The United States of America
is a federal republic
of 50 states
, a capital district
, and a number of other territories. It is located mostly in central North America
. The U.S. has three land borders, two with Canada
and one with Mexico
, and is otherwise bounded by the Pacific Ocean
, the Bering Sea
, the Arctic Ocean
and the Atlantic Ocean
. Of the 50 states, only Alaska
are not contiguous with any other state. The U.S. also has a collection of districts, territories, and possessions
around the world. Each state has a high level of local autonomy according to the system of federalism. The U.S. traces its national origin to the declaration
by 13 British
colonies in 1776
that they were free and independent states. They were recognized as such by the Treaty of Paris
in 1783. Since then, the nation has grown to become a global superpower
and exerts a high level of economic, political, military, and cultural influence.
is an American science fiction entertainment franchise
created by Gene Roddenberry
and under the ownership of CBS
. Star Trek: The Original Series
and its live action TV spin-off shows, Star Trek: The Next Generation
, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine
, Star Trek: Voyager
, and Star Trek: Enterprise
as well as the Star Trek film series
make up the main canon, while the canonicity of Star Trek: The Animated Series
is debated and the expansive library of Star Trek novels
whilst still part of the franchise, are generally considered non-canon. The first series, now referred to as "The Original Series", debuted in 1966 and ran for three seasons on NBC
. It followed the interstellar adventures of James T. Kirk
and the crew of the starship Enterprise
, an exploration vessel of a 23rd-century interstellar "United Federation of Planets
". In creating the first "Star Trek", Roddenberry was inspired by Westerns
such as Wagon Train
, along with the Horatio Hornblower
novels and Gulliver's Travels
. Star Trek
has been a cult phenomenon
for decades. Fans of the franchise are called Trekkies
or Trekkers. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world. The series has its own full-fledged constructed language
. Several parodies have been made of Star Trek
. Its fans, despite the end of Star Trek
episodes on TV, have produced several fan productions
to fill that void. Star Trek
is noted for its influence
on the world outside of science fiction. It has been cited as an inspiration for several technological inventions such as the cell phone. Moreover, the show is noted for its progressive civil rights stances.
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Selected society biography
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
(January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR
, was the thirty-second President of the United States
. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms of office. He was a central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war
During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Roosevelt created the New Deal to provide relief for the unemployed, recovery of the economy, and reform of the economic and banking systems. Although recovery of the economy was incomplete until almost 1940, many programs initiated continue to have instrumental roles in the nation's commerce, such as the FDIC, TVA, and the SEC. One of his most important legacies is the Social Security system.
Roosevelt won four presidential elections in a row, causing a realignment political scientists call the Fifth Party System. His aggressive use of the federal government re-energized the Democratic Party, creating a New Deal Coalition which dominated American politics until the late 1960s. He and his wife, Eleanor Roosevelt, remain touchstones for modern American liberalism. Conservatives vehemently fought back, but Roosevelt usually prevailed until he tried to pack the Supreme Court in 1937. Thereafter, the new Conservative coalition successfully ended New Deal expansion; during the war it closed most relief programs like the WPA and Civilian Conservation Corps, arguing unemployment had disappeared.
Anniversaries for January 9
A tea party held in the U.S. Capitol in honor of America's Centennial, 1875, in this engraving, Carl Schurz
the senator from Missouri is standing at the tea table on the left
American tea culture encompasses the methods of preparation and means of consumption of tea within the context of the culture of the United States. (Full article...)
A photograph of American poet, essayist and journalist Walt Whitman, taken in 1887. Whitman, often called the father of free verse, is considered one of the most important poets in American canon.
is the fourth most populous city in California
and the 14th most populous city
in the United States
, with a 2007 estimated population of 764,976. One of the most densely populated
major cities in the US, San Francisco is part of the much larger San Francisco Bay Area
, which is home to approximately 7.2 million people. The city is located on the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula
, with the Pacific Ocean
to the west, San Francisco Bay
to the east, and the Golden Gate
to the north.
In 1776, the Spanish settled the tip of the peninsula, establishing a fort at the Golden Gate and a mission named for Francis of Assisi. The California Gold Rush in 1848 propelled the city into a period of rapid growth. After being devastated by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt.
San Francisco is a popular international tourist destination renowned for its steep rolling hills, an eclectic mix of Victorian and modern architecture, and famous landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, Alcatraz Island, the cable cars, Coit Tower, and Chinatown. The city is also known for its diverse, cosmopolitan population, including large and long-established Asian American and LGBT communities. While the climate includes chilly summer fog, the winters are mild.
Selected culture biography
(born March 27, 1970 or 1969; sources vary) is an American R&B
, record producer
and actress. She made her recording debut, in 1990, under the guidance of Columbia Records
executive Tommy Mottola
, and became the first recording artist to have her first five singles top the U.S. Billboard Hot 100
chart. Following her marriage to Mottola, in 1993, a series of hit records established her position as Columbia Records' highest-selling act.
In a career spanning over two decades, Carey has sold more than 200 million albums, singles and videos worldwide, according to Island Def Jam, which makes her one of the world's best-selling music artists. Carey was cited as the world’s best-selling recording artist of the 1990s at the 1998 World Music Awards and was also named the best-selling female artist of the millennium by the same award-giving body in 2000. According to the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), she is the third-best-selling female artist, with shipments of 63 million albums. In 2008, Carey earned her eighteenth number one single on the Hot 100, the most by any solo artist. Aside from her commercial accomplishments, she has earned five Grammy Awards and is known for her five-octave vocal range, power, melismatic style and use of the whistle register.
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