There are 81 provinces in Turkey (Turkish: il). Among the 81 provinces, thirty are designated metropolitan municipalities[1] (Turkish: büyükşehir belediyeleri). Metropolitan municipalities are subdivided into districts (Turkish: ilçe), where each district includes a corresponding district municipality, which is a second tier municipality.[2]

History[edit]

The first metropolitan municipalities were established in 1984.[3] These were the three most populous cities in Turkey, namely; İstanbul, Ankara and İzmir. In each metropolitan municipality a number of second level municipalities (ilçe municipality) were established. In 1986, four new metropolitan municipalities were established in Adana,[4] Bursa,[5] Gaziantep[6] and Konya.[7] Two years later the total number was increased to eight with the addition of Kayseri.[8] In 1993, seven new metropolitan municipalities were established in Antalya, Diyarbakır, Erzurum, Eskişehir, Mersin, Kocaeli and Samsun.[9] Following the earthquake of 1999, Sakarya was also declared a metropolitan municipality.[10]

Before 2004, only the urban centers with a population more than 750,000 were declared metropolitan centers. However, in 2004, the concept of metropolitan municipality was redefined in Istanbul and Kocaeli, where thenceforth metropolitan municipality borders would overlap with provincial borders. In 2012, this was extended to other metropolitan municipalities.[11] Thus, all provinces with a population in excess of 750,000 were declared metropolitan municipality and accordingly the number of metropolitan municipalities has sharply increased. The following 13 cities became metropolitan municipalities:[11]

Later, with the addition of Ordu, the total number of the metropolitan municipalities was increased to 30.[12]

List of metropolitan areas[edit]

Metropolitan municipalities Date of establishment Population (2013)[13] Population (2019)[14] Number of districts
Adana 05.06.1986 2,149,160 2,237,940 15
Ankara 23.03.1984 5,045,083 5,639,076 25
Antalya 09.09.1993 2,158,265 2,511,700 19
Aydın 06.12.2012 1,020,957 1,110,972 17
Balıkesir 06.12.2012 1,162,761 1,228,620 20
Bursa 18.06.1986 2,740,970 3,056,120 17
Denizli 06.12.2012 963,464 1,037,208 19
Diyarbakır 09.09.1993 1,607,437 1,756,323 17
Erzurum 09.09.1993 766,729 762,062 20
Eskişehir 09.09.1993 799,724 887,475 14
Gaziantep 20.06.1986 1,844,438 2,069,364 9
Hatay 06.12.2012 1,503,066 1,628,894 15
Mersin[Note 1] 09.09.1993 1,705,774 1,840,425 13
İstanbul 23.03.1984 14,160,467 15,519,267 39
İzmir 23.03.1984 4,061,074 4,367,251 30
Kayseri 07.12.1988 1,295,355 1,407,409 16
Kocaeli[Note 2] 09.09.1993 1,676,202 1,953,035 12
Konya 20.06.1986 2,079,225 2,232,374 31
Malatya 06.12.2012 762,538 800,165 13
Manisa 06.12.2012 1,359,463 1,440,611 17
Kahramanmaraş 06.12.2012 1,075,076 1,154,102 11
Mardin 06.12.2012 779,738 838,778 10
Muğla 06.12.2012 866,665 983,142 13
Ordu 14.03.2013 731,452[Note 3] 754,198 19
Sakarya[Note 4] 06.03.2000 917,373 1,029,650 16
Samsun 09.09.1993 1,261,810 1,348,542 17
Tekirdağ 06.12.2012 874,475 1,055,412 11
Trabzon 06.12.2012 758,237 808,974 18
Şanlıurfa 06.12.2012 1,801,980 2,073,614 13
Van 06.12.2012 1,070,113 1,136,757 13
Total N/A 58,999,701 64,669,459 519

Since the total population of Turkey is 83,154,997, the population in the 30 provinces make up 77% of the population of the country.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Formerly named İçel.
  2. ^ Formerly the center city of Kocaeli Province was İzmit, which is now a district
  3. ^ The population of Ordu Province was more than 750,000 limit in 2013
  4. ^ Formerly the center city of Sakarya Province was Adapazarı, which is now a district

References[edit]

  1. ^ Statistical Institute page[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ Law act no 5216 (in Turkish)
  3. ^ Belleten of legislation (in Turkish)
  4. ^ Art no 3306 (in Turkish)
  5. ^ "Art no 3391" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  6. ^ "Art no.3398" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2014-01-31. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  7. ^ "Art no 3399" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  8. ^ "Art no 3508" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  9. ^ "Decree no 504" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  10. ^ "Art no 593" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  11. ^ a b "Art no 6360" (in Turkish).
  12. ^ CNN Turk news (in Turkish)
  13. ^ "Statistical Institute 2013". Archived from the original on 2015-01-30. Retrieved 2015-01-30.
  14. ^ "Statistical Institute 2014". Archived from the original on 2015-01-30. Retrieved 2015-01-30.

External links[edit]