Cannabis classification in the United Kingdom
Cannabis classification in the United Kingdom refers to the class of drugs, as determined by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, that cannabis is placed in. Between 1928 and 2004 and since 2009, it has been classified as a class B drug. From 2004 to 2009, it was a class C drug. At present, it is a class B, with very limited exceptions.
Transfer to class C
As Home Secretary in Tony Blair‘s Labour government, David Blunkett announced in 2001 that cannabis would be transferred from class B of the Act to class C, removing the threat of arrest for possession. Arrest would still be possible for distribution, however. Reclassification had the support of a plurality of the public, with surveys at the time finding that 49% of British adults supported cannabis decriminalisation, 36% were against, and 15% were undecided. The transfer eventually happened in January 2004, after class C penalties for distribution had been stiffened. The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs had recommended such a reclassification as early as 1979, a view endorsed by the Runciman Report in 1999.
The change was designed to enable police forces to concentrate resources on other (more serious) offences, including those involving “harder drugs“. The government stated that the reclassification of cannabis to class C had the desired effect, with arrests for cannabis possession falling by one third in the first year following, saving an estimated 199,000 police hours.
Return to class B
Early in January 2006 Charles Clarke, the Home Secretary, said that on the basis of advice from the Advisory Council, a decision was made not to return cannabis to class B. However, during Prime Minister’s Questions on 18 July 2007, Prime Minister Gordon Brown announced that the Home Secretary, Jacqui Smith, was reviewing again whether to return cannabis to class B status. On 7 May 2008, Smith confirmed that cannabis in the UK would again be classified as a class B drug, despite the Advisory Council’s recommendation. On 26 January 2009, cannabis was reclassified as a class B drug. The reclassification of cannabis to a class B drug had been hinted at as early as 2005 by allies of Gordon Brown, on the election night in 2005, Ed Balls stated that cannabis and the war in Iraq were mistakes that the Labour party had to learn from.
2012 Home Affairs Committee consideration
In 2012 the Home Affairs Select Committee produced a report on the UK’s drugs policies. The committee were split on whether to recommend reducing the classification of cannabis back to class C. A vote was held in committee on the inclusion of the following sentence:
We remain, however, of the view expressed in our predecessors’ Report, namely that cannabis be reclassified from class B to C, and therefore regret the decision taken by the Government in 2008— The House of Commons, 2012
On Tuesday 10 October 2017 under the Ten Minute Rule the Legalisation of Cannabis (Medicinal Purposes) Bill was proposed by Paul Flynn, Frank Field, Caroline Lucas,
Mary Glindon, Jeff Smith,
Kelvin Hopkins, Crispin Blunt,
Michael Fabricant, Martyn Day,
Ronnie Cowan, Layla Moran,
and Alistair Carmichael.
Rescheduling of cannabis and cannabis resin;(1) The Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 are amended as follows. (2) In paragraph 1(a) of Schedule 1, omit “Cannabis (not being the substance specified in paragraph 5 of Part 1 of Schedule 4) and cannabis resin”. (3) In paragraph 1 of Schedule 2, after “Bezitramide”, insert “Cannabis (not being the substance specified in paragraph 5 of Part 1 of Schedule 4) and cannabis resin”
The second reading is set for Friday 6 July 2018.
The first emergency licence for cannabis oil was granted on 18 June 2018. The concession came after an epileptic child became severely ill after having his cannabis confiscated.
- Cannabis in the United Kingdom
- Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act
- Drug liberalisation
- Drug policy reform
- Effects of cannabis
- Legal and medical status of cannabis
- Legal issues of cannabis
- Legality of cannabis by country
- List of British politicians who admit to cannabis use
- Medical cannabis
- Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
- Wootton Report
- Alan Travis (24 October 2001). “Cannabis laws eased in drug policy shakeup”. the guardian. Retrieved 2012-12-15.
- “Blunkett to focus on the menace of hard drugs:Home Office Press Release 255/2001, 23 October 2001” (Press release). Independent Drug Monitoring Unit. Retrieved 2012-12-15.
- Peter Gould (2001-02-06). “Cannabis: Time to change dannythe law?”. BBC News. Retrieved 2012-12-15.
- The Police Foundation (1999). “Drugs and the Law: Report of the independent inquiry into The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971”. Retrieved 2012-12-15.
- “CANNABIS RECLASSIFICATION – Reference: Stat002/2005” (Press release). Home office. 28 Jan 2005. Archived from the original on 2005-03-21. same:“CANNABIS RECLASSIFICATION – Reference: Stat002/2005” (Press release). Home office. 28 Jan 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-11-10.
- “UK | UK Politics | Cannabis will remain class C drug”. BBC News. 2006-01-19. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
- “Cannabis May Be Reclassified As Class B”. Sky News. July 18, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-08-28.
- “UK | UK Politics | Cannabis laws set to be reviewed”. BBC News. 2007-07-18. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
- The Press Association: Smith snubs experts over cannabis[dead link][permanent dead link]
- Jason-Lloyd, Leonard (2009). “Cannabis Reclassification 2009”. Criminal Law & Justice Weekly. 173: 30.
- Sare, Jeremy (2 November 2009). “Labour is in denial over cannabis row”. The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
- “Drugs: Breaking the Cycle – Home Affairs Committee Formal Minutes:Monday 3 December 2012”. The House of Commons. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-10.
- Busby, Mattha (2018-06-18). “Hunt wants swift review of cannabis oil law after Billy Caldwell case”. the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
- ‘Legalise It, Don’t Criticise It’ – Should Cannabis Be Legalised? The Huffington Post (UK edition). Published 4 July 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- Parliamentary report set to recommend legalising medicinal cannabis. ITV. Published 12 September 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- Cannabis legalisation ‘could raise £1bn a year for UK’. BBC NEWS. Published 21 November 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- Legalisation of cannabis ‘only solution to crime and addiction problems’. The Guardian. Published 21 November 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- MPs call for legalisation of cannabis amid warning UK is falling behind in its drug policies. The Independent. Published 21 November 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
- James H. Mills (11 September 2003). Cannabis Britannica: Empire, Trade, and Prohibition 1800-1928. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-155465-0.
- James H. Mills (2013). Cannabis Nation: Control and Consumption in Britain, 1928-2008. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-928342-2.