Sea areas in international rights

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a sovereign state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1] It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.[2]

The World's exclusive economic zones, shown in dark blue

Definition[edit]

EEZs in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean
EEZs in the Pacific Ocean

Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nmi (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nmi (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[3] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[4]

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nmi (370 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nmi (650 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.

Origin[edit]

The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi or 5.6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of 28 September 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[6]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.

Disputes[edit]

The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.

  • Norway and Russia dispute both territorial sea and EEZ with regard to the Svalbard archipelago as it affects Russia's EEZ due to its unique treaty status. A treaty was agreed in principle in April 2010 between the two states and subsequently ratified, resolving this demarcation dispute.[7] The agreement was signed in Murmansk on 15 September 2010.[8]
  • The South China Sea (and the Spratly Islands) is the site of an ongoing dispute between several neighboring nations.
  • Croatia's ZERP (Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone) in the Adriatic Sea caused friction with Italy and Slovenia, and caused problems during Croatia's accession to the European Union.
  • A wedge-shaped section of the Beaufort Sea is disputed between Canada and the United States, as the area reportedly contains substantial oil reserves.
  • France claims a portion of Canada's EEZ for Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon based on a new definition of the continental shelf and EEZ between the two countries. Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon is entirely surrounded by Canada's EEZ.
  • Mauritius claims EEZ for Tromelin from France and EEZ for British Indian Ocean Territory from the UK.
  • Turkey claims a portion of Cyprus's EEZ based on Turkey's definition that no islands, including Cyprus, can have full EEZ[9][10] and should only be entitled to a 12 nautical mile reduced EEZ rather than the usual 200 that Turkey and every other country are entitled to, including an area to the south of Cyprus containing an offshore gas field. Furthermore, the internationally unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which was created as result of the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus, also claims portions of Cypriot EEZ. The Republic of Cyprus, intergovernmental organizations and other countries, such the European Union, the United States, Russia, Israel, Switzerland, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Armenia do not acknowledge the Turkish claims[11][12][13][14][15] on Cyprus's land and sea, and urge Turkey to restrain itself from illegal drilling for gas in the island's EEZ.[a] Furthermore, EU has threatened Turkey with economic and political sanctions for violating the Cypriot EEZ.[27][28]
  • Lebanon claims that the agreement between Cyprus and Israel overlapped its own EEZ.
  • Japan claims an EEZ around Okinotorishima, but this is disputed by China, Taiwan, and South Korea, who claim it is an islet which is incapable of generating an EEZ.

Potential disputes[edit]

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[29]

Resolved disputes[edit]

Transboundary stocks[edit]

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[36] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[37]

By country[edit]

Algeria[edit]

Algeria in 17 April 2018 establishes an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off its coasts by Presidential Decree No. 18-96 of 2 Rajab 1439 corresponding to 20 March 2018.[38][39] The permanent Mission of Spain to the United Nations in 27 July 2018 declares his disagreement with the EEZ announced by Algeria and that the Government of Spain hereby indicates its willingness to enter into negotiations with the Government of Algeria with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable agreement on the outer limits of their respective exclusive economic zones[40], The same was done by the Italian mission in 28 November 2018.[41] The two countries indicated that the Algerian measure had been taken unilaterally and without consulting them.

25 November 2018 The Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent an oral note in response to the Spanish protest, explains that the Algerian Government does not recognize the largely exorbitant coordinates contained in Royal Decree 236/2013, which overlap with the coordinates of Presidential Decree n° 18–96 establishing an exclusive economic zone off the coast of Algeria. The Algerian Government wishes to emphasize that the unilateral delimitation carried out by Spain is not in conformity with the letter of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and has not taken into consideration the configuration, the specific characteristics and the special circumstances of the Mediterranean Sea, in particular for the case of the two countries whose coasts are located face to face, as well as the objective rules and relevant principles of international law to govern the equitable delimitation of the maritime areas between Algeria and Spain, in accordance with article 74 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Algeria expressed its willingness to negotiate for a just solution[42]

20 June 2019 a communication from Algeria addressed to the Italian embassy[43] and the Spain embassy in Algiers[44] to show their eligibility in her exclusive economic zone.

Argentina[edit]

Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims. Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 3,849,756 km²

Australia[edit]

Australia's exclusive economic zones including Antarctic claim

Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[45][46] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[47][48] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[49] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[48]

EEZ Area (km2)[48]
Heard and McDonald Islands 410,722
 Christmas Island 463,371
 Cocos Islands 325,021
 Norfolk Island 428,618
Macquarie Island 471,837
Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands 6,048,681
Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000[note 1]
Total 10,148,250

Brazil[edit]

Brazil's exclusive economic zones

Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands. It is called the Blue Amazon.

EEZ Area (km2)[50]
 Brazil 2,570,917
Bandeira de Fernando de Noronha.png Fernando de Noronha 363 362
St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413 636
Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468 599
Total 3,830,955

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[51]

Canada[edit]

Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi), is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[52] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.

Chile[edit]

Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[53] Land area Total
Mainland 1,975,760 755 757 2,731,517
Desventuradas 449 836 5 449 841
Easter 720 412 164 720 576
Juan Fernandez 502 524 100 502 624
Total 3,648,532 755 921 4,404,453

China[edit]

People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:
  China's EEZ
877,019 km2
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others
3,000,000 km2 Total:3,877,019

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Cyprus[edit]

Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia. (Labels in Hebrew.)

The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[54] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.[55][56]

Denmark[edit]

The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[57] Land area Total
 Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
 Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
 Greenland 2,184,254 2,166,086 4,350,340
Total 2,551,238 2,210,579 4,761,817

France[edit]

Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim

Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,513,920 mi2).[58] The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of Earth.

Greece[edit]

Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[59]

According to published maps, the Israel government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.[60] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".[61]

India[edit]

India's exclusive economic zones
EEZ Area (km2)
Mainland India and Lakshadweep 1,641,514 km2
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 663,629 km2
Total 2,305,143 km2

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[62]

Indonesia[edit]

Indonesia's exclusive economic zone

Indonesia has the 6th largest exclusive economic zone in the world. The total size is 6,159,032 km2 (2,378,016 sq mi). It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its shores. This is due to the 13,466 islands of the Indonesian archipelago.[63] It has the 3rd largest coastline of 54,720 km (34,000 mi). The five main islands are: Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Western New Guinea. There are two major island groups (Nusa Tenggara and the Maluku Islands) and sixty smaller island groups.

Israel[edit]

In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.

Japan[edit]

Japan's exclusive economic zones:
  Japan's EEZ
  Joint regime with Republic of Korea
  EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others

Japan has the 8th largest exclusive economic zone of 4,479,674 km2 (1,729,612 sq mi).[64] It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its shores.

EEZ Area (km2)
Minami-Tori-shima 428,875
Nanpō Islands 862,782
Pacific Ocean (Japan) 1,162,334
Ryukyu Islands 1,394,676
Sea of Japan 630,721
Daito Islands 44
Senkaku Islands 7
Sea of Okhotsk 235
Total[65] 4,479,674

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[66][67] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.

Mexico[edit]

Exclusive economic zone of Mexico

Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[68] This puts Mexico's total territory as 5,153,735 km2.

New Zealand[edit]

Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded)

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2 (1,576,742 sq mi),[69][70] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[71] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

North Korea[edit]

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and the Sea of Japan.[72] The EEZ was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders.[73] The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.[74]

In the West Sea, the EEZ remains unspecified in the Korean Bay because China has not determined its own EEZ in the area.[75] The border between the North Korean and South Korean EEZs in the West Sea cannot be determined because of potential overlap and disputes over certain islands.[76]

In the Sea of Japan, the North Korean EEZ can be approximated to be trapezoidal-shaped.[77] The border between North Korea and Russia's respective EEZs is the only such border that has been determined in East Asia.[78] Here, the EEZ does not cause many problems, even with regards to South Korea, because the sea is not thought to be rich in resources.[77]

Norway[edit]

Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen.[79]

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[80]

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1,273,482 323 802 1,597,284
Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053
Total 2,385,178 385 226 2,770,404

Philippines[edit]

The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue

The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi).[81]

Poland[edit]

The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 (11,789 sq mi) within the Baltic Sea.[82]

Portugal[edit]

Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN[83]

Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,[84] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[85] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[86]

Russia[edit]

Russia's exclusive economic zone
  • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634 km2
  • St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759 km2
  • Barents Sea – 1,308,140 km2
  • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854 km2
  • Pacific – 3,419,202 km2
  • Siberia – 3,277,292 km2
  • Total – 8,095,881 km2[87]

Somalia[edit]

Somalia's exclusive economic zone
  • 825,052 km2

South Africa[edit]

South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[88]

  • Mainland – 1,068,659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2

South Korea[edit]

South Korean exclusive economic zone:
  Korean EEZ
  EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea and Japan
  Joint regime with Japan

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United Kingdom[edit]

The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.[89]
British Isles EEZ

The United Kingdom has the fifth largest exclusive economic zone of 6,805,586 km2 (2,627,651 sq mi) square km. It comprises the EEZs surrounding the United Kingdom,[90] the Crown dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory.

The EEZ associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos Archipelago, also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory, is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the archipelago as a part of its territory.

The EEZ areas of the UK proper, Crown dependencies and British overseas territories (in decreasing size)[88]
Territory EEZ Area (km2) EEZ Area (sq mi) Notes
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 disputed with  Argentina
 Pitcairn Islands 836,108 322,823
 United Kingdom 773,676 298,718 includes the  Isle of Man and Rockall
 Tristan da Cunha archipelago 754,720 291,400
 British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 disputed with  Mauritius
 Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 disputed with  Argentina
 Bermuda 450,370 173,890
 Saint Helena 444,916 171,783
 Ascension 441,658 170,525
 Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486
 Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999
 Anguilla 92,178 35,590
 British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933
Channel Islands 11,658 4,501 includes  Guernsey and  Jersey
 Montserrat 7,582 2,927
 Gibraltar 426 164 disputed with  Spain
 Akrotiri and Dhekelia 0 0 No EEZ area. The relevant EEZ areas around Cyprus Island belong to the  Republic of Cyprus[91]
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

A part of the overseas territory of  Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

United States[edit]

Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The EEZ (including territorial sea) areas of the territories of the U.S. (in decreasing size)[92]
Territory EEZ Area (km2) EEZ Area (sq mi) Notes
 HawaiiNorthwestern Islands 1,579,538 609,863 including  Midway Atoll, these islands form the Leeward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain
U.S. East Coast 915,763 353,578 the mainland coastal states of the Eastern United States
 HawaiiSoutheastern Islands 895,346 345,695 these islands form the Windward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain
U.S. West Coast 4,595,570 1,774,360 the continental coastal states of the Western United States
 Northern Mariana Islands 749,268 289,294 an organized unincorporated Commonwealth of the U.S.
U.S. Gulf Coast 707,832 273,295 the coastal states of the Southern United States where they meet the Gulf of Mexico
 Johnston Atoll 442,635 170,902 a National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
Howland and Baker Islands 434,921 167,924 including  Howland Island and  Baker Island, both territories are National Wildlife Refuges in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
 Wake Island 407,241 157,237 a National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
 American Samoa 404,391 156,136 the only inhabited unorganized unincorporated territory of the U.S.
 Palmyra Atoll and  Kingman Reef 352,300 136,000 both territories are National Wildlife Refuges in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
 Jarvis Island 316,665 122,265 a National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
 Guam 221,504 85,523 an organized unincorporated territory of the U.S.
 Puerto Rico 177,685 68,605 an organized unincorporated Commonwealth of the U.S.
 U.S. Virgin Islands 33,744 13,029 an organized unincorporated territory of the U.S.
 Navassa Island N/A[note 2] N/A[note 2] a National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
Total 11,351,000 4,383,000

Vietnam[edit]

Territorial claims in the South China Sea. Vietnam's EEZ has a blue line.

Vietnam has an exclusive economic zone of 417,663 km2 (161,261 sq mi). It includes the Paracel Islands and the Spratly Islands. It has disputes mainly with the People's Republic of China due to the nine-dash line.

Rankings by area[edit]

This list includes dependent territories (including uninhabited territories) within their sovereign states, but does not include various claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes territorial land and internal waters.

Rank Country EEZ km2[88] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
1  France 11,691,000 579,422 12,366,417
2  United States 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306
3  Australia 8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464
4  Russia 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
5  United Kingdom 6,805,586 872,891 7,048,486
6  Indonesia 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,063,601
7  Canada 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077
8  Japan 4,479,388 214,976 4,857,318
9 New Zealand 4,083,744 277,610 4,352,424
10  Brazil 3,830,955 774,563 12,345,832
11  Chile 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381
12  Kiribati 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
13  Mexico 3,269,386 419,102 5,141,968
14  Federated States of Micronesia 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
15 Denmark 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
16  Papua New Guinea 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
17  Norway 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
18  India 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
19  Marshall Islands 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711
 Cook Islands (NZ) 1,960,027 1,213 1,960,264
20  Portugal 1,727,408 28,000 1,819,498
21  Philippines 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
22  Solomon Islands 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
23  South Africa 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
24  Seychelles 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
25  Mauritius 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
26  Fiji 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
27  Madagascar 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
28  Argentina 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463[96]
29  Ecuador 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
30  Spain 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
31  Maldives 923,322 34,538 923,622
32  Peru 906,454 82,000 2,191,670
33  China 877,019 231,340 10,473,980
34  Somalia 825,052 55,895 1,462,709
35  Colombia 808,158 53,691 1,949,906
36  Cape Verde 800,561 5,591 804,594
37  Iceland 751,345 108,015 854,345
38  Tuvalu 749,790 3,575 749,816
39  Vanuatu 663,251 11,483 675,440
40  Tonga 659,558 8,517 660,305
41  Bahamas 654,715 106,323 668,658
42  Palau 603,978 2,837 604,437
43  Mozambique 578,986 94,212 1,380,576
44  Morocco 575,230 115,157 1,287,780
45  Costa Rica 574,725 19,585 625,825
46  Namibia 564,748 86,698 1,388,864
47  Yemen 552,669 59,229 1,080,637
48  Italy 541,915 116,834 843,251
49  Oman 533,180 59,071 842,680
50  Myanmar 532,775 220,332 1,209,353
51  Sri Lanka 532,619 32,453 598,229
52  Angola 518,433 48,092 1,765,133
53  Greece 505,572 81,451 637,529
54  South Korea 475,469 342,522 575,469
55  Venezuela 471,507 98,500 1,387,950
56  Vietnam 417,663 365,198 748,875
57  Ireland 410,310 139,935 480,583
58  Libya 351,589 64,763 2,111,129
59  Cuba 350,751 61,525 460,637
60  Panama 335,646 53,404 411,163
61  Malaysia 334,671 323,412 665,474
62  Nauru 308,480 41 308,501
63  Equatorial Guinea 303,509 7,820 331,560
64  Thailand 299,397 230,063 812,517
65  Pakistan 290,000 51,383 1,117,911
66  Egypt 263,451 61,591 1,265,451
67  Turkey 261,654 56,093 1,045,216
68  Jamaica 258,137 9,802 269,128
69  Dominican Republic 255,898 10,738 304,569
70  Liberia 249,734 17,715 361,103
71  Honduras 249,542 68,718 362,034
72  Tanzania 241,888 25,611 1,186,975
73  Ghana 235,349 22,502 473,888
74  Saudi Arabia 228,633 107,249 2,378,323
75  Nigeria 217,313 42,285 1,141,081
76  Sierra Leone 215,611 28,625 287,351
77  Gabon 202,790 35,020 470,458
78  Barbados 186,898 426 187,328
79  Côte d'Ivoire 176,254 10,175 498,717
80  Iran 168,718 118,693 1,797,468
81  Mauritania 165,338 31,662 1,190,858
82  Comoros 163,752 1,526 165,987
83  Sweden 160,885 154,604 602,255
84  Senegal 158,861 23,092 355,583
85 Netherlands 154,011 77,246 192,345
86  Ukraine 147,318 79,142 750,818
87  Uruguay 142,166 75,327 318,381
88  Guyana 137,765 50,578 352,734
89  São Tomé and Príncipe 131,397 1,902 132,361
90  Samoa 127,950 2,087 130,781
91  Suriname 127,772 53,631 291,592
92  Haiti 126,760 6,683 154,510
93  Algeria 126,353 9,985 2,508,094
94  Nicaragua 123,881 70,874 254,254
95  Guinea-Bissau 123,725 39,339 159,850
96  Kenya 116,942 11,073 697,309
97  Guatemala 114,170 14,422 223,059
98  North Korea 113,888[97][98] 50,337[99][100] 234,428[101]
99  Antigua and Barbuda 110,089 4,128 110,531
100  Tunisia 101,857 67,126 265,467
101  Cyprus 98,707 4,042 107,958
102  El Salvador 90,962 16,852 112,003
103  Finland 87,171 85,109 425,590
104  Bangladesh 86,392 66,438 230,390
105  Taiwan 83,231 43,016 119,419
106  Eritrea 77,728 61,817 195,328
107  Trinidad and Tobago 74,199 25,284 79,329
108  East Timor 70,326 25,648 85,200
109  Sudan 68,148 19,827 1,954,216
110  Cambodia 62,515 62,515 243,550
111  Guinea 59,426 44,755 305,283
112  Croatia 59,032 50,277 115,626
113  United Arab Emirates 58,218 57,474 141,818
114  Germany 57,485 57,485 414,599
115  Malta 54,823 5,301 55,139
116  Estonia 36,992 36,992 82,219
117  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,302 1,561 36,691
118  Belize 35,351 13,178 58,317
119  Bulgaria 34,307 10,426 145,186
120  Benin 33,221 2,721 145,843
121  Qatar 31,590 31,590 43,176
122  Republic of the Congo 31,017 7,982 373,017
123  Poland 29,797 29,797 342,482
124  Dominica 28,985 659 29,736
125  Latvia 28,452 27,772 93,011
126  Grenada 27,426 2,237 27,770
127  Israel 26,352 3,745 48,424
128  Romania 23,627 19,303 262,018
129  Gambia 23,112 5,581 34,407
130  Georgia 21,946 3,243 91,646
131  Lebanon 19,516 1,067 29,968
132  Cameroon 16,547 11,420 491,989
133  Saint Lucia 15,617 544 16,156
134  Albania 13,691 6,979 42,439
135  Togo 12,045 1,265 68,830
136  Kuwait 11,026 11,026 28,844
137  Syria 10,503 1,085 195,683
138  Bahrain 10,225 10,225 10,975
139  Brunei 10,090 8,509 15,855
140  Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,974 653 10,235
141  Montenegro 7,745 3,896 21,557
142  Djibouti 7,459 3,187 30,659
143  Lithuania 7,031 7,031 72,331
144  Belgium 3,447 3,447 33,975
145  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,606 1,593 2,346,464
146  Singapore 1,067 1,067 1,772
147  Iraq 771 771 439,088
148  Monaco 288 2 290
149  Palestine 256 256 6,276
150  Slovenia 220 220 20,493
151  Jordan 166 59 89,508
152  Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 50 51,259
 Kazakhstan 2,724,900
 Mongolia 1,564,100
 Chad 1,284,000
 Niger 1,267,000
 Mali 1,240,192
 Ethiopia 1,104,300
 Bolivia 1,098,581
 Zambia 752,612
 Afghanistan 652,090
 Central African Republic 622,984
 South Sudan 619,745
 Botswana 582,000
 Turkmenistan 488,100
 Uzbekistan 447,400
 Paraguay 406,752
 Zimbabwe 390,757
 Burkina Faso 274,222
 Uganda 241,038
 Laos 236,800
 Belarus 207,600
 Kyrgyzstan 199,951
   Nepal 147,181
 Tajikistan 143,100
 Malawi 118,484
 Hungary 93,028
 Azerbaijan 86,600
 Austria 83,871
 Czech Republic 78,867
 Serbia 77,474
 Slovakia 49,035
  Switzerland 41,284
 Bhutan 38,394
 Moldova 33,846
 Lesotho 30,355
 Armenia 29,743
 Burundi 27,834
 Rwanda 26,338
 North Macedonia 25,713
 Eswatini 17,364
 Kosovo[a] 10,887
 Luxembourg 2,586
 Andorra 468
 Liechtenstein 160
 San Marino 61
  Vatican City 0.44
Total  United Nations 137,273,110 25,153,541 274,239,014

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.
  2. ^ a b The source does not provide any data for Navassa Island[93][94] even though the U.S. government did claim an EEZ area for this disputed territory.[95]
a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 97 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.

References[edit]

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  5. ^ [1] 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
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  40. ^ Letter from Spain to the Secretary-General of 27 July 2018
  41. ^ Letter from Italy to the Secretary-General of November 28 2018
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  44. ^ Communication from Algeria addressed to Spain dated 20 June 2019
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  53. ^ See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Chile 1,975,760 km², Desventuradas Isl. 449,836 km², Easter Isl. 720,412 km², J. Fernandez, Felix and Ambrosio Isl. 502,524 km²
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  93. ^ EEZ area of Haiti
  94. ^ EEZ area of Jamaica
  95. ^ MARITIME CLAIMS – Navassa Island
  96. ^ Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentina reaches 6,581,500 km².
  97. ^ EEZ area of North Korea (Yellow Sea)
  98. ^ EEZ area of North Korea (Sea of Japan)
  99. ^ Shelf area of North Korea (Yellow Sea)
  100. ^ Shelf area of North Korea (Sea of Japan)
  101. ^ FAO Country Profiles: Democratic People's Republic of Korea

Works cited:

External links[edit]