Legality of Cannabis by U.S. Jurisdiction

Vermont Public
Predecessor
  • Vermont PBS
  • Vermont Public Radio
FormationJune 30, 2021 (2021-06-30)
HeadquartersColchester, Vermont
ProductsPublic radio and television broadcasting
President and CEO
Scott Finn
Endowment (2021)$71.9 million
Websitevermontpublic.org

Vermont Public Co. is the public broadcaster serving the U.S. state of Vermont. Its headquarters, newsroom, and radio studios are located in Colchester, with television studios in Winooski. It operates two statewide radio services aligned with NPR, offering news and classical music, and the state's PBS service. It was formed by the 2021 merger of what had been previously separate organizations, Vermont Public Radio and Vermont Public Television, which were both renamed Vermont Public in 2022.

The services were separate organizations prior to 2021. The first to be founded was Vermont Educational Television (Vermont ETV), originally a service of the University of Vermont, in 1967; the network's four main transmitters were completed in March 1968. Originally mostly funded by the state of Vermont, Vermont ETV began fundraising in the community and developed a substantial audience in the Canadian province of Quebec, which has historically accounted for a significant portion of viewer donations and where a related charity once operated to process Canadian viewers' donations. Vermont ETV was separated from the university in 1989 and later renamed Vermont Public Television and Vermont PBS. In addition to public television programming from PBS and other distributors, Vermont Public produces TV programs of local interest.

Vermont Public's radio operation began broadcasting in 1977 as Vermont Public Radio (VPR). The first transmitter served southern Vermont; coverage of the northern half of the state was added in 1980 and extended by the construction of new stations as well as the acquisition of several existing commercial radio stations. Beginning in the 2000s, VPR established a second radio programming service with a classical music format, which also now has statewide coverage; the existing programming was shifted to an all-talk format with shows from NPR and other public radio distributors as well as local programming focusing on Vermont issues and musical artists.

History of the Vermont Public Co.

[edit]

In September 2020, the Vermont Public Co. was formed; it became active on June 30, 2021, with the merger of Vermont PBS and Vermont Public Radio, which had been separate entities.[1] The move brought together the 57 full-time VPR employees with 42 at Vermont PBS to create the state's largest news organization, with $90 million in assets.[2][3] The name Vermont Public was unveiled on June 23, 2022.[4]

Television

[edit]

History

[edit]

The television service was established by an act of the Vermont General Assembly in 1966 as Vermont Educational Television (Vermont ETV), a service operated by the University of Vermont on behalf of all educational interests in the state.[5] This culminated six years of efforts to set up the service, including two defeats in the 1963 and 1965 sessions of the General Assembly.[6] Broadcasting began on October 16, 1967, from WETK (channel 33) atop Mount Mansfield.[7] Three more transmitters went on air in the months that followed: WVTB (channel 20) on Burke Mountain, serving St. Johnsbury, WVTA (channel 41) on Mount Ascutney, to serve Windsor and southern Vermont, and WVER, broadcasting from Grandpa's Knob to serve Rutland.[8] Delays in completing WVTA, which did not start until March 18, 1968, also held up the activation of WVER.[9][10]

In 1975, the network began fundraising from the community, having been initially financed 90 percent by the state and later also receiving federal funds.[11][12] 1979 saw a 57-day strike by production personnel;[13] the next year, the St. Johnsbury and Rutland transmitters narrowly avoided closure when the university voted to allow the installation of remote control equipment, allowing operators to control the facilities from the Mount Ascutney site.[14][15]

The 1989 session of the General Assembly authorized Vermont ETV's separation from the university.[16] However, funding continued to be a concern. In 1996, the Vermont Senate Appropriations Committee proposed cutting ETV's state funding to $1; ETV eventually was able to restore some of its allocation but still lost about half of its state grant. This was in contrast to Vermont Public Radio, which was not funded by the state and had more corporate contributors.[17]

In 1997, Vermont ETV began 24-hour broadcasting;[18] the name was changed to Vermont Public Television on January 1, 1998,[19] and again to Vermont PBS in 2014.[20] On February 17, 2009, the four main Vermont Public Television transmitters converted to digital broadcasting; in converting early, they joined most of the state's major commercial stations.[21]

On February 17, 2017, Vermont PBS announced that it had sold the WVTA broadcast license for $56 million in the FCC's spectrum auction. In a statement, the network said that its other signals would be upgraded to cover the area served by WVTA.[22][23] The WVTA license, which continued on the WVER multiplex, was then surrendered for cancellation on November 23, 2022.[24] $52 million of the auction proceeds constitute the majority of Vermont Public's endowment, which stood at $71.9 million in 2021.[25]

Shortly before the merger with Vermont Public Radio, Vermont PBS relocated from Fort Ethan Allen, where both organizations had maintained separate offices, to facilities in Winooski.[26]

Local programming

[edit]

The flagship local television program from Vermont Public is the weekly Vermont This Week, which features a rotating panel of Vermont political reporters. Other regular local programs include the outdoors program Outdoor Journal and the local film program Made Here.[27][28]

Support in Canada

[edit]

Public television in Vermont has had a long history with viewers in Montreal, where its signal is received and widely distributed on cable and has been since April 1968.[29][30] The large audience in Greater Montreal has been a major source of donations: in 1979, Vermont ETV received 60 percent of its donations from Quebec.[31]

In 1989, Vidéotron, one of Montreal's major cable providers, removed Vermont ETV from its channel lineup and replaced it with WCFE in nearby Plattsburgh, New York, to save on copyright fees; at the time, WCFE did not run the entire PBS schedule in order to provide a differentiated service from Vermont ETV. However, the move threatened the financial viability of Vermont ETV because, at the time, as many of 15,000 of the 40,000 Vermont ETV contributors were Montreal-area Vidéotron customers who represented 25 percent of the network's fundraising revenue.[32] Donations to Vermont ETV's March 1990 fundraising drive fell 27 percent.[33] Vidéotron restored Vermont ETV to its lineup in 1991 after a year's absence.[34]

The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) revoked the status of the Public Television Association of Quebec, a charitable organization in Canada that had supported Vermont PBS's Canadian efforts, in 2013. The CRA decision was unsuccessfully appealed to the Federal Court of Appeal, which ruled in 2015 that the association had "failed to maintain direction and control over its resources as it did not devote all its resources to its own charitable activities" and was only used to generate charitable tax receipts for Canadian donors.[35]

Technical information

[edit]

Transmitters

[edit]

Vermont Public holds three full-service television station licenses, one of which (WVER) is broadcast as a four-site distributed transmission system. WVER also has two separately licensed translators in Manchester and Pownal.

Vermont Public television stations
Station City of license
Facility ID ERP HAAT Transmitter coordinates First air date Public license information
WETK Burlington 33 (32) 69944 90 kW 830 m (2,723 ft) 44°31′32″N 72°48′51″W / 44.52556°N 72.81417°W / 44.52556; -72.81417 (WETK) October 16, 1967
WVER[a] Rutland 28 (10) 69946 15 kW 425.6 m (1,396 ft) 43°39′31″N 73°6′25″W / 43.65861°N 73.10694°W / 43.65861; -73.10694 (WVER) March 18, 1968
Mount Ascutney 5 kW 648.9 m (2,129 ft) 43°26′15″N 72°27′6″W / 43.43750°N 72.45167°W / 43.43750; -72.45167 (WVER site 2)
Brattleboro 0.32 kW −142.9 m (−469 ft) 42°51′6.1″N 72°33′38.8″W / 42.851694°N 72.560778°W / 42.851694; -72.560778 (WVER site 4)
Mount Pleasant 0.1 kW 204.3 m (670 ft) 44°7′28.7″N 72°28′52.2″W / 44.124639°N 72.481167°W / 44.124639; -72.481167 (WVER site 5)
WVTB St. Johnsbury 20 (28) 69940 75 kW 590 m (1,936 ft) 44°34′16″N 71°53′39″W / 44.57111°N 71.89417°W / 44.57111; -71.89417 (WVTB) February 26, 1968
Vermont Public television translators (WVER)
Call sign City of license Channel Facility ID ERP HAAT Transmitter coordinates
W20EH-D Pownal, VT 20 189111 1.26 kW 367 m (1,204 ft) 42°51′49.8″N 73°13′57.1″W / 42.863833°N 73.232528°W / 42.863833; -73.232528 (W20EH-D)
W30DM-D Manchester, VT 30 189112 0.796 kW 702 m (2,303 ft) 43°09′57.2″N 73°06′55.3″W / 43.165889°N 73.115361°W / 43.165889; -73.115361 (W30DM-D)

Subchannels

[edit]

All transmitters broadcast the same four subchannels.

Vermont Public television subchannels[36]
Channel Res. Aspect Short name Programming
xx.1 1080i 16:9 VPBS Main programming / PBS
xx.2 VPBS+ PBS Plus/World
xx.3 480i CREATE Create
xx.4 KIDS PBS Kids

Network map

[edit]
Vermont Public is located in Vermont
W20EH-D
W20EH-D
W30DM-D
W30DM-D
WETK
WETK
WVER-1
WVER-1
WVER-2
WVER-2
WVER-4
WVER-4
WVER-5
WVER-5
WVTB
WVTB
  • Vermont Public television transmitters
  • Full-power stations   Low-power translators

Radio

[edit]

History

[edit]

In 1975, two groups—the Champlain Valley Educational Radio Association and Vermont Public Radio—were formed by local residents to seek funds to plan a new non-commercial radio station for Vermont. The Champlain Valley group proposed starting with one station in Burlington, while the Vermont Public Radio application focused on statewide coverage, in order to meet requirements from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) for minimum population thresholds.[37][38] In October, Vermont Public Radio received a $25,000 CPB grant,[39] and two months later, the University of Vermont, which at the time administered Vermont ETV, approved the group to share some of its facilities.[40] The existing public television system also shared a founder with the radio network: Raymond V. Phillips, who was considered "the father of public television in Vermont".[41] While Phillips had long expressed interest in public radio, funding did not come until three local ministers objected to a local station's switch to a rock format; one of them later joined the Vermont Public Radio board.[42]

The first transmitter to go on air was WVPA-FM 89.5,[b] licensed to Windsor and broadcasting from Mount Ascutney, on August 13, 1977.[44] Serving northern Vermont took longer because Vermont Public Radio's application was placed into comparative hearing with several commercial applicants, having filed for the non-reserved frequency of 107.9 MHz.[45][46] The FCC approved VPR's request to move the frequency from Newport to Burlington despite opposition from a commercial broadcaster in Newport,[47][48][49] and WVPS atop Mount Mansfield was activated on October 31, 1980.[50] The Mount Ascutney and Mount Mansfield transmitters gave VPR coverage of 92 percent of the population—greater than Vermont ETV's reach at the time—as well as in northeastern New York, New Hampshire, and Montreal.[51]

Over the years, Vermont Public Radio added transmitters by construction as well as purchases of former commercial stations. WBTN-FM in Bennington was acquired as part of a package with its AM counterpart, WBTN, in 2000; the AM station briefly simulcast VPR programming with local news inserts and death notices until being sold and returned to commercial use.[52] In 2006, VPR purchased the former WJAN in Sunderland, transmitting from Mount Equinox; it is now WVTQ.[53]

In 2004, VPR started WNCH in Norwich, its first dedicated classical music station, and in 2007, it completed its split into two program services.[54] After VPR entered into discussions to purchase WWPV-FM in Colchester from Saint Michael's College in 2007, resistance from student and community groups led to the college refusing to sell.[55][56] Instead, VPR purchased WAVX, a Christian radio station licensed to Schuyler Falls, New York,[57] and relaunched it as WOXR.[58][c] When Saint Michael's obtained a low-power station construction permit in 2015, it then sold the high-power WWPV-FM facility to VPR for integration into the classical network as WVTX.[59]

The VPR studios at Fort Ethan Allen in Colchester were expanded in 2015, nearly doubling the size of the facility. $8 million was raised to finance the addition, which included a newsroom three times the size of the previous space—a converted storage attic—and a studio large enough to accommodate an audience.[60]

In December 2022, Vermont Public announced it would acquire WWLR, which had been the student-run station at Northern Vermont University's Lyndonville campus, for integration into the classical network. Trustees of the university had been attempting to sell the license for months and nearly surrendered it in 2021.[61] The purchase, at a price of $80,000, was consummated on April 25, 2023, and the station was taken silent; Vermont Public would rename the station WVLR-FM.[62] A report by VTDigger suggested that the university may not have been legally empowered to sell WWLR without General Assembly consent.[63] The statute in question was repealed weeks later by governor Phil Scott; in early August, the assembly's Joint Fiscal Committee granted the Vermont State Colleges system, to which Northern Vermont University belonged, retroactive approval to sell WWLR and for the 2019 closure of WIUV at Castleton University.[64]

Programs

[edit]

The news service airs major public radio news programs from NPR and other producers, including All Things Considered, Morning Edition, Here & Now, and Marketplace. Four days a week, Vermont Public produces its flagship radio program, Vermont Edition; currently hosted by Connor Cyrus and Mikaela Lefrak, the show was hosted by Jane Lindholm from 2007 to 2021.[65]

The classical service offers blocks of classical music, some with local hosts and others from Classical 24.[66]

Transmitters

[edit]

Transmitters are arranged alphabetically by call sign. All full-power transmitters broadcast in HD Radio, carrying the News and Classical services and the BBC World Service as subchannels.[67] A blue background indicates a low-power translator of the full-power transmitter preceding it or, at the end of the table, an HD Radio subchannel of a transmitter in the other network.

Vermont Public News

[edit]
Vermont Public News transmitters
Call sign Frequency City of license Facility ID ERP (W) HAAT Class Transmitter coordinates Founded
WBTN-FM 94.3 FM Bennington, VT 9310 3,000 34 m (112 ft) A 42°56′53.2″N 73°10′32.3″W / 42.948111°N 73.175639°W / 42.948111; -73.175639 (WBTN-FM) October 2, 1978[68]
WRVT 88.7 FM Rutland, VT 69953 4,000 412 m (1,352 ft) C2 43°39′31.2″N 73°6′23.4″W / 43.658667°N 73.106500°W / 43.658667; -73.106500 (WRVT) January 10, 1989[69]
W258AW 99.5 FM Middlebury, VT 139966 38 −16.5 m (−54 ft) D 44°0′25.2″N 73°10′38.4″W / 44.007000°N 73.177333°W / 44.007000; -73.177333 (W258AW)
W266AK 101.1 FM Rupert, VT 140100 10 129 m (423 ft) D 43°16′52.2″N 73°10′13.4″W / 43.281167°N 73.170389°W / 43.281167; -73.170389 (W266AK)
WVBA 88.9 FM Brattleboro, VT 175088 6,200 54 m (177 ft) B1 42°49′42.4″N 72°35′58.6″W / 42.828444°N 72.599611°W / 42.828444; -72.599611 (WVBA) September 24, 2012[70]
WVPA 88.5 FM St. Johnsbury, VT 85029 850 569.2 m (1,867 ft) C2 44°34′15.1″N 71°53′36.3″W / 44.570861°N 71.893417°W / 44.570861; -71.893417 (WVPA) July 21, 1999[71]
WVPR 89.5 FM Windsor, VT 69951 1,700 694 m (2,277 ft) B 43°26′15.3″N 72°27′6.3″W / 43.437583°N 72.451750°W / 43.437583; -72.451750 (WVPR) August 13, 1977[44]
W295AU 106.9 FM Manchester, VT 88164 51 135.5 m (445 ft) D 43°14′12.3″N 73°1′42.4″W / 43.236750°N 73.028444°W / 43.236750; -73.028444 (W295AU)
WVPS 107.9 FM Burlington, VT 69952 48,800 828 m (2,717 ft) C 44°31′32.1″N 72°48′56.4″W / 44.525583°N 72.815667°W / 44.525583; -72.815667 (WVPS) October 30, 1980[50]
W231BQ 94.1 FM Montpelier, VT 139908 200 D 44°15′22.1″N 72°35′4.1″W / 44.256139°N 72.584472°W / 44.256139; -72.584472 (W231BQ)
W298DD 107.5 FM Burlington, VT 139952 250 D 44°30′28.4″N 73°9′3.2″W / 44.507889°N 73.150889°W / 44.507889; -73.150889 (W298DD)

Vermont Public Classical

[edit]
Vermont Public Classical transmitters
Call sign Frequency City of license Facility ID ERP (W) HAAT Class Transmitter coordinates Founded
WNCH 88.1 FM Norwich, VT 84441 1,550 686.2 m (2,251 ft) B 43°26′15.3″N 72°27′6.3″W / 43.437583°N 72.451750°W / 43.437583; -72.451750 (WNCH) July 20, 2004[72]
W280CS 103.9 FM Hanover, NH 31111 250 −122.5 m (−402 ft) D 43°43′52.2″N 72°16′2.3″W / 43.731167°N 72.267306°W / 43.731167; -72.267306 (W280CS)
W295AL 106.9 FM Woodstock, VT 140067 100 D 43°37′53″N 72°30′47.1″W / 43.63139°N 72.513083°W / 43.63139; -72.513083 (W295AL)
WOXM 90.1 FM[d] Middlebury, VT 174578 1,200 95.3 m (313 ft) A 44°1′34.2″N 73°9′42.4″W / 44.026167°N 73.161778°W / 44.026167; -73.161778 (WOXM) June 8, 2010[75]
WOXR 90.9 FM Schuyler Falls, NY 78628 2,700 327.2 m (1,073 ft) C2 44°34′24.2″N 73°40′29.5″W / 44.573389°N 73.674861°W / 44.573389; -73.674861 (WOXR) November 2004[76]
WVER-FM 107.5 FM West Rutland, VT 762173 450 363 m (1,191 ft) A 43°39′31.5″N 73°6′23.6″W / 43.658750°N 73.106556°W / 43.658750; -73.106556 (WVER-FM) August 10, 2023
WVNK 91.1 FM Manchester, VT 175524 115 96.5 m (317 ft) A 43°14′12.3″N 73°1′42.4″W / 43.236750°N 73.028444°W / 43.236750; -73.028444 (WVNK) September 2011[77]
WVTI 106.9 FM Brighton, VT 165996 1,420 211.5 m (694 ft) A 44°47′2.1″N 71°53′11.3″W / 44.783917°N 71.886472°W / 44.783917; -71.886472 (WVTI) 2008[78]
WVTQ 95.1 FM Sunderland, VT 54687 105 718.9 m (2,359 ft) A 43°9′56″N 73°7′11.9″W / 43.16556°N 73.119972°W / 43.16556; -73.119972 (WVTQ) May 1, 1991[79]
WVTX 88.7 FM Colchester, VT 58598 260 19.8 m (65 ft) A 44°30′28.4″N 73°9′3.2″W / 44.507889°N 73.150889°W / 44.507889; -73.150889 (WVTX) August 1973[80]
WVXR 102.1 FM Randolph, VT 63473 11,000 133 m (436 ft) C3 43°57′20.2″N 72°36′13.9″W / 43.955611°N 72.603861°W / 43.955611; -72.603861 (WVXR) October 25, 1982[81]
WVLR-FM 91.5 FM Lyndonville, VT 6123 3,000 −23 m (−75 ft) A 44°32′2.1″N 72°1′43.3″W / 44.533917°N 72.028694°W / 44.533917; -72.028694 (WVLR-FM) February 4, 1977[82]
W227CA 93.3 FM Rupert, VT 140093 10 129 m (423 ft) D 43°16′52.2″N 73°10′13.3″W / 43.281167°N 73.170361°W / 43.281167; -73.170361 (W227CA)
W232CG 94.3 FM Brattleboro, VT 139889 150 D 42°49′42.4″N 72°35′58.6″W / 42.828444°N 72.599611°W / 42.828444; -72.599611 (W232CG)
W233BD 94.5 FM Burlington, VT[e] 139944 27 42.7 m (140 ft) D 44°21′29.3″N 73°14′48.1″W / 44.358139°N 73.246694°W / 44.358139; -73.246694 (W233BD)
W243DT 96.5 FM Waterbury, VT 139911 250 D 44°27′49.7″N 72°44′41.8″W / 44.463806°N 72.744944°W / 44.463806; -72.744944 (W243DT)
W250CZ 97.9 FM South Bennington, VT 140091 120 1.7 m (6 ft) D 42°56′53.2″N 73°10′32.3″W / 42.948111°N 73.175639°W / 42.948111; -73.175639 (W250CZ)
W256CW 99.1 FM Rutland, VT 139970 180 D 43°39′31.2″N 73°6′23.4″W / 43.658667°N 73.106500°W / 43.658667; -73.106500 (W256CW)
W258AZ 99.5 FM Newbury, VT 155335 10 114.5 m (376 ft) D 44°3′13.2″N 72°8′25.3″W / 44.053667°N 72.140361°W / 44.053667; -72.140361 (W258AZ)
W258BZ 99.5 FM Montpelier, VT 139919 200 D 44°15′22.1″N 72°35′4.1″W / 44.256139°N 72.584472°W / 44.256139; -72.584472 (W258BZ)

Network maps

[edit]
Vermont Public is located in Vermont
W231BQ
W231BQ
W258AW
W258AW
W266AK
W266AK
W295AU
W295AU
W298DD
W298DD
WRVT
WRVT
WVBA
WVBA
WVPA
WVPA
WVPR
WVPR
WVPS
WVPS
  • Vermont Public News transmitters
  • Full-power stations   Low-power translators
Vermont Public is located in Vermont
W227CA
W227CA
W232CG
W232CG
W233BD
W233BD
W243DT
W243DT
W250CZ
W250CZ
W256CW
W256CW
W258AZ
W258AZ
W258BZ
W258BZ
W280CS
W280CS
W295AL
W295AL
WNCH
WNCH
             WOXR
             WOXR
WVER-FM
WVER-FM
WVNK
WVNK
WVTI
WVTI
  • Vermont Public Classical transmitters
  • Full-power stations   Low-power translators

Notes

[edit]
  1. ^ The planned site 3, on Mount Anthony near Bennington, was removed before approval. Thus, the sites are numbered 1, 2, 4, and 5.
  2. ^ Call sign changed to WVPR on February 6, 1978.[43]
  3. ^ The call sign for WOXR is an homage to New York City classical music station WQXR.[58]
  4. ^ In 2014, WOXM moved to 89.1 MHz;[73] interference with the Vermont Electric Power Company's emergency response radio system led VPR to reverse the move on October 12, 2015.[74]
  5. ^ The translator serves Shelburne but not Burlington.

References

[edit]
  1. ^ "Vermont PBS, Vermont Public Radio officially merge". Associated Press. July 1, 2021. Archived from the original on June 23, 2022. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
  2. ^ Allen, Anne Wallace (June 28, 2021). "Media Note: Ahead of Merger, Vermont Public Radio's Van Hoesen Retires". Seven Days. Archived from the original on June 23, 2022. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
  3. ^ Thys, Fred (July 8, 2021). "Newly merged VPR and Vermont PBS aim for new audiences". VTDigger. Archived from the original on June 23, 2022. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
  4. ^ Venta, Lance (June 23, 2022). "VPR & Vermont PBS Rebrand As Vermont Public". RadioInsight. Archived from the original on June 23, 2022. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
  5. ^ "UVM Operates ETV for State Educational Interests". The Burlington Free Press. October 13, 1967. p. 5. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  6. ^ "State's First ETV Channel Goes On Air Monday: Long-awaited Day Is Near For New Unit". The Burlington Free Press. October 13, 1967. p. 4. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  7. ^ "State ETV Blows Tube". Rutland Daily Herald. October 17, 1967. p. 3. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  8. ^ "ETV Beam Comes from 4 Mountaintops". The Burlington Free Press. October 13, 1967. p. 5. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  9. ^ "Ascutney ETV Tower May Operate Soon Despite Trouble". Rutland Daily Herald. January 9, 1968. p. 4. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  10. ^ "State ETV Network Now Covers Vermont". The Brattleboro Reformer. March 18, 1968. p. 5. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  11. ^ McKnight, Jack (February 15, 1981). "Trouble at ETV: Vermont's only public television affiliate struggles with old equipment, new debts". The Burlington Free Press. Burlington, Vermont. p. Vermonter 4, 5, 6, 7. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  12. ^ Boone, Mike (March 8, 1988). "Vermont public TV fundraisers woo younger viewers' support". The Gazette. p. E-8. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  13. ^ "ETV Workers Vote To End 57-Day Strike". Valley News. May 5, 1979. p. 3. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  14. ^ "St. Johnsbury, Rutland Lose Public Stations". The Burlington Free Press. Associated Press. May 7, 1980. p. 7A. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  15. ^ "Vermont ETV Expands Service on Transmitters". The Brattleboro Reformer. December 3, 1980. p. 11. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  16. ^ "List Of Bills That Passed". Rutland Daily Herald. Rutland, Vermont. Associated Press. May 7, 1989. p. 8. Archived from the original on June 23, 2022. Retrieved June 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  17. ^ Blackburn, Maria (October 25, 1997). "Testing 1, 2, 3... Vermont Public Radio, ETV try collaboration as they mark anniversaries". The Burlington Free Press. Burlington, Vermont. p. 1C, 4C. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  18. ^ Boone, Mike (October 5, 1997). "Quality overnight TV: PBS station Vermont ETV is now on the air around the clock". The Montreal Gazette. p. C6. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  19. ^ "Vermont ETV Changing Name". Rutland Daily Herald. December 18, 1997. p. 20. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  20. ^ Burbank, April (August 2, 2014). "Vermont Public Television fined $15,000 for open meeting violations". The Burlington Free Press. p. 3C. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  21. ^ Banner Baird, Joel (February 6, 2009). "Vt. TV plans early conversion: Five stations stick with Feb. 17 switch". The Burlington Free Press. p. 1B, 5B. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  22. ^ Hallenbeck, Brent (February 17, 2017). "Vermont PBS sells broadcast licenses for $56 million". The Burlington Free Press. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
  23. ^ Frechette, Kristin (February 17, 2017). "Vermont PBS Sells off one of its Broadcast Licenses". MyChamplainValley.com. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved February 17, 2017.
  24. ^ "Cancellation Application". Licensing and Management System. Federal Communications Commission. November 23, 2022. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  25. ^ Thys, Fred (July 8, 2021). "Newly merged VPR and Vermont PBS aim for new audiences". VTDigger. Archived from the original on June 23, 2022. Retrieved June 23, 2022.
  26. ^ Heintz, Paul (September 9, 2010). "Media Note: Vermont Public Radio, Vermont PBS to Merge". Seven Days. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  27. ^ Davis, Mark (March 29, 2017). "How Will Vermont PBS Spend its $56 Million Windfall?". Seven Days. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  28. ^ "Local Content and Service Report" (PDF). Vermont Public. 2023.
  29. ^ Dubé, Bernard (April 24, 1968). "Television and Radio: A Startling Statistic". The Gazette. Montreal, Quebec. p. 18. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  30. ^ "Television and radio: 'The Dolly scene' had its moments". Montreal Star. April 25, 1968. p. 54. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  31. ^ Poronovich, Walter (June 27, 1979). "The joys of 'educational' television". The Montreal Star. p. B15. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  32. ^ Boone, Mike (December 20, 1989). "Tears won't be enough to keep Vermont ETV station on Vidéotron". The Gazette. Montreal, Quebec. p. C-7. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  33. ^ Boone, Mike (March 20, 1990). "Vidéotron's station switch takes its toll on pledges to Vermont ETV". The Gazette. Montreal, Quebec. p. B-7. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  34. ^ Boone, Mike (March 6, 1991). "This year, public TV really is counting on 'viewers like you'". The Gazette. Montreal, Quebec. p. B-6. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  35. ^ Dentons (August 4, 2015). "FCA Dismisses Appeal of Revocation of Charity Status". JD Supra. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  36. ^ "RabbitEars TV Query for WETK". RabbitEars. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  37. ^ "Group Seeks CPB Funds To Establish Noncommercial FM Station in Area". The Burlington Free Press. July 16, 1975. p. 19. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  38. ^ "Public Radio Broadcast Grant Needs Explained". The Burlington Free Press. August 23, 1975. p. 6. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  39. ^ "Public Radio Station Gets $25,000 Grant". The Burlington Free Press. October 14, 1975. p. 14. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  40. ^ "Public Radio Station Could Be on the Air by September". The Burlington Free Press. December 18, 1975. p. 24. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  41. ^ Bishop, Bish (January 25, 1976). "Father of Vermont's Public Airwaves". The Burlington Free Press. p. Vermont This Week 1, 3. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  42. ^ Pendergrast, Mark (August 16, 1978). "Vermont Public Radio Celebrates Its First Year on the Air". The Burlington Free Press. p. 1D, 2D. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  43. ^ "FCC History Cards for WVPR". Federal Communications Commission. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  44. ^ a b "Vermont Public Radio Goes on Air". The Burlington Free Press. August 15, 1977. p. 3B. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  45. ^ Maher, John (April 18, 1977). "FCC To Decide Fate of Vt. Public Radio". The Burlington Free Press. p. 3B. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  46. ^ Nickerson, Colin (July 31, 1977). "Three Groups Vie for Vacant FM Radio Channel". The Burlington Free Press. p. 4B. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  47. ^ Eley, Rob (March 26, 1978). "Public Radio Proposal Advances". The Burlington Free Press. p. 2B. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  48. ^ "Vt. Public Radio Frequency Announced". The Burlington Free Press. April 21, 1979. p. 19. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  49. ^ "FCC Upholds Decision to Reserve FM Frequency for Public Radio". The Burlington Free Press. Associated Press. June 3, 1980. p. 10A. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  50. ^ a b "Public Radio Station Given Broadcast OK". The Burlington Free Press. October 31, 1980. p. 1A. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  51. ^ Lister Smith, James (November 7, 1980). "Public Radio Station Provides Thoughtful Programs". The Burlington Free Press. pp. 1D, 6D. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 23, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  52. ^ Fybush, Scott (July 31, 2000). "Of WBTN(AM) and Big Blue Bags..." North East RadioWatch. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  53. ^ Fybush, Scott (December 4, 2006). "WCRB, WKLB Make the Big Switch". North East RadioWatch. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  54. ^ Wright, Leslie (February 6, 2007). "VPR to offer all-classical station". The Burlington Free Press. p. 7A. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  55. ^ Johnson, Tim (March 9, 2007). "College signal fading? St. Michael's considers selling student station to VPR". The Burlington Free Press. pp. 1A, 8A. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  56. ^ Johnson, Tim (March 22, 2007). "WWPV staying on the air". The Burlington Free Press. p. 5A. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  57. ^ Fybush, Scott (June 18, 2007). "Barnicle Out at Boston's WTKK". NorthEast Radio Watch. Archived from the original on May 14, 2009. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
  58. ^ a b Fybush, Scott (August 27, 2007). "VPR Doubles Up in Burlington Market". NorthEast Radio Watch. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2010.
  59. ^ Shetter, Karianne (September 24, 2015). "WWPV The Mike: Same Sound, New Frequency". The Defender. Saint Michael's College. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  60. ^ Mansfield, Erin (September 22, 2015). "VPR to spend $10 million on facility and programming expansion". VTDigger. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  61. ^ D'Auria, Peter (December 20, 2022). "Northern Vermont University to sell campus radio station to Vermont Public". VTDigger. Archived from the original on December 20, 2022. Retrieved December 20, 2022.
  62. ^ Tymecki, Joseph (October 24, 2023). "Form 380 – Change Request". Licensing and Management System. Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved October 30, 2023.
  63. ^ D'Auria, Peter (May 22, 2023). "A bid by the Vermont State Colleges to sell a radio station may raise legal questions". VTDigger.
  64. ^ D'Auria, Peter (August 1, 2023). "Vermont State Colleges get retroactive approval to give up 2 radio licenses, consider selling a 3rd". VTDigger.
  65. ^ Duffort, Lola (February 25, 2021). "VPR hires two new co-hosts to helm revamped 'Vermont Edition'". VTDigger. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  66. ^ "Schedules". Vermont Public. Archived from the original on November 23, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  67. ^ "HD (Hybrid Digital) Radio". Vermont Public. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 23, 2022.
  68. ^ "Editor's Note". Bennington Banner. October 2, 1978. p. 4. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  69. ^ Barna, Ed (January 28, 1989). "FCC Clarification Sought on VPR Interference Woes". Rutland Daily Herald. p. 17, 32. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  70. ^ Fybush, Scott (October 1, 2012). "Boston TV Picks A "Plum"". NorthEast Radio Watch. Archived from the original on November 25, 2022. Retrieved November 25, 2022.
  71. ^ Fybush, Scott (July 27, 2009). "Whither Pulse?". North East RadioWatch. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  72. ^ Gregg, John P. (July 18, 2004). "New VPR Station Offers Constant Classical". Valley News. p. A1, A7. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  73. ^ Owens, Michelle (March 31, 2014). "VPR Classical In Middlebury Moves From 90.1 to 89.1, Doubles Reach". Vermont Public Radio. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  74. ^ Mathews, Sarah (October 8, 2015). "VPR Classical In Middlebury Moving To 90.1 FM". Vermont Public Radio. Archived from the original on July 21, 2019. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  75. ^ "WOXM, Classical 90.1 in Vermont, takes to the airwaves". Current. June 8, 2010. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  76. ^ Turner, Shawn (January 27, 2005). "Christian rock station begins broadcasting in Champlain Valley". The Burlington Free Press. p. 4A. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  77. ^ Fybush, Scott (September 19, 2011). "Citadel Becomes Cumulus". NorthEast Radio Watch. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  78. ^ Fybush, Scott (October 6, 2008). "WCOJ's Gone...Is Nassau Next?". North East RadioWatch. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022.
  79. ^ Maffly, Brian (May 2, 1991). "Music of America comes home to Mt. Equinox and WJAN-FM". Bennington Banner. p. 10. Archived from the original on January 10, 2023. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  80. ^ "New Radio Station at SMC Goes on the Air". The Burlington Free Press. August 10, 1973. p. 21. Archived from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved November 24, 2022 – via Newspapers.com.
  81. ^ "WCVR-FM". Broadcasting/Cablecasting Yearbook '89 (PDF). 1989. p. B-305. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 24, 2022. Retrieved April 10, 2010 – via World Radio History.
  82. ^ Broadcasting & Cable Yearbook 1999 (PDF). 1999. p. D-457. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
[edit]