Oglala Lakota County, South Dakota

Oglala Lakota County
Indian Health Service Hospital in Pine Ridge on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, November 2011
Indian Health Service Hospital in Pine Ridge on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, November 2011
Map of South Dakota highlighting Oglala Lakota County
Location within the U.S. state of South Dakota
Map of the United States highlighting South Dakota
South Dakota's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 43°20′N 102°33′W / 43.33°N 102.55°W / 43.33; -102.55Coordinates: 43°20′N 102°33′W / 43.33°N 102.55°W / 43.33; -102.55
Country United States
State South Dakota
Founded1875
Named forOglala Lakota people
SeatNone (de jure)
Hot Springs (de facto)[1]
Largest communityPine Ridge
Area
 • Total2,097 sq mi (5,430 km2)
 • Land2,094 sq mi (5,420 km2)
 • Water2.8 sq mi (7 km2)  0.1%
Population
 (2010)
 • Total13,586
 • Estimate 
(2018)
14,309
 • Density6.5/sq mi (2.5/km2)
Time zoneUTC−7 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (MDT)
Congressional districtAt-large
Websiteoglalalakota.sdcounties.org
Hot Springs in neighboring Fall River County serves as administrative center for county[1]

Oglala Lakota County (known as Shannon County until May 2015)[2] is a county southwestern South Dakota, United States. The population was 13,586 at the 2010 census.[3] Oglala Lakota County does not have a functioning county seat; Hot Springs in neighboring Fall River County serves as its administrative center.[1] The county was created as a part of the Dakota Territory in 1875, although it remains unorganized.[4][5] Its largest community is Pine Ridge.

The county is entirely within the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and contains part of Badlands National Park. It is one of five South Dakota counties entirely on an Indian reservation.[6]

The county is named after the Oglala Lakota, a band of the Lakota people. Many of the county's inhabitants are members of this sub-tribe.

The county's per-capita income makes it the poorest county in the 50 states and District of Columbia. (28 county-equivalents in the U.S. territories are poorer). Oglala Lakota County is the only dry county in South Dakota.

The newspaper for Oglala Lakota County is The Lakota Country Times.[7][8]

History[edit]

The Wounded Knee Massacre occurred in Oglala Lakota County in 1890.

The county was originally named for Peter C. Shannon, Chief Justice of the Dakota Territory Supreme Court. Until 1982, Shannon County and Washabaugh County, South Dakota, were the last unorganized counties in the United States. Although it was organized and received a home rule charter that year, the county, as noted above, contracts with Fall River County for its Auditor, Treasurer, and Registrar of Deeds.[9]

On November 4, 2014, voters in the county voted by a margin of 2,161 to 526 to rename Shannon County to Oglala Lakota County.[10] The name change was ratified by the state legislature on March 5, 2015.[11] May 1, 2015 was proclaimed by the governor as the official day for renaming the county.[12]

Geography[edit]

Oglala Lakota County lies on the south side of South Dakota. Its south boundary line abuts the north boundary line of the state of Nebraska. The Cheyenne River flows northeastward along the northwest boundary of Oglala Lakota County. The White River flows northeastward through the central part of the county. The county terrain is composed of arid rolling hills spotted with small mountain crests, oriented NE-SW.[13] The terrain slopes to the northeast; its highest point is on the south boundary line, close to the SW corner, at 3,619' (1103m) ASL.[14] The county has a total area of 2,097 square miles (5,430 km2), of which 2,094 square miles (5,420 km2) is land and 2.8 square miles (7.3 km2) (0.1%) is water.[15]

The county includes the headwaters of the Little White River.

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Lakes[13][edit]

  • Alkali Lake
  • Denby Lake
  • Lee Lake
  • Oglala Lake
  • Two Lance Lake
  • Wakpamani Lake
  • White Clay Lake

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
19202,003
19304,058102.6%
19405,36632.2%
19505,6695.6%
19606,0005.8%
19708,19836.6%
198011,32338.1%
19909,902−12.5%
200012,46625.9%
201013,5869.0%
Est. 201814,309[16]5.3%
US Decennial Census[17]
1790-1960[18] 1900-1990[19]
1990-2000[20] 2010-2018[3]

As of the 2000 United States Census,[21] there were 12,466 people, 2,785 households, and 2,353 families residing in the county. The population density was 6 people per square mile (2/km²). There were 3,123 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile (1/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 4.51% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 94.20% Native American, 0.02% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, and 0.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.42% of the population.

There are 2,785 households out of which 51.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.40% were married couples living together, 36.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 15.50% were non-families. 13.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.00% have someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.36 and the average family size was 4.72.

The county population contained 45.30% under the age of 18, 10.60% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 13.80% from 45 to 64, and 4.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females there were 99.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.60 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $20,916, and the median income for a family was $20,897. Males had a median income of $25,170 versus $22,594 for females. The per capita income for the county was $6,286. About 45.10% of families and 52.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 60.80% of those under age 18 and 36.00% of those age 65 or over.

A 2017 study ranked the county's average life expectancy (66 years) as the lowest of any county in the United States.[22]

Politics[edit]

The counties surrounding Oglala Lakota County are predominantly Republican, but, like most Native American counties, Oglala Lakota is heavily Democratic, giving over 75 percent of the vote to every Democratic presidential nominee in every election back to 1984, making it one of the most Democratic counties in the United States. No Republican has carried the county in a presidential election since 1952. In 2012, Oglala Lakota County (then known as Shannon) was the county with the highest percentage of vote for Barack Obama in the United States.[23]

Presidential election results
Presidential elections results[24]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 8.3% 241 86.4% 2,510 5.3% 154
2012 6.0% 188 93.4% 2,937 0.6% 20
2008 9.9% 331 88.7% 2,971 1.4% 48
2004 12.5% 526 84.6% 3,566 2.9% 122
2000 12.9% 252 85.4% 1,667 1.7% 34
1996 11.1% 253 84.3% 1,926 4.6% 105
1992 13.6% 225 76.7% 1,267 9.6% 159
1988 17.3% 256 81.5% 1,206 1.2% 17
1984 17.7% 324 81.4% 1,489 0.9% 16
1980 26.0% 438 67.1% 1,132 6.9% 117
1976 27.8% 301 69.9% 756 2.2% 24
1972 22.1% 356 77.3% 1,246 0.6% 9
1968 29.7% 533 66.9% 1,202 3.4% 61
1964 24.2% 557 75.8% 1,748
1960 36.6% 655 63.4% 1,135
1956 45.2% 782 54.8% 949
1952 55.3% 957 44.7% 774
1948 44.1% 641 55.2% 803 0.7% 10
1944 53.9% 562 46.1% 480
1940 58.0% 1,094 42.0% 791
1936 49.9% 667 47.5% 634 2.6% 35
1932 36.7% 463 63.2% 798 0.1% 1
1928 43.6% 469 55.9% 601 0.5% 5
1924 88.9% 992 6.8% 76 4.3% 48

Communities[edit]

Town[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[13][edit]

Townships[edit]

There are no townships. The county is divided into two areas of unorganized territory: East Oglala Lakota and West Oglala Lakota (formerly East Shannon and West Shannon, respectively).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Oglala Lakota County, South Dakota". oglalalakota.sdcounties.org. Oglala Lakota County. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  2. ^ "Oglala Lakota County, South Dakota: About". oglalalakota.sdcounties.org. Oglala Lakota County. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
  3. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved November 28, 2013.
  4. ^ "Dakota Territory, South Dakota, and North Dakota: Individual County Chronologies". Dakota Territory Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2006. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
  5. ^ "South Dakota Legislative Manual" (PDF). South Dakota Secretary of State. 2005. p. 597. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
  6. ^ The other four SD counties entirely on reservations are Corson, Dewey, Todd, and Ziebach.
  7. ^ "The Lakota Country Times". Lakota Country Times.
  8. ^ "Martin Lakota Country Times". South Dakota Newspaper Association. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  9. ^ "Oglala Lakota (Shannon) County, South Dakota: History". www.e-referencedesk.com. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
  10. ^ David Montgomery, "Shannon County no more: Voters approve name change", Argus Leader, November 5, 2014.
  11. ^ Mercer, Bob (March 5, 2015). "It's official: Oglala Lakota County replaces Shannon County Name". Rapid City Journal. Retrieved March 14, 2015.
  12. ^ "Governor's Executive Proclamation". Office of the Governor.
  13. ^ a b c Shannon County SD Google Maps (accessed 7 February 2019)
  14. ^ "Find an Altitude" Google Maps (accessed 7 February 2019)
  15. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". US Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
  16. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 11, 2019.
  17. ^ "US Decennial Census". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
  18. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
  19. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". US Census Bureau. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
  20. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
  21. ^ "American FactFinder". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  22. ^ Harkness, Jeff (May 8, 2017). "South Dakota County Has One of Lowest Life Expectancy Rates". B1027.7. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  23. ^ "David Leip's Presidential Election Atlas – 2012 statistics". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
  24. ^ Leip, David. "Atlas of US Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 12, 2018.

External links[edit]