A 1959–1960 study showed that cannabis use in Rwanda at the time was confined to the minority Twa people. Negative associations of cannabis with violence, and with the low social status of the Twa, resulted in its usage being confined to that ethnic group.
- "Rwanda legalises medical use of Cannabis". The East African. Retrieved 2021-07-02.
- Vera Rubin (1 January 1975). Cannabis and Culture. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 217–. ISBN 978-3-11-081206-0.
- Neil Carrier; Gernot Klantschnig (11 October 2012). Africa and the War on Drugs. Zed Books Ltd. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-1-84813-969-5.
- Ill and need marijuana? Head south to Rwanda - The East African