Endothelin 2 is a member of the endothelin protein family of secretory vasoconstrictive peptides. The preproprotein is processed to a short mature form which functions as a ligand for the endothelin receptors that initiate intracellular signaling events. This gene product is involved in a wide range of biological processes, such as hypertension and ovulation.
Endothelin 2 (ET-2) expression is mainly localized to the granulosa cells within the follicle, as observed in bovine, murine, and human ovarian tissue. Endothelin 2 has functions within the ovarian follicle related to ovulation. ET-2 causes strong contractions in smooth muscle cells of ovarian tissue, and ET-2 production is highest just before ovulation.
^Klipper, E., A. Levit, Y. Mastich, B. Berisha, D. Schams, and R. Meidan. 2010. Induction of Endothelin-2 Expression by Luteinizing Hormone and Hypoxia: Possible Role in Bovine Corpus Luteum Formation. Endocrinology. 151:1914–1922.
^Ko, C., M.C. Gieske, L. Al-Alem, Y. Hahn, W. Su, M.C. Gong, M. Iglarz, and Y. Koo. 2006. Endothelin-2 in Ovarian Follicular Rupture. Endocrinology. 147:1770–1779.
^Na, G., P.J. Bridges, Y. Koo, C. Ko. 2008. Role of hypoxia in the regulation of periovulatory EDN2 expression in the mouse. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 86:310-319.
^Imbar, T., E. Klipper, C. Greenfield, A. Hurwitz, R. Haimov-Kochman, R. Meidan. 2012. Altered endothelin expression in granulosa-lutein cells of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Life Sciences. 91:703–709.
Arjomand-Nahad F, Landt O, Stangl K, Diefenbach K, Roots I (2006). “Fifteen polymorphisms in endothelin-1, endothelin-2 and endothelin-receptor-A genotyped by four duplex assays and seven simple assays on a LightCycler using hybridization probes”. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 44 (8): 929–32. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2006.180. PMID16879056.
Kotake-Nara E, Saida K (2006). “Endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor: regulation of expression via reactive oxygen species induced by CoCl2, and Biological activities including neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells”. TheScientificWorldJournal. 6: 176–86. doi:10.1100/tsw.2006.37. PMID16493522.
Paulino EC, Steil AA, Jancar S (July 2006). “Effect of endothelins on human neutrophil activation by immune complexes”. International Immunopharmacology. 6 (7): 1119–25. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2006.01.022. PMID16714215.
Rebourcet R, Mignot TM, Robert B, Ferré F (2004). “Endothelin-2 down-regulation occurs in parallel with the anti-proliferative effect of dimethylsulfoxide in BeWO human choriocarcinoma cell line”. Cellular and Molecular Biology. 50 Online Pub: OL701–12. PMID15619356.
Nagai T, Ogimoto A, Okayama H, Ohtsuka T, Shigematsu Y, Hamada M, Miki T, Higaki J (December 2007). “A985G polymorphism of the endothelin-2 gene and atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy”. Circulation Journal. 71 (12): 1932–6. doi:10.1253/circj.71.1932. PMID18037749.
Grimshaw MJ, Hagemann T, Ayhan A, Gillett CE, Binder C, Balkwill FR (April 2004). “A role for endothelin-2 and its receptors in breast tumor cell invasion”. Cancer Research. 64 (7): 2461–8. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.can-03-1069. PMID15059899.
Dowal L, Provitera P, Scarlata S (August 2006). “Stable association between G alpha(q) and phospholipase C beta 1 in living cells”. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 (33): 23999–4014. doi:10.1074/jbc.M512330200. PMID16754659.
Sun DJ, Liu Y, Lu DC, Kim W, Lee JH, Maynard J, Deisseroth A (July 2007). “Endothelin-3 growth factor levels decreased in cervical cancer compared with normal cervical epithelial cells”. Human Pathology. 38 (7): 1047–56. doi:10.1016/j.humpath.2006.12.015. PMID17445867.