Legality of cannabis

Map of world cannabis laws

Legal status of recreational cannabis across the world


  Legal
  Illegal but decriminalized
  Illegal but often unenforced
  Illegal

See also countries that have legalized medical use of cannabis.

The legality of cannabis for medical and recreational use varies by country, in terms of its possession, distribution, and cultivation, and (in regards to medical) how it can be consumed and what medical conditions it can be used for. These policies in most countries are regulated by the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs that was ratified in 1961, along with the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1988 Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.[1][2]

The use of cannabis for recreational purposes is prohibited in most countries; however, many have adopted a policy of decriminalization to make simple possession a non-criminal offense (often similar to a minor traffic violation). Others have much more severe penalties such as some Asia and Middle Eastern countries where possession of even small amounts is punished by imprisonment for several years.[3]

Uruguay and Canada are the only sovereign states that have fully legalized the consumption and sale of recreational cannabis nationwide. In the United States, ten states and the District of Columbia have legalized the recreational use of cannabis although it remains federally illegal. Laws vary from state to state when it comes to the commercial sale. Court rulings in Georgia and South Africa have led to the legalization of cannabis consumption, but not legal sales. A policy of limited enforcement has also been adopted in many countries, in particular Spain and the Netherlands where the sale of cannabis is tolerated at licensed establishments.[4][5]

Countries that have legalized the medical use of cannabis include Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Luxembourg, North Macedonia, Norway, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Peru, Poland, and Thailand. Others have more restrictive laws that only allow the use of certain cannabis-derived pharmaceutical drugs, such as Sativex, Marinol, or Epidiolex.[6] In the United States, 33 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the medical use of cannabis, but at the federal level its use remains prohibited for any purpose.[7]

By country[edit]

Country/Territory Recreational Medical Notes
 Afghanistan Illegal Illegal

Production banned by King Zahir Shah in 1973.[8]

 Albania Illegal Illegal

Prohibited but plants highly availabile throughout the country and law often unenforced.[9][10][11]

 Algeria Illegal Illegal
 Andorra Illegal Illegal
 Angola Illegal Illegal
 Antigua and Barbuda Decriminalized Illegal
 Argentina Decriminalized Legal

Decriminalized for small amounts and private consumption, the Supreme Court ruled in 2009.[12] Medicinal cannabis legal nationally since 21 September 2017.[13]

 Armenia Illegal Illegal
 Australia Decriminalized for personal use in the Northern Territory, South Australia, and the Australian Capital Territory[14][15] Legal at federal level and in all states.[16] Qualifying conditions and other details vary by state.[17]
 Austria Possession for personal use decriminalized as of January 2016. Cannabis-derived drugs
 Azerbaijan Illegal Illegal
 Bahamas Illegal Illegal
 Bahrain Illegal Illegal
 Bangladesh Illegal but often unenforced Illegal

Sale banned in 1989,[18] but laws are rarely enforced and cannabis is openly sold in many parts of the country.[19][20]

 Barbados Illegal Illegal
 Belarus Illegal Illegal
 Belgium Decriminalized up to 3 g or cultivation of one plant Cannabis-derived drugs[21]

Up to 3 g legal for adults since 2003.[22][23]

 Belize Decriminalized up to 10 g Illegal

Possession prohibited, but use is common and largely tolerated.[24] Possession of up to 10 g decriminalized “in the works”.[25]

 Benin Illegal Illegal
 Bermuda Decriminalized up to 7 g Legal

In November 2016, the Supreme Court of Bermuda ruled in favor of allowing the medical use of cannabis.[26] As of July 2018, two doctors have been licensed to prescribe the drug.[27]

 Bhutan Illegal Illegal

Illegal, but plants grow prolifically and have multiple traditional uses, such as feeding pigs and producing textiles.[28]

 Bolivia Decriminalized up to 50 g Illegal
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Illegal Illegal

In 2016 it was announced that the Ministry of Civil Affairs had formed a task force to explore the legalizing of cannabis and cannabinoids for medicinal purposes.[29]

 Botswana Illegal Illegal

Cannabis (or dagga) is illegal.[30][31]

 Brazil Illegal (educational measures for small amounts and private use) Sativex

Possession of any illegal drug entails a warning, community service, and education on the effects of drug use. Sale, transportation, cultivation, and possession of large amounts are considered drug trafficking.[32]

 Brunei Illegal Illegal
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Notes
 Bulgaria Illegal Illegal

Cannabis is classified as a class A (High-risk) drug, together with Heroin, Cocaine, Amphetamines, and MDMA (ecstasy). Until 2004, a loosely defined “personal dose” existed.[33]

 Burkina Faso Illegal Illegal
 Burundi Illegal Illegal
 Cambodia Illegal but often unenforced Illegal

Illegal,[34] but this prohibition is lax and enforced opportunistically.[35][36][37] “Happy” restaurants in cities publicly offer food cooked with marijuana, or as a side garnish.[38]

 Cameroon Illegal Illegal
 Canada Legal Legal

Legal for medicinal purposes since 2001 and for recreational purposes since 2018. Age and regulations of consumption vary by province.[39]

 Cape Verde Illegal Illegal
 Central African Republic Illegal Illegal
 Chad Illegal Illegal
 Chile Decriminalized for possession and cultivation Legal

Private personal use[40] and recreational cultivation[41][42][43] decriminalized. Medicinal cultivation legal with the authorization of The Chilean Agriculture Service (SAG)[44] and sale of medication allowed on prescription in pharmacies.[45]

 People’s Republic of China (PRC) Illegal Illegal
 Colombia Decriminalized up to 22 g or cultivation of 20 plants for personal use Legal

Decriminalized up to 22 g for personal consumption. Individuals carrying greater amounts, or cultivating up to 20 plants, cannot be prosecuted if the drug is for personal use.[46][47][48][49]

 Comoros Illegal Illegal

Cannabis was legal during the Comorian historical period between January 1975 and May 1978, when president Ali Soilih legalized cannabis consumption among other measures.[50][51]

 Democratic Republic of the Congo Illegal Illegal
 Republic of the Congo Illegal Illegal
 Costa Rica Decriminalized[52][53] Illegal

Decriminalization de facto implemented since police officers do not detain people carrying enough for only personal consumption, yet no amount has been defined as a minimum for possession. Use of cannabis is widespread throughout the country.[52][53]

 Croatia Decriminalized[54] Legal[55]

Possession of small amounts considered a misdemeanor which leads to fine. Medicinal cannabis legal for patients with illnesses such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, or AIDS.[55]

 Cuba Illegal Illegal
 Cyprus Illegal Legal[56]

Class B substance – life imprisonment is possible for use and maximum 8 years for possession (at the maximum 2 years for the first offence for under 25-year-olds).[57]

 Czech Republic Decriminalized up to 10 g or cultivation of 5 plants[58] Legal

Possession of up to 15 g or cultivation of up to 5 plants is a misdemeanor subject to minor fine – mostly not enforced. Popular destination for smokers.[59][60] Medicinal use legal and regulated since 2013.[61][62]

 Denmark Illegal Legal

As with all drugs, cannabis-related offences are punishable by a fine or imprisonment for up to 2 years.[63] Freetown Christiania, a self-declared autonomous community in Copenhagen, is known for its cannabis trade.[64]

 Djibouti Illegal Illegal
 Dominica Illegal Illegal

Class B drug to cultivate, sell, or possess.[65]

 Dominican Republic Illegal Illegal
 East Timor Illegal Illegal
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Notes
 Ecuador Decriminalized up to 10 g Illegal

Possession of small amounts decriminalized.[66][67][68] Possession of under 10 g is considered personal use and not punished.[69]

 Egypt Illegal but often unenforced Illegal

Illegal since 1925[70] but use is widespread. Convictions for personal use are rare.[71] Formerly a plant of high status with several documented medicinal uses in ancient times.

 El Salvador Illegal Illegal
 Equatorial Guinea Illegal Illegal
 Eritrea Illegal Illegal
 Estonia Decriminalized With a special permit[72]

Up to 7.5 g is considered an amount for personal use, and is punished with a fine. Large amounts and distribution are criminal offences punishable with a custodial sentence of up to 5 years.[73]

 Ethiopia Illegal Illegal

Despite being the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari movement, possession of cannabis can result in up to six months imprisonment.[74]

 Fiji Illegal Illegal
 Finland Illegal but sometimes not enforced Legal under license.

Personal use is generally not prosecuted in court but subject to summary fine. Medicinal cannabis possible under a special license since 2006; in 2014, 223 licenses were issued.[75]

 France Illegal Some cannabis-derived drugs.

Possession reduced to 200€ fine in November 2018.[76] Medical use of some cannabinoid drugs legalized in 2013.[77][78]

 Gabon Illegal Illegal
 Gambia Illegal Illegal
 Georgia Legal for possession and consumption but not for sale, per a July 2018 ruling by the Constitutional Court of Georgia.[79][80] Use is legal, but no system for the dispensing of cannabis exists.
 Germany Illegal, but occasionally tolerated. Under federal law, prosecution is optional for possession of “small amounts”.[81][82] Legal

Recreational possession illegal, but criminal charges are sometimes dropped. Consumption itself considered legal self-harm, but driver’s licenses are almost always suspended, regardless of whether a car was used under the influence. Since early 2017, medicinal use is legal for seriously ill patients, who have consulted with a doctor and have absolutely no therapeutic alternative.[83][84][85][86][87][88]

 Ghana Illegal Illegal
 Greece Illegal Legal
 Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat) Illegal Illegal
 Grenada Illegal Illegal
 Guatemala Illegal Illegal

In 2016 a constitutional commission rejected proposals to legalize medicinal or recreational use of cannabis.[89][90]

 Guinea Illegal Illegal
 Guinea-Bissau Illegal Illegal
 Guyana Illegal Illegal

Possession of 15 g or over can result in charges of drug trafficking.[91]

 Haiti Illegal Illegal
 Honduras Illegal Illegal

The possession, sale, transportation, and cultivation of cannabis is illegal in Honduras.[92]

 Hong Kong Illegal Illegal

The possession, sale, transportation, cultivation of cannabis is illegal under the Dangerous Drug Ordinance.[93] (Chapter 134 of the Law of Hong Kong)

Country/Territory Recreational Medical Notes
 Hungary Illegal Illegal

There is no distinction in Hungarian law between illicit drugs according to dangers. Heroin use has the same legal consequences as cannabis use.[94]

 Iceland Illegal Illegal

Banned in 1969.[95] Possession of small amounts is subject to arrest and fine but no threat of jail time.[96]

 India Illegal, but exception is made for the use of bhang.[97] Illegal

Albeit illegal, usage is prevalent and some government-owned shops sell cannabis in the form of bhang. States have their own laws regarding cannabis, locally known as ganja.

 Indonesia Illegal Illegal

Banned in 1927.[98] Minimum sentence of 4 years in prison (additional fines may apply) if caught in possession.[99] However, if the user is underage, they may instead be sentenced to rehabilitation.[100]

 Iran Illegal, but not strictly enforced Illegal
 Iraq Illegal Illegal
 Ireland Illegal[101] May be licensed.[102][101]

The National Drugs Strategy of 2009–2016 did not favour decriminalising cannabis.[103] A new strategy is planned from 2017.[104] Cannabis-derived medicines may be licensed since 2014.[102][105] A review of policy on medicinal cannabis was announced in November 2016,[106] and a private member’s bill to legalise it passed second stage in the Dáil in December 2016.[107][108][109]

 Israel Currently illegal; decriminalization to take effect in April 2019 Legal

Personal possession decriminalized, with offenders going through a 4-stage process should they admit to their crime.[110]

 Italy Decriminalized; allowed for religious usage, legal below 0.6% THC Legal

Possession of small amounts for personal use is a misdemeanor subject to fines and the suspension of documents (passports or driver’s licenses). Sale and cultivation punishable by imprisonment, even if in small amounts and for exclusive personal use. Licensed cultivation for medicinal and industrial use strictly regulated.[111]

 Ivory Coast Illegal Illegal
 Jamaica Decriminalized up to 2 oz or cultivation of 5 plants. Legal for Rastafari. Legal

Decriminalized since 2015, and in 2018 the first medical cannabis dispensary opened.[112]

 Japan Illegal Illegal

Restricted in 1948.[113] Use and possession are punishable by up to 5 years imprisonment and a fine. Cultivation, sale, and transport are punishable by 7–10 years imprisonment and a fine.[114]

 Jordan Illegal Illegal
 Kazakhstan Illegal Illegal
 Kenya Illegal Illegal
 Kiribati Illegal Illegal
 Kosovo Illegal Illegal
 Kuwait Illegal Illegal
 Kyrgyzstan Illegal Illegal
 Laos Illegal but often unenforced Illegal
 Latvia Illegal Illegal

Cannabis is illegal.[115] Possession of up to one gram can result in a fine of €280, for second offences within a year period criminal charges are applied. Larger quantities can be punished with up to 15 years in prison.

 Lebanon Illegal Illegal

Hashish banned in 1926;[116] cannabis cultivation banned in 1992.[117] Possession is illegal. However, large amounts are grown within the country and personal use, as long as not in public, is not a major issue.[118]

 Lesotho Illegal but tolerated Illegal

Licensed cultivation allowed for export to other countries. Also widely grown for illicit purposes.[119][120]

 Liberia Illegal Illegal
 Libya Illegal Illegal
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Notes
 Liechtenstein Illegal Illegal
 Lithuania Illegal Illegal

A bill to legalize medical use of cannabis was passed by the Seimas on 11 October 2018.

 Luxembourg Decriminalized Legal

Transportation and consumption are illegal. Since 2001, decriminalized and prison penalty has been substituted by a monetary fine ranging from €250 to €2,500.[121][122]

 Macau, SAR of China Illegal Illegal
 Madagascar Illegal Illegal
 Malaysia Illegal Illegal

Mandatory death penalty for convicted drug traffickers, legally defined as individuals possessing more than 200 g (7 oz) of cannabis.[123]

 Malawi Illegal Illegal

Illegal but widely used and cultivated; Malawian cannabis is famed internationally for its quality.[124] Chamba is grown mainly in central and northern regions like Mzuzu.[125]

 Maldives Illegal Illegal
 Mali Illegal Illegal
 Malta Decriminalized up to 3.5 g Legal

As of 2015, simple possession is decriminalized, but remains an arrestable offense for the police purpose of collecting intelligence about drug trafficking. Cultivation for personal use will no longer be punishable by a mandatory prison sentence or suspended sentence.[126][127]

 Marshall Islands Illegal Illegal
 Mauritania Illegal Illegal
 Mauritius Illegal Illegal
 Mexico De facto legal for personal use, regarding both possession and cultivation. Legal for medical use,
THC content below 1%.[128]

Possession of 5 g decriminalized since 2009.[129] In 2015 the Supreme Court voted 4-1 that prohibiting people from growing the drug for consumption was unconstitutional as it violated the human right to the free development of one’s personality.[130] In 2018 the Supreme Court reaffirmed the ruling, effectively making the law prohibiting cannabis unenforceable and requiring the legislature to act to formally legalize.[131][132]

 Micronesia Illegal Illegal
 Moldova Decriminalized Illegal
 Monaco Illegal Illegal
 Mongolia Illegal Illegal
 Montenegro Illegal Illegal
 Morocco Illegal but often unenforced Illegal

All drugs banned since 1974, but cannabis is partially tolerated. Morocco is still among the world’s top producers of hashish.

 Mozambique Illegal Illegal
 Myanmar Illegal but often unenforced Illegal
 Namibia Illegal Illegal

Cannabis is illegal; in 2007 the government proposed but declined a 20-year jail sentence for any drug possession.

   Nepal Illegal (legal during Maha Shivaratri) Illegal

All cannabis licenses canceled in 1973.[8] Despite being illegal, cannabis is cheap and widely available in Nepal, and the police have little-to-no interest in cannabis-related issues.[133]

Country/Territory Recreational Medical Notes
 Netherlands Illegal – but use and sale is tolerated in licensed coffeeshops.[5] Possession of up to 5 g is decriminalized. Cultivation of up to 5 plants is unenforced for non-commercial use (unless grown in a professional setup). Legal

Personal possession decriminalized and sale allowed only in certain licensed coffeeshops in the continental Netherlands.[134][135][136] Cultivation often tolerated but growers can still have their plants and equipment confiscated[137] and face eviction[138] or cancellation of their mortgage[139] for one single plant.[140] Zero tolerance policy in the Caribbean Netherlands.[141]

 New Zealand Illegal (Legalization referendum to be held in 2020) Legal

Banned in 1927.[142] Medical use was legalized in December 2018,[143] and a binding referendum on recreational use is to be held during the 2020 general election.[144]

 Nicaragua Illegal Illegal
 Niger Illegal Illegal
 Nigeria Illegal Illegal
 North Korea (DPRK) Unknown Unknown

There are conflicting reports on the legal status of cannabis in North Korea. Multiple reports from defectors and tourists claim there is no law regarding the possession of cannabis (as a result, it is not classified as a drug) in North Korea or if there is, it is mostly unenforced. However, other reports claim that cannabis is illegal.[145]

 North Macedonia Illegal Legal

If one possesses a larger amount, a jail sentence of anywhere from 3 months to 5 years may be given.[146] Medicinal cannabis legalized since 2016.[147]

 Norway Currently illegal (in process of decriminalization) Legal[148][149]

Personal use of up to 15 g punished with a fine and a criminal record in the case of first-time offenders; possessing more and second offences is punished more harshly. Minors are routinely compelled to consent to regular supervised drug testing under threat of prosecution. In March 2018, the government created a working group tasked with decriminalizing drug use and mandating police to impose forced medical treatment of addicts instead of fines and imprisonment.[150][151]

 Oman Illegal Illegal
 Pakistan Illegal, but often unenforced (particularly in some tribal regions) Illegal

Prohibited, but the smoking of hashish in Peshawar and the northern parts of Pakistan tends to be tolerated. One may be sent to jail for up to six months if found with charas in other parts of the country.[152]

 Palau Illegal Illegal
 Panama Illegal Illegal
 Papua New Guinea Illegal Illegal
 Paraguay Decriminalized up to 10 g Illegal

Possession of up to 10 g not punished.[153][154]

 Peru Decriminalized Legal[155]

Possession of up to 8 g is not punished.[156][157][158][159] Cultivation, production, and sale are punished with 8–15 years in prison.[160][161]

 Philippines Illegal Illegal
 Poland Illegal, but sometimes not enforced for small amounts Legal

Since 2011, prosecutors can choose not to prosecute possession of small quantities of cannabis for personal use, if it is a first offence, or if the person is drug dependent.[162] Possession of large quantities of drugs can result in up to 10 years in prison.[163]

 Portugal Decriminalized up to 25 g of herb or 5 g of hashish Legal

In 2001, Portugal became the first country in the world to decriminalize the use of all drugs.[164]

 Qatar Illegal Illegal
 Romania Illegal Cannabis-derived drugs, less than 0.2% THC, all CBD based products are legal

Small quantities punishable by a large fine for first offenders or 6 months to 2 years in prison if the person has been convicted before. Possession of large amounts or trafficking is punishable by 2–7 years of jail time.[165] Decriminalization proposed.[166] Limited medical use approved in 2013.[167][168]

 Russia Illegal Illegal

Possession up to 6 g of cannabis (or 2 g of hashish) leads to an administrative fine up to RUB 5,000 or detention up to 15 days. Foreign nationals and stateless individuals who violate the law are subject to deportation regardless of the amount.[169]

 Rwanda Illegal Illegal
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Illegal Illegal
 Saint Lucia Illegal Illegal
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Illegal Illegal
 Samoa Illegal Illegal
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Notes
 San Marino Illegal Legal
 São Tomé and Príncipe Illegal Illegal
 Saudi Arabia Illegal Illegal

Use and possession for personal use of any kind of recreational drugs is punishable by imprisonment if caught. Imprisonment for personal use could go up to six months jail time or more. Dealing and smuggling of high amounts of drugs usually result in harsher prison time or even execution, although recently executions are rare. Foreigners who use drugs might be deported.[170]

 Senegal Illegal Illegal
 Serbia Illegal[171] Illegal

Possession punishable by fine or imprisonment of up to 3 years. Sale and transportation punishable by 3–12 years imprisonment. Cultivation punishable by imprisonment from 6 months to 5 years. Higher penalties for organized crime.[172]

 Seychelles Illegal Illegal
 Sierra Leone Illegal Illegal

Cannabis banned in 1920.[173]

 Singapore Illegal Illegal

Banned in 1870.[174] Cannabis is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act, making it illegal to cultivate, sell, or possess. Those who are caught with 500g of cannabis or more, are presumed as drug traffickers, and are punished with a possible death penalty.[175][176]

 Slovakia Illegal Illegal

Possession of small amounts punishable by up to 8 years in prison.[177][178] In April 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that Robert Fico, the incoming Slovak prime minister, might push for partial legalisation of cannabis possession, and has argued for the legalisation of possession of up to three doses of cannabis for personal use.[178]

 Slovenia Decriminalized Cannabis-based drugs

Cannabis-based drugs are legal for medicinal use, but not cannabis itself.[179][180] Possession of any drug for personal use is decriminalized.[181]

 Solomon Islands illegal illegal
 Somalia Illegal Illegal
 South Africa Legal for possession and cultivation but not for sale. Use is legal, but no system for the dispensing of medicinal cannabis exists.

Private use and cultivation decriminalized since 2018.[182][183]

 South Korea Illegal Legal, but access limited to Epidiolex, Marinol and Sativex as of now due to the policy implemented by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety[184]

Medical use of cannabis was legalized in November 2018. The plant itself, however, remains unavailable despite legislation due to the policy made by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety.[185]

 South Sudan Illegal Illegal
 Spain Use and possession in private areas allowed.[186][187] Public consumption can result in a fine from 601 to 30000 €.[188] Cultivation for personal use allowed in private areas including Cannabis Social Clubs.[186] Limited cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals

Sale and importation punishable by jail time. All actions related to cannabis apart from sale or trade aren’t considered criminal offenses,[189] but misdemeanors punishable by a fine.[190] Legalized in Catalonia in 2017,[191] but that law was challenged by the state and declared unconstitutional.[192] Cultivation allowed in private areas if the plants cannot be seen from the street or other public spaces.[193]

 Sri Lanka Illegal Legalized by amendment made in colonial law by 1980s and through the Ayurveda Act.[194]

The sale of cannabis is decriminalized for traditional medicine vendors and it is commonly used in Ayurvedic traditional medicines.[195]

 Sudan Illegal Illegal
 Suriname Illegal Illegal

Cannabis was banned in Suriname in the early 20th century, having been popularized there by Asian immigrants.[196]

 Swaziland Illegal Illegal
 Sweden Illegal Illegal

All cannabis-related activity illegal. The national police runs a “disturb and annoy” program aimed at users supported by the national “zero tolerance” policy.[197][198]

  Switzerland Decriminalized Legal

Since 2012, possession of 10 g or less is decriminalized to a fine.[199]

 Syria Illegal Illegal

Reportedly punished by life imprisonment under Bashar al-Assad‘s government policies. As a result of civil war, people living in areas controlled by Kurdish separatists have begun growing cannabis as a way of making money to fight poverty.[200]

 Taiwan (Republic of China, ROC) Illegal Illegal

Cannabis is a schedule 2 narcotic in the ROC, and possession can result in up to 3 years imprisonment.[201]

 Tajikistan Illegal Illegal
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Notes
 Tanzania Illegal Illegal
 Thailand Illegal but often unenforced Legal

Criminalized in 1935.[202] Possession, cultivation, and transport (import/export) of up to 10 kg of cannabis may result in a maximum sentence of 5 years in prison or a fine.[203] Medical use was made legal in 2018.[204]

 Togo Illegal Illegal
 Tonga Illegal Illegal
 Trinidad and Tobago Illegal Illegal

Banned in 1925.[205]

 Tunisia Illegal Illegal

Banned in 1953.[206] Using or possessing entails 1–5 years of imprisonment + 1000-3000 dinars (around 500$-1500$).[207][208][209]

 Turkey Illegal Cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals

Medical cultivation legal in nineteen provinces.[210] With permission, this can also be conducted in other provinces as well.[211] Consuming any drug is illegal and requires juridical process. Possessing, purchasing, or receiving any illegal drug is punishable by 1–2 years of prison, treatment, or probation.[212] Sale and supply is punishable by a prison term of 5–10 years, and production or trafficking by a minimum term of 10 years.[212]

 Turkmenistan Illegal Illegal
 Tuvalu Illegal Illegal
 Uganda Illegal Illegal
 Ukraine Illegal Illegal

Possession of up to 5 g or cultivation of 10 plants is an administrative (rather than a criminal) offense, but detention of up to 15 days is still possible.[213]

 United Arab Emirates Illegal Illegal

Even the smallest amounts of the drug can lead to a mandatory 4-year prison sentence.[214]

 United Kingdom Illegal Legal for cases of severe epilepsy, vomiting, or nausea caused by chemotherapy or multiple sclerosis[215][216]

Banned in 1928,[217] made a Class B drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.[218]

 United States Legal in 10 states, 1 U.S. territory, and the District of Columbia – but illegal at federal level. Decriminalized in another 13 states and 1 U.S. territory.

Legal in 33 states, 4 U.S. territories, and the District of Columbia – but illegal at federal level.[7]

Cannabis remains a Schedule I drug at federal level, prohibiting even its medical use. The Rohrabacher–Farr amendment prevents federal enforcement in states that have legalized medical, however. No such protections exist regarding recreational, but the federal government has so far generally not intervened. Recognized Indian reservations are allowed to legalize for either use under a policy announced in 2014.[219]

 Uruguay Legal, but buying prohibited for foreigners. Cultivation allowed up to six plants. Legal for all uses.

Legal since late 2013.[220] Buyers must be eighteen or older, residents of Uruguay, and must register with the authorities. Authorities grow the cannabis that can be sold legally.[221][222][223]

 Uzbekistan Illegal Illegal

Opiates, cannabis and other plants containing psychotropic substances are illegal.[224]

 Vanuatu Illegal Legal
  Vatican City Illegal Illegal
 Venezuela Illegal Illegal

Possession of up to 20 g of marijuana or 5 g of genetically modified marijuana for commercial purposes is punishable by 1–2 years in prison at judge’s discretion. If deemed to be for personal consumption, the user is subject to security measures involving rehabilitation and detoxification procedures.[225]

 Vietnam Illegal but often unenforced Illegal
 Yemen Illegal Illegal
 Zambia Illegal Illegal
 Zimbabwe Illegal Legal
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Notes

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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