Help:IPA/Punjabi

The charts below show the way (both in Gurmukhi and Shahmukhi scripts) in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Punjabi language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-pa}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

Consonants
IPA Gurmukhi Shahmukhi English equivalent
b ب abash
d د ado
ɖ
ڈ somewhat like guard
ج hedge
f ਫ਼ ف food
ɡ گ gate
ɦ ہ ahead
j ي yak
k ک scan
کھ can
l ل leaf
m م much
n ن not
ɳ somewhat like burner
ŋ bank
p ਪ, ਭ پ, بھ span
پھ pan
q ਕ਼ ق a k in the throat
ɾ ر US: better
ɽ ڑ somewhat like US: larder
s س sue
ʃ ਸ਼ ش shoe
t ਤ, ਧ ت, دھ stable
تھ table
ʈ ਟ, ਢ ٹ, ڈھ somewhat like art
ʈʰ ٹھ somewhat like table
ਚ, ਛ, ਝ چ, چھ, جھ catch
v و very
x ਖ਼ خ Scottish loch
ɣ ਗ਼ غ like a French r
z ਜ਼ ز zen
Vowels
IPA Gurmukhi Shahmukhi English equivalent
ਆ, ਪਾ آ, ـا bra
ਏ, ਪੇ ے play
ɛː ਐ, ਪੈ yell
ə ਅ, ਪ ـَ nut
[1] ਈ, ਪੀ ی feet
ɪ [1] ਇ, ਪਿ ـِ dill
ਓ, ਪੋ و old
ɔː ਔ, ਪੌ dog
[1] ਊ, ਪੂ loot
ʊ [1] ਉ, ਪੁ ـُ look
 ̃ ں nasal vowel
([ãː], [õː], etc.)

Suprasegmentals
IPA
ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
ː doubled consonant
í ì tone (placed over vowel)[2]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralized to [i, u] at the end of a word.
  2. ^ In any word, there is a choice of three tones: high-falling (ì), low-rising (í), and level (i)