Angelica archangelica

Garden angelica
Koehler1887-GardenAngelica.jpg
Scientific classification
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A. archangelica
Binomial name
Angelica archangelica

Angelica archangelica, commonly known as garden angelica, wild celery, and Norwegian angelica, is a biennial plant from the family Apiaceae, a subspecies of which is cultivated for its sweetly scented edible stems and roots. Like several other species in Apiaceae, its appearance is similar to several poisonous species (Conium, Heracleum, and others), and should not be consumed unless it has been identified with absolute certainty. Synonyms include Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. and Angelica officinalis Moench.[2]

Description and distribution[edit]

During its first year it grows only leaves, but during its second year, its fluted stem can reach a height of 2.5 meters (just over 8 feet), and the root is used in flavoring preparations. Its leaves comprise of numerous small leaflets divided into three principal groups, each of which is again subdivided into three lesser groups. The edges of the leaflets are finely toothed or serrated. The flowers, which blossom in July, are small and numerous, yellowish or greenish, are grouped into large, globular umbels which bear pale yellow, oblong fruits. Angelica grows only in damp soil, preferably near rivers or deposits of water.

Angelica archangelica grows wild in Russia, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and Iceland, mostly in the northern parts of the countries. It is cultivated in France, mainly in the Marais Poitevin, a marsh region close to Niort in the department Deux-Sèvres. Commercially available sources of angelica are often sourced from Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Germany and Poland.[citation needed]

Use and history[edit]

Angelica archangelica
Angelica (A. archangelica) essential oil in clear glass vial

From the 10th century on, angelica was cultivated as a vegetable and medicinal plant,[3] and achieved popularity in Scandinavia in the 12th century and is used especially in Sami culture. Angelica is a shamanic medicine among the Saami or Laplanders.[4]

It is used to flavor liqueurs or aquavits, (e.g., Chartreuse, Bénédictine, Vermouth, and Dubonnet), omelettes and trout, and as jam. The long bright-green stems are also candied and used as food decoration. Angelica is unique among the Umbelliferae for its pervading aromatic odor, a pleasant perfume entirely different from fennel, parsley, anise, caraway, or chervil.[citation needed] It has been compared to musk and to juniper. Angelica archangelica roots are among the most common botanicals used in gin distillation, often used in concert with juniper berries and coriander as a chief aromatic characteristic for gin.[5] They are also used in absinthes, aquavits, and bitters, in addition to culinary uses such as jams and omelettes.[6] The hollow stems of Angelica archangelica may be eaten. The stems are picked clean of their leaves, crystallized in sugar syrup and colored green as cake decoration or as candy.[7]

Chemistry[edit]

The essential oil content of angelica root varies based on the age of the roots. Generally, the roots have high levels of terpenes, including α-pinene and β-phellandrene.[8] Studies have found upwards of over eighty different aroma compounds present in samples. Of particular interest to perfumers and aroma chemists is Cyclopentadecanolide, which although present in small quantities (< 1% in roots, <.5% in seeds), it's primarily responsible for angelica root's distinctive musky aroma[6] and was originally found in the roots.[9]

Though the essential oil yield of Angelica seeds are slightly higher,[7] it's the roots which are generally preferred for culinary and aroma uses.[6]

Angelica seeds have a similar chemical composition to the roots, including α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, myrcene, β-phellandrene, limonene, caryophyllene, borneol, carvone and others.[8]

Both the seeds and roots contain coumarins and furocoumarins. Among these are 2′-angeloyl-3′-isovaleryl vaginate, archangelicin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, bergapten, byakangelicin angelate, imperatorin, isoimperatorin, isopimpinellin, 8-[2-(3-methylbutroxy)-3-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy]psoralen, osthol, ostruthol, oxypeucedanin, phellopterin, psoralen and xanthotoxin, can be isolated from a chloroform extract of the roots of A. archangelica[10] as well as several heraclenol derivatives.[11] The water root extract of A. archangelica subsp. litoralis contains adenosine, coniferin, the two dihydrofurocoumarin glycosides apterin and 1′-O-β-d-glycopyranosyl-(S)-marmesin (marmesinin), 1′-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(2S, 3R)-3-hydroxymarmesin and 2′-β-d-glucopyranosyloxymarmesin.[12]

Etymology[edit]

Archangelica comes from the Greek word "arkhangelos" (=arch-angel), due to the belief that it was the archangel Michael who told of its use as a medicine.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Angelica archangelica". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-03-03.
  2. ^ "Angelica archangelica L. | Plants of the World Online | Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 2018-07-30.
  3. ^ http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/anegl037.html | Ed Greenwood 1995, Electronic version of A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-Lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs & Trees with their Modern Scientific Uses, by Mrs. M. Grieve, first published 1931.
  4. ^ The Earthwise Herbal: A Complete Guide to Old World Medicinal Plants, Matthew Wood, 2008, p94
  5. ^ Gualtiero Simonetti (1990). Stanley Schuler (ed.). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Herbs and Spices. Simon & Schuster, Inc. ISBN 978-0-671-73489-3.
  6. ^ a b c Jelen, Henryk (2011-10-25). Food Flavors: Chemical, Sensory and Technological Properties. CRC Press. ISBN 9781439814918.
  7. ^ a b Reineccius, Gary (1995). Source Book of Flavors - Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-7889-5. ISBN 978-1-4615-7891-8.
  8. ^ a b Burdock, George A. (2016-04-19). Fenaroli's Handbook of Flavor Ingredients, Sixth Edition. CRC Press. ISBN 9781420090864.
  9. ^ Burdock, George A. (1997). Encyclopedia of Food and Color Additives. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849394140.
  10. ^ Strategy for the isolation and identification of coumarins with calcium antagonistic properties from the roots of Angelica archangelica. P. Härmälä, H. Vuorela, R. Hiltunen, Sz. Nyiredy, O. Sticher, K. Törnquist and S. Kaltia, Phytochemical Analysis, January 1992, Volume 3, Issue 1, pages 42–48, doi:10.1002/pca.2800030108
  11. ^ Further heraclenol derivatives from Angelica archangelica. Sun H and Jakupovic J, Pharmazie, 1986, volume 41, number 12, pages 888-889, INIST:7473899
  12. ^ Lemmich, John; Havelund, Svend; Thastrup, Ole (1983). "Dihydrofurocoumarin glucosides from Angelica archangelica and Angelica silvestris". Phytochemistry. 22 (2): 553–555. doi:10.1016/0031-9422(83)83044-1. ISSN 0031-9422.

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