrogenated), fat composition, 100 g”. US National Nutrient Database, Release 28, United States Department of Agriculture. May 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2017.

External links[edit]