Legality of cannabis
The legality of cannabis for medical and recreational use varies by country, in terms of its possession, distribution, and cultivation, and (in regards to medical) how it can be consumed and what medical conditions it can be used for. These policies in most countries are regulated by the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs that was ratified in 1961, along with the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1988 Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.
The use of cannabis for recreational purposes is prohibited in most countries; however, many have adopted a policy of decriminalization to make simple possession a non-criminal offense (often similar to a minor traffic violation). Others have much more severe penalties such as some Asian and Middle Eastern countries where possession of even small amounts is punished by imprisonment for several years. Countries that have legalized recreational cannabis are Canada, Georgia, South Africa, and Uruguay. In addition, eleven states and the District of Columbia in the United States and the Australian Capital Territory in Australia have legalized recreational cannabis. Legality varies in these countries and subnational jurisdictions when it comes to commercial sale. A policy of limited enforcement has also been adopted in many countries, in particular Spain and the Netherlands where the sale of cannabis is tolerated at licensed establishments.
Countries that have legalized the medical use of cannabis include Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Lithuania, Luxembourg, North Macedonia, Norway, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, Poland, Switzerland, and Thailand. Others have more restrictive laws that only allow the use of certain cannabis-derived pharmaceutical drugs, such as Sativex, Marinol, or Epidiolex. In the United States, 33 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the medical use of cannabis, but at the federal level its use remains prohibited for any purpose.
|Afghanistan||Illegal||Illegal||Zahir Shah in 1973.Production banned by King|
|Albania||Illegal||Illegal||Prohibited but plants highly available throughout the country and law often unenforced.|
|Antigua and Barbuda||Decriminalized||Illegal|
|Argentina||Decriminalized||Legal|| Medicinal cannabis legal nationally since 21 September 2017.Decriminalized for small amounts and private consumption, as ruled by the Supreme Court in 2009.|
|Australia||Decriminalized in Northern Territory and South Australia. Legal in Australian Capital Territory beginning in January 2020.||Legal at federal level and in all states. Qualifying conditions and other details vary by state.||In September 2019, the Australian Capital Territory became the first state or territory of Australia to legalize recreational use of cannabis. Beginning on 31 January 2020, residents will be allowed to grow two plants and possess 50 g, though no sales or other transfer will be permitted. Federal law will also remain enforceable.|
|Austria||Possession for personal use decriminalized as of January 2016.||Cannabis-derived drugs|
|Azerbaijan||personal use legal up to 5 grams but not enforced||Illegal|
|Bangladesh||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal|| but laws are rarely enforced and cannabis is openly sold in many parts of the country.Sale banned in 1989,|
|Barbados||Legal for spiritual use by registered Rastafarians||Legal|
|Belgium||Decriminalized up to 3 g or cultivation of one plant||Cannabis-derived drugs||Up to 3 g legal for adults since 2003.|
|Belize||Decriminalized up to 10 g||Illegal|| Laws decriminalizing possession of up to 10 g "in the works".Possession prohibited, but use is common and largely tolerated.|
|Bermuda||Decriminalized up to 7 g||Legal|| As of July 2018, two doctors have been licensed to prescribe the drug.In November 2016, the Supreme Court of Bermuda ruled in favor of allowing the medical use of cannabis.|
|Bhutan||Illegal||Illegal||Illegal, but plants grow prolifically and have multiple traditional uses, such as feeding pigs and producing textiles.|
|Bolivia||Decriminalized up to 50 g||Illegal|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Illegal||Illegal||cannabinoids for medicinal purposes.In 2016, the Ministry of Civil Affairs formed a task force to explore the legalization of cannabis and|
|Botswana||Illegal||Illegal||Cannabis (or dagga) is illegal.|
|Brazil||Illegal (educational measures for small amounts and private use)||Legal for terminally ill patients or those who have exhausted other treatment options.||community service, and education on the effects of drug use. Possession of large amounts, as well as sale, transportation, and cultivation, are considered drug trafficking.Possession of any illegal drug entails a warning,|
|Bulgaria||Illegal||Illegal||heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, and MDMA (ecstasy). Until 2004, a loosely defined "personal dose" existed.Cannabis is classified as a class A (High-risk) drug, together with|
|Cambodia||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal|| but this prohibition is lax and enforced opportunistically. "Happy" restaurants in cities publicly offer food cooked with marijuana, or as a side garnish.Illegal,|
|Canada||Legal||Legal||Legal for medicinal purposes since 2001 and for recreational purposes since October 17, 2018. Age and regulations of consumption vary by province.|
|Central African Republic||Illegal||Illegal|
|Chile||Decriminalized for possession and cultivation||Legal|| and recreational cultivation decriminalized. Medicinal cultivation legal with the authorization of The Chilean Agriculture Service (SAG) and sale of medication allowed on prescription in pharmacies.Private personal use|
|People's Republic of China (PRC)||Illegal||Illegal|
|Colombia||Decriminalized up to 22 g or cultivation of 20 plants for personal use||Legal||Decriminalized up to 22 g for personal consumption. Individuals carrying greater amounts, or cultivating up to 20 plants, cannot be prosecuted if the drug is for personal use.|
|Comoros||Illegal||Illegal||Ali Soilih legalized cannabis consumption among other measures.Cannabis was legal during the Comorian historical period between January 1975 and May 1978, when president|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Illegal||Illegal|
|Republic of the Congo||Illegal||Illegal|
|Costa Rica||Decriminalized||Illegal||Decriminalization de facto implemented since police officers do not detain people carrying enough for only personal consumption, yet no amount has been defined as a minimum for possession. Use of cannabis is widespread throughout the country.|
|Croatia||Decriminalized||Legal||multiple sclerosis, or AIDS.Possession of small amounts considered a misdemeanor which leads to fine. Medicinal cannabis legal for patients with illnesses such as cancer,|
|Cyprus||Illegal||Legal||Class B substance – life imprisonment is possible for use and maximum 8 years for possession (at the maximum 2 years for the first offense for under 25-year-olds).|
|Czech Republic||Decriminalized up to 10 g or cultivation of 5 plants||Legal|| Medicinal use legal and regulated since 2013.Possession of up to 10 g or cultivation of up to 5 plants is an infraction subject to a minor fine – mostly not enforced. Popular destination for smokers.|
|Denmark||Illegal||Legal (4-year pilot program beginning in January 2018)|| Freetown Christiania, a self-declared autonomous community in Copenhagen, is known for its cannabis trade.As with all drugs, cannabis-related offenses are punishable by a fine or imprisonment for up to 2 years.|
|Dominica||Illegal||Illegal||Class B drug to cultivate, sell, or possess.|
|Ecuador||Decriminalized up to 10 g||Illegal|| Possession of under 10 g is considered personal use and not punished.Possession of small amounts decriminalized.|
|Egypt||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal|| but use is widespread. Convictions for personal use are rare. Formerly a plant of high status with several documented medicinal uses in ancient times.Illegal since 1925|
|Estonia||Decriminalized||With a special permit||Up to 7.5 g is considered an amount for personal use, and is punished with a fine. Large amounts and distribution are criminal offenses punishable with a custodial sentence of up to 5 years.|
|Ethiopia||Illegal||Illegal||Rastafari movement, possession of cannabis can result in up to six months imprisonment.Despite being the spiritual homeland of the|
|Finland||Illegal but sometimes not enforced||Legal under license.||Personal use is generally not prosecuted in court but subject to summary fine. Medicinal cannabis possible under a special license since 2006; in 2014, 223 licenses were issued.|
|France||Illegal||Some cannabis-derived drugs.|| Medical use of some cannabinoid drugs legalized in 2013.Possession entails a 200€ fine since November 2018.|
|Georgia||Legal for possession and consumption but not for sale, per a July 2018 ruling by the Constitutional Court of Georgia.||Use is legal, but no system for the dispensing of cannabis exists.|
|Germany||Illegal, but occasionally tolerated. Under federal law, prosecution is optional for possession of "small amounts".||Legal||self-harm, but driver's licenses are almost always suspended, regardless of whether a car was used under the influence. Since early 2017, medicinal use is legal for seriously ill patients who have consulted with a doctor and have absolutely no therapeutic alternative.Recreational possession illegal, but criminal charges are sometimes dropped. Consumption itself considered legal|
|Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat)||Illegal||Illegal|
|Guatemala||Illegal||Illegal||In 2016 a constitutional commission rejected proposals to legalize medicinal or recreational use of cannabis.|
|Guyana||Illegal||Illegal||Possession of 15 g or over can result in charges of drug trafficking.|
|Honduras||Illegal||Illegal||The possession, sale, transportation, and cultivation of cannabis is illegal in Honduras.|
|Hong Kong||Illegal||Illegal|| (Chapter 134 of the Law of Hong Kong)Possession, sale, transportation, and cultivation illegal under the Dangerous Drug Ordinance.|
|Hungary||Illegal||Illegal||There is no distinction in Hungarian law between illicit drugs according to dangers. Heroin use has the same legal consequences as cannabis use.|
|Iceland||Illegal||Illegal|| Possession of small amounts is subject to arrest and fine but no threat of jail time.Banned in 1969.|
|India||Illegal, but exception is made for the use of bhang.||Illegal||Albeit illegal, usage is prevalent and some government-owned shops sell cannabis in the form of bhang. States have their own laws regarding cannabis, locally known as ganja.|
|Indonesia||Illegal||Illegal|| Minimum sentence of 4 years in prison (additional fines may apply) if caught dealing / distributing. Rehabilitation or maximum sentence of 4 years if caught in possession alone.Banned in 1927.|
|Iran||Illegal, but not strictly enforced||Illegal|
|Ireland||Illegal||Legal as part of 5-year pilot program enacted in June 2019|| A new strategy was planned for 2017. Cannabis-derived medicines may be licensed since 2014. A review of policy on medicinal cannabis was announced in November 2016, and a private member's bill to legalize it passed second stage in the Dáil in December 2016.The National Drugs Strategy of 2009–2016 did not favor decriminalizing cannabis.|
|Israel||Decriminalized||Legal||As of April 2019, public possession of small amounts is a non-criminal offense punished by escalating fines. A third offense can result in criminal charges, however. Possession in the privacy of one's home is not punished.|
|Italy||Possession decriminalized; home cultivation legal in small amounts for personal use.||Legal||Possession of small amounts for personal use is a misdemeanor subject to fines and the suspension of documents (passports or driver's licenses). Sale is punishable by imprisonment, even if in small amounts. Licensed cultivation for medicinal and industrial use strictly regulated.|
|Jamaica||Decriminalized up to 2 oz or cultivation of 5 plants. Legal for Rastafari.||Legal||Decriminalized since 2015, and in 2018 the first medical cannabis dispensary opened.|
|Japan||Illegal||Illegal|| Use and possession are punishable by up to 5 years imprisonment and a fine. Cultivation, sale, and transport are punishable by 7–10 years imprisonment and a fine.Restricted in 1948.|
|Korea, North (DPRK)||Unknown||Unknown||There are conflicting reports on the legal status of cannabis in North Korea. Multiple reports from defectors and tourists claim there is no law regarding the possession of cannabis (as a result, it is not classified as a drug) in North Korea or if there is, it is mostly unenforced. However, other reports claim that cannabis is illegal.|
|Korea, South||Illegal||Legal, but access limited to Epidiolex, Marinol and Sativex as of now due to the policy implemented by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety||Ministry of Food and Drug Safety.Medical use of cannabis was legalized in November 2018. The plant itself, however, remains unavailable due to the policy made by the|
|Laos||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal|
|Latvia||Illegal||Illegal||Possession of up to 1 g can result in a €280 fine; for second offenses within a year period, criminal charges are applied. Larger quantities can be punished with up to 15 years in prison.|
|Lebanon||Illegal||Illegal|| cannabis cultivation banned in 1992. Possession is illegal. However, large amounts are grown within the country and personal use, as long as not in public, is not a major issue.Hashish banned in 1926;|
|Lesotho||Illegal but tolerated||Legal ||Licensed cultivation allowed for export to other countries. Also widely grown for illicit purposes.|
|Lithuania||Illegal||Legal||Seimas on 11 October 2018.A bill to legalize medical use of cannabis was passed by the|
|Luxembourg||Decriminalized||Legal||Transportation and consumption are illegal. Decriminalized since 2001, with prison penalty replaced by a monetary fine ranging from €250 to €2,500.|
|Macau, SAR of China||Illegal||Illegal|
|Malawi||Illegal||Legal|| Chamba is grown mainly in central and northern regions like Mzuzu.Illegal but widely used and cultivated; Malawian cannabis is famed internationally for its quality.|
|Malaysia||Illegal||Illegal||Mandatory death penalty for convicted drug traffickers, legally defined as individuals possessing more than 200 g (7 oz) of cannabis.|
|Malta||Decriminalized up to 3.5 g||Legal||As of 2015, simple possession is decriminalized, but remains an arrestable offense for the police purpose of collecting intelligence about drug trafficking. Cultivation for personal use will no longer be punishable by a mandatory prison sentence or suspended sentence.|
|Mexico||De facto legal for personal use, regarding both possession and cultivation.||Legal for medical use,
THC content below 1%.
| In 2015 the Supreme Court voted 4-1 that prohibiting people from growing the drug for consumption was unconstitutional as it violated the human right to the free development of one's personality. In 2018 the Supreme Court reaffirmed the ruling, effectively making the law prohibiting cannabis unenforceable and requiring the legislature to act to formally legalize.Possession of 5 g decriminalized since 2009.|
|Morocco||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal||All drugs banned since 1974, but cannabis is partially tolerated. Morocco is still among the world's top producers of hashish.|
|Myanmar||Illegal but often unenforced||Illegal|
|Namibia||Illegal||Illegal||Cannabis is illegal; in 2007 the government proposed but declined a 20-year jail sentence for any drug possession.|
|Nepal||Illegal (legal during Maha Shivaratri)||Illegal|| Neplease law restricts production, holding, transportation, purchase and sell of marijwana in side Nepal. If someone is found doing so he/she is punished accordingly.   All cannabis licenses canceled in 1973.|
|Netherlands||Consumption and sale are tolerated in licensed coffeeshops. Possession of up to 5 g is decriminalized. Cultivation of up to 5 plants is unenforced for non-commercial use (unless grown in a professional setup).||Legal||coffeeshops in the continental Netherlands. Cultivation often tolerated but growers can still have their plants and equipment confiscated and face eviction or cancellation of their mortgage for one single plant. Zero tolerance policy in the Caribbean Netherlands.Personal possession decriminalized and sale allowed only in certain licensed|
|New Zealand||Illegal (Legalization referendum to be held in 2020)||Legal|| Possession over 28 g is presumed for supply. Medical use was legalized in December 2018, and a referendum on recreational use is to be held during the 2020 general election.Banned in 1927.|
|North Macedonia||Illegal||Legal|| Medicinal cannabis legalized since 2016.If one possesses large amounts, a jail sentence of anywhere from 3 months to 5 years may be given.|
|Norway||Illegal, but government has declared intention to decriminalize||Legal||Illegal, but government is working on a decriminalization bill that would end all sanctions for use and possession of up to 15 g. Currently use and possession of up to 15 g are punished with heavy fines and risk of losing driver's license.|
|Pakistan||Illegal, but often unenforced (particularly in some tribal regions)||Illegal||Peshawar and the northern parts of Pakistan tends to be tolerated. One may be sent to jail for up to six months if found with charas in other parts of the country.Prohibited, but the smoking of hashish in|
|Papua New Guinea||Illegal||Illegal|
|Paraguay||Decriminalized up to 10 g||Illegal||The possession of up to 10 g of cannablis is not punishable.|
|Peru||Decriminalized||Legal|| Cultivation, production, and sale are punished with 8–15 years in prison.Possession of up to 8 g is not punished.|
|Philippines||Illegal||Illegal but may be allowed with special permit||Medical use of cannabis is possible with a special permit from the Food and Drugs Authority for use by individuals with serious or terminal illness.|
|Poland||Illegal, but sometimes not enforced for small amounts, legal below 0.2% THC||Legal|| Possession of large quantities of drugs can result in up to 10 years in prison.Since 2011, prosecutors can choose not to prosecute possession of small quantities of cannabis for personal use if it is a first offense or if the person is drug dependent.|
|Portugal||Decriminalized up to 25 g of herb or 5 g of hashish||Legal||In 2001, Portugal became the first country in the world to decriminalize the use of all drugs.|
|Romania||Illegal||Cannabis-derived drugs less than 0.2% THC can be prescribed|| Decriminalization proposed. Limited medical use approved in 2013.Small quantities punishable by a large fine for first offenders or 6 months to 2 years in prison if the person has been convicted before. Possession of large amounts or trafficking is punishable by 2–7 years of jail time.|
|Russia||Illegal||Illegal||Possession of up to 6 g of cannabis (or 2 g of hashish) is an administrative offense, punishable by a fine of RUB 5,000 or detention of up to 15 days. Possession of larger amounts is a criminal offense. Foreign nationals and stateless individuals who violate the law are subject to deportation regardless of the amount.|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Decriminalized up to 15 g||Illegal|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Decriminalized up to 2 oz||Legal|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Illegal||Illegal|
|Saudi Arabia||Illegal||Illegal||Use and possession for personal use of any kind of recreational drugs is punishable by imprisonment if caught. Imprisonment for personal use can entail jail time of six months or more. Dealing and smuggling high amounts of drugs usually result in harsher prison time or even execution, although recently executions have been rare. Foreigners who use drugs might be deported.|
|Serbia||Illegal||Illegal||organized crime.Possession punishable by fine or imprisonment of up to 3 years. Sale and transportation punishable by imprisonment of 3–12 years. Cultivation punishable by imprisonment from 6 months to 5 years. Higher penalties for|
|Sierra Leone||Illegal||Illegal||Cannabis banned in 1920.|
|Singapore||Illegal||Illegal|| Cannabis is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act, making it illegal to cultivate, sell, or possess. Those who are caught with 500g of cannabis or more are considered drug traffickers and are punished with a possible death penalty.Banned in 1870.|
|Slovakia||Illegal||Illegal|| In April 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that Robert Fico, the incoming Slovak prime minister, might push for partial legalization of cannabis possession, and has argued for the legalization of possession of up to three doses of cannabis for personal use.Possession of small amounts punishable by up to 8 years in prison.|
|Slovenia||Decriminalized||Cannabis-based drugs|| Possession of any drug for personal use is decriminalized.Cannabis-based drugs are legal for medicinal use, but not cannabis itself.|
|South Africa||Legal for possession and cultivation but not for sale.||Use is legal, but no system for the dispensing of medicinal cannabis exists.||Private use and cultivation decriminalized since 2018.|
|Spain||Use and possession in private areas allowed. Public consumption can result in a fine from 601 to 30000 €. Cultivation for personal use allowed in private areas including Cannabis Social Clubs.||Limited cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals|| but misdemeanors punishable by a fine. Legalized in Catalonia in 2017, but that law was challenged by the state and declared unconstitutional. Cultivation allowed in private areas if the plants cannot be seen from the street or other public spaces.Sale and importation punishable by jail time. All actions related to cannabis apart from sale or trade aren't considered criminal offenses,|
|Sri Lanka||Illegal||Legalized by amendment made in colonial law by 1980s and through the Ayurveda Act.||Ayurvedic traditional medicines.The sale of cannabis is decriminalized for traditional medicine vendors and it is commonly used in|
|Suriname||Illegal||Illegal||Cannabis was banned in Suriname in the early 20th century, having been popularized there by Asian immigrants.|
|Sweden||Illegal||Illegal||All cannabis-related activity illegal. The national police runs a "disturb and annoy" program aimed at users supported by the national "zero tolerance" policy.|
|Switzerland||Decriminalized. Legal below 1.0% THC.||Legal||Since 2012, possession of 10 g or less is decriminalized to a fine.|
|Syria||Illegal||Illegal||Bashar al-Assad's government policies. As a result of civil war, people living in areas controlled by Kurdish separatists have begun growing cannabis as a way of making money to fight poverty.Reportedly punished by life imprisonment under|
|Taiwan (Republic of China, ROC)||Illegal||Illegal||Cannabis is a schedule 2 narcotic in the ROC, and possession can result in up to 3 years imprisonment.|
|Thailand||Illegal but often unenforced||Legal|| Possession, cultivation, and transport (import/export) of up to 10 kg of cannabis may result in a maximum sentence of 5 years in prison or a fine. Medical use was made legal in 2018.Criminalized in 1935.|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Decriminalized up to 30 g, cultivation of 4 plants per adult||Illegal|| Decriminalized in 2019.Banned in 1925.|
|Tunisia||Illegal||Illegal|| Using or possessing entails 1–5 years of imprisonment + 1000-3000 dinars (around 500$-1500$).Banned in 1953.|
|Turkey||Illegal||Cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals|| With permission, this can also be conducted in other provinces as well. Consuming any drug is illegal and requires juridical process. Possessing, purchasing, or receiving any illegal drug is punishable by 1–2 years of prison, treatment, or probation. Sale and supply is punishable by a prison term of 5–10 years, and production or trafficking by a minimum term of 10 years.Medical cultivation legal in nineteen provinces.|
|Ukraine||Illegal||Illegal||Possession of up to 5 g or cultivation of 10 plants is an administrative (rather than a criminal) offense, but detention of up to 15 days is still possible.|
|United Arab Emirates||Illegal||Illegal||Even the smallest amounts of the drug can lead to a mandatory 4-year prison sentence.|
|United Kingdom||Illegal, but a cannabis warning or an on-the-spot fine ("Penalty Notice for Disorder") may be issued for simple possession instead of prosecution.||Legal|| made a Class B drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.Banned in 1928,|
|United States||Legalized in 11 states, 2 territories, and the District of Columbia – but illegal at federal level. Decriminalized in another 15 states and 1 territory.||Legalized in 33 states, 4 territories, and the District of Columbia – but illegal at federal level.
||Schedule I drug at federal level, prohibiting even its medical use. The Rohrabacher–Farr amendment prevents federal enforcement in states that have legalized medical, however. No such protections exist regarding recreational, but the federal government has so far generally not intervened. Recognized Indian reservations are allowed to legalize for either use under a policy announced in 2014.Cannabis remains a|
|Uruguay||Legal, but buying prohibited for foreigners. Cultivation allowed up to six plants.||Legal for all uses.|| Buyers must be eighteen or older, residents of Uruguay, and must register with the authorities. Authorities grow the cannabis that can be sold legally.Legal since late 2013.|
|Uzbekistan||Illegal||Illegal||Opiates, cannabis and other plants containing psychotropic substances are illegal.|
|Venezuela||Illegal||Illegal||Possession of up to 20 g of marijuana or 5 g of genetically modified marijuana for commercial purposes is punishable by 1–2 years in prison at judge's discretion. If deemed to be for personal consumption, the user is subject to security measures involving rehabilitation and detoxification procedures.|
- Habibi, Roojin; Hoffman, Steven J. (March 2018). "Legalizing Cannabis Violates the UN Drug Control Treaties, But Progressive Countries Like Canada Have Options". Ottawa Law Review. 49 (2). Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- Bewley-Taylor, David; Jelsma, Martin; Rolles, Steve; Walsh, John (June 2016). "Cannabis regulation and the UN drug treaties" (PDF). Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- Powell, Burgess (24 February 2018). "The 7 Countries With The Strictest Weed Laws". High Times. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Smith, Tasha (5 June 2018). ""New Amsterdam" No More? Spain's Cannabis Clubs Fight to Stay Open". Merry Jane. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- Haines, Gavin (21 February 2017). "Everything you need to know about marijuana smoking in the Netherlands". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- Ruddick, Graham (11 April 2011). "GW signs Sativex cannabis-based drug deal with Novartis". The Telegraph. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "State Medical Marijuana Laws". National Conference of State Legislatures. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- Martin Booth (30 September 2011). Cannabis: A History. Transworld. pp. 325–. ISBN 978-1-4090-8489-1.
- Growing marijuana is an increasing regional problem, SETimes.com, 7 August 2012, retrieved 18 April 2013
- Report Says Albania Cannabis Growth Mounting, balkaninsight.com, 7 March 2013, retrieved 18 April 2013
- Albanian Police Seize Cannabis Shipment, balkaninsight.com, 28 December 2011
- TNI. "Argentina - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "El Gobierno reglamentó la ley de cannabis medicinal". Infobae. 22 September 2017.
- Ryan, Jackson (20 April 2018). "Everything You Need To Know About The Plan To Legalise Cannabis In Australia". Lifehacker. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- "Cannabis and the law". cannabissupport.com.au. Archived from the original on 6 August 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
- Lowrey, Tom (25 September 2019). "ACT legalises personal cannabis use but warns smokers they're not safe from federal laws". ABC News. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
- "Medical Marijuana in Australia". marijuanadoctors.com. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- Jolly, William (28 February 2018). "Medicinal Marijuana Legal In Australia". Canstar. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "Drug Abuse: Where is The Way of Remedy? (Part II- Some Dangerous Silent Killers)". DhakaInsider. 20 June 2014. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
- Government of Bangladesh. "Narcotics Control Act, 1990" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2012. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
- "Dhaka, Bangladesh – We Be High". webehigh.org. webehigh. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- McDonald, Clydeen (17 January 2020). "Barbados Tiptoes Ahead With Cannabis Plans—Carefully". Cannabis Wire. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- Lamers, Matt (3 December 2019). "Barbados medical cannabis law clears final hurdle in Parliament". Marijuana Business Daily. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- "Medical cannabis plantation offers patients new perspectives - Flanders Today". www.flanderstoday.eu.
- Police fédérale - CGPR Webteam. "Federale politie - Police fédérale". Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Cannabis legal status vault – Belgium". www.erowid.org. Erowid.org. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- Hubbard, Kirsten. "Drug Laws and Penalties in Central America". About.com. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- Adele (20 February 2016). "Laws in the works for marijuana decriminalization | Amandala Newspaper". Amandala.com.bz. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- Bell, Jonathan (25 November 2016). "People can apply for medical cannabis". The Royal Gazette. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- Bell, Jonathan (25 July 2018). "Weeks: we need to talk about cannabis". The Royal Gazette. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
- "Bhutan" (PDF). UNODC: South Asia Regional Profile: 21–26. September 2005. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- Bosnia Today. "Bosnia to legalize medical marijuana this year - Bosnia Today". Bosniatoday.ba. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "Drugs and related substances act no. 18 of 1992" (PDF). Government of Botswana. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "Is dagga the healing of a nation?". Sunday Standard. 7 October 2013. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- Ponieman, Natan (3 December 2019). "Brazil Regulates Sale Of Medical Marijuana Products". Benzinga. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
- "Brazil approves sale of medical cannabis in pharmacies". Yahoo News. AFP. 3 December 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
- Congresso Nacional (23 August 2006). "Lei nº 11.343". www.planalto.gov.br (in Portuguese). Brasília: Presidência da República - Casa Civil. Retrieved 13 October 2009.
- "Bulgaria: Country Drug Report 2017". European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "Law on Drug Management (Drug Control)". Council for the Development of Cambodia. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
Article 2 : Except for the cases of the article 14, the cultivation of opium poppy, cocoa plants, cannabis indica and cannabis saliva in the Kingdom of Cambodia, shall be prohibited.
- Soenthrith, Saing (15 March 2013). "Foreigners Arrested in Siem Reap Marijuana Bust". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
Police in Siem Reap City on Tuesday arrested 18 people, including 14 foreign nationals, during raids on two establishments, where they confiscated a stash of marijuana and an as-yet-unidentified powder, police said.
- Goldberg, Lina. "Recreational drugs in Cambodia". Move To Cambodia. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
Foreigners are rarely prosecuted for small amounts of marijuana, but expect to pay a few bribes if you do get caught.
- Harfenist, Ethan (30 May 2015). "The high life". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- Happy Restaurants (sic) in Sihanoukville, GoSihanoukville.com, retrieved 17 February 2011
- "What you need to know about cannabis". Government of Canada. 20 June 2018.
- TNI. "Chile - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "El cultivo colectivo de Cannabis, legal en Chile". 24 August 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "Autocultivo de marihuana es legal en Chile - Delaferia". Delaferia. Archived from the original on 25 February 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "Ana María Gazmuri: "En Chile hoy en día el autocultivo es legal"" (in Spanish). 24 August 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2016.
- Long, Gideon (29 October 2014). "Chile plants cannabis for medicinal use". BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Grupo Copesa (20 October 2015). "En diciembre estaría autorizada la venta de medicamentos con cannabis en farmacias". Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "Drogas: la dosis mínima ya no será tan mínima". Semana.com. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- Ley 30 de 1986, alcaldiabogota.gov.co, 31 January 1986
- "Colombia Just Legalized Medical Marijuana". BuzzFeed. 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- "Decreto Número 2467 de 2015" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Social Protection (Colombia). 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Dossiers sur les 30 Chefs d'Etat ou de Gouvernements tués Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine(in French)
- French, Howard (1997). "The Mercenary Position". Transition (73): 110–121. doi:10.2307/2935448. ISSN 0041-1191. JSTOR 2935448.
- Chinchilla ve complicado legalizar la marihuana – EL PAÍS – La Nación, Nacion.com, 24 August 2010, archived from the original on 17 February 2011, retrieved 17 February 2011
- Marijuana in Costa Rica: Laws, History and Potential, The Costa Rica News, 18 December 2015, retrieved 30 December 2015
- "Zakon o suzbijanju zlouporabe droga" (in Croatian). Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- "Croatia Legalises Marijuana for Medical Use". Balkan Insight. 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- "Cyprus legalises medicinal cannabis cultivation and use". Financial Mirror. 15 February 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "Overviews of legal topics: possession of cannabis for personal use". EMCDDA. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Nejvýš 10 gramů konopí. Soud nově stanovil větší než malé množství drog - Legalizace.cz". 9 April 2014.
- The Next Amsterdam – Culture Magazine, Ireadculture.com, archived from the original on 19 July 2011, retrieved 14 December 2011
- Carney, Sean (8 December 2009), Wall Street Journal. Czech Govt Allows 5 Cannabis Plants For Personal Use From 2010. 8th December 2009, Blogs.wsj.com, retrieved 17 February 2011
- "Czech Republic Pharmacies Began Selling Medical Cannabis". The420times.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Czech Republic Legalizes Medical Marijuana Use". Huffingtonpost.com. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Lamers, Matt (15 May 2019). "Danish medical cannabis program passes 2,000 patient mark". Marijuana Business Daily. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
- Denmark marijuana laws – cannabis growing and marijuana seeds, 1stmarijuanagrowerspage.com, retrieved 17 February 2011
- Radicella, Lucas (22 May 2018). "Copenhagen's largest cannabis market shut down". Euronews. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Drugs (Prevention of Misuse) Act, Chapter 40:07 (PDF), retrieved 17 February 2011
- Ecuador, Drug Law Reform in Latin America, retrieved 31 January 2011
- Law 108 – Ecuador (PDF), retrieved 31 January 2011
- US Embassy, Ecuador – Information for American Citizens (PDF), retrieved 31 January 2011
-  Archived 2 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Seshata, Cannabis in Egypt, The Sensi Seed Bank, retrieved 20 January 2014
- Lama Hasan (5 May 2010), Egypt's Pot Problem? A Marijuana Shortage, ABC News, archived from the original on 1 March 2011, retrieved 31 January 2011
- "Kanepi ja kannabinoidide meditsiiniline kasutamine - Ravimiamet". www.ravimiamet.ee.
- Europe Guide : Maps of Europe by language, religion, population density, hair and eye color, etc, Eupedia.com, 19 April 1994, retrieved 17 February 2011
- US warns American Rastas about Ethiopian laws, iol.co.za, 29 January 2005, retrieved 8 October 2011
- Silvàn, Sini. "Lääkekannabis edelleen marginaalinen lääke" (in Finnish). YLE. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- "France introduces fixed fine for drug use". The Connexion. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- Marie Jamet (6 November 2013). "Legalising or decriminalizing cannabis in France: not that easy". Euronews. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- Ann Törnkvist (10 June 2013). "French law on pot-based medicine takes effect". The Local. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- "Georgian Court Abolishes Fines For Marijuana Consumption". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 30 July 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- "Marijuana consumption regulations unveiled by Georgia's Interior Ministry". Agenda.ge. 5 September 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
- Schuster, Kathleen (10 March 2018). "5 facts about cannabis laws in Germany". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- "Cannabis in Germany". Sensi Seeds. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
- Berlinger, Joshua. "Germany to legalize medicinal marijuana by 2017". CNN. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Germany to legalise cannabis for medicinal purposes". The Telegraph. 3 May 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- Kade, Claudia. "Ab 2017 gibt es Cannabis auf Kassenrezept". Die Welt. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Cannabis als Medizin". Bundesministerium für Gesundheit. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Cannabis auf Kassenkosten". Tagesschau. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Medical Cannabis is Now Officially Legal in Germany". Seedsman. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- Milena Lopez. "Comisión Rechaza Uso Medicinal De La Marihuana En Guatemala". Tn8.tv. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- Juan Toro. "Guatemala: Rechazan uso de marihuana medicinal - Cluster Salud, La Industria de la vida". Clustersalud.americaeconomia.com. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
- "Rastafarian community protests against 'unjust' marijuana laws". Stabroek News. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
- "Ley Sobre Uso Indebido y Trafico Ilicito de Drogas y Sustancias Psicotropicas" (PDF).
- Information on the official web site of the Hong Kong Police Force, Police.gov.hk, retrieved 14 December 2011
- Minstrel, Társaság a Szabadságjogokért: Drogjog 1999 Voted Vote D2ID : 62, Daath.hu, retrieved 17 February 2011
- "Marihuana og LSD loks bannað hér!" (in Icelandic) (235). Tíminn. 25 October 1969. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
- Sveinn Helgason, Magnús (26 August 2015). "Do Icelanders really smoke more cannabis than anyone else?". Iceland Magazine. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- Malhotra, Aditi (6 March 2015). "Is it Legal to Get High on Bhang in India?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- Thomas H. Slone (2003). Prokem. Masalai Press. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-0-9714127-5-0.
- "Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No. 35 Tahun 2009 tentang Narkotika" (PDF). BNN RI. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- Aquino, Michael. "Drug Laws in Bali and the Rest of Indonesia". TripSavvy. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "Drug offences". Dublin: Citizens Information Board. 20 July 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- Finn, Christina (26 June 2019). "Access to cannabis for medical reasons is now allowed in Ireland under new law". thejournal.ie. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
- Keena, Colm (26 June 2019). "Legislation allowing limited access to medical cannabis signed". The Irish Times. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
- "National Drugs Strategy (interim) 2009-2016" (PDF). Official publications. Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs. June 2009. p. 26, sec.2.49. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Minister Catherine Byrne TD announces a Public Consultation on the New National Drugs Strategy" (Press release). Ireland: Department of Health. 6 September 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Medicinal Products Availability: : Written answers". Dáil Éireann debates. KildareStreet.com. 26 October 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "S.I. No. 323/2014 - Misuse of Drugs (Amendment) Regulations 2014". Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- Harris, Simon (10 November 2016). "Joint Oireachtas Committee on Health: Quarterly Update On Health Issues: Discussion". Oireachtas Joint and Select Committees proceedings. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Cannabis for Medicinal Use (Regulations) Bill 2016: Second Stage [Private Members]". Dáil debates. kildarestreet.com. 1 December 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Medicinal cannabis bill passes Dáil without vote". RTE.ie. 1 December 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Cannabis for Medicinal Use Regulation Bill 2016 Bill 2016 [PMB]". Bills. Oireachtas. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
- "Partial decriminalization of public cannabis use takes effect Sunday night". The Times of Israel. 31 March 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- Jones, Gavin; Fonte, Giuseppe (27 December 2019). "Italy court rules home-growing cannabis is legal, reigniting dispute". Reuters. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
- "linkonline.it". Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- Bud, Monterey (19 March 2018). "Jamaica's Kaya Farms Becomes First Medical Marijuana Dispensary To Open". marijuana.com. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
- Minoru Shikita; Shinichi Tsuchiya (6 December 2012). Crime and Criminal Policy in Japan: Analysis and Evaluation of the Showa Era, 1926–1988. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-1-4612-2816-5.
- Cannabis Control Law, japanhemp.org, retrieved 4 August 2015
- Shearlaw, Maeve (13 May 2014). "Mythbusters: uncovering the truth about North Korea". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- "Imports of medical cannabis to be allowed next month". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- "South Korea legalises medical marijuana". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- "Par Krimināllikuma spēkā stāšanās un piemērošanas kārtību" (in Latvian). likumi.lv. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- Robert Connell Clarke (1998). Hashish!. Red Eye Press. ISBN 978-0-929349-05-3.
- Réalités. Spectacle du monde. May 1996. p. 354.
Les Américains ne lâchant pas prise, le gouvernement libanais interdisait officiellement la culture du pavot et du cannabis en 1992.
- In Lebanon, a comeback for cannabis / The Christian Science Monitor, CSMonitor.com, 16 October 2007, retrieved 17 February 2011
- "Lesotho Just Granted Africa's First Legal Marijuana License". 13 September 2017.
- "Marijuana, mountains and money: How Lesotho is cashing in". BBC News. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
- "Art. 7 and Art. 8 refer to the usage of narcotics" (PDF), Excerpt of the "Mémorial A" of the Luxembourgish legislation
- Joyce H. Lowinson (2005). Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-0-7817-3474-5.
- McCool, Alice (28 February 2020). "Malawi legalises cannabis amid hopes of fresh economic growth". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
- "AFRICA | Malawi Rastas' marijuana struggle". BBC News. 11 September 2000. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- "Marijuana Cultivation Increases in Malawi - New York Times". Nytimes.com. 17 December 1998. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Malaysia, Travel.state.gov, archived from the original on 17 February 2011, retrieved 17 February 2011
- "New drugs reform law into force today– what has changed?". MaltaToday.com.mt. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- Neil Camilleri (17 March 2015). "Simple possession to remain an 'arrestable offence' - but only to fight drug trade – Bonnici - The Malta Independent". Independent.com.mt. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
- Janikian, Michelle (14 September 2017). "Legal Pot In Mexico: Everything You Need to Know". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
- "Mexico Legalizes Drug Possession". The New York Times. 21 August 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "Mexico court ruling could eventually lead to legal marijuana". BBC. 4 November 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
- McDonnell-Parry, Amelia (2 November 2018). "Did Mexico Just Legalize Pot?". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- Adlin, Ben (1 November 2018). "FAQ: Mexico Legalized Cannabis? Not Exactly". Leafly. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- Use drop-down menu on site to view Netherlands entry., Eldd.emcdda.europa.eu, retrieved 17 February 2011
- Drugs Policy in the Netherlands, Ukcia.org, archived from the original on 2 August 2017, retrieved 17 February 2011
- "Amsterdam Will Ban Tourists from Pot Coffee Shops". Atlantic Wire. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
- "Aanwijzing Opiumwet (2015A003)".
- "Hennep? Einde huurcontract!".
- "De keerzijde van straffeloosheid - VVS Advocaten". 26 October 2016.
- Roes, Thijs (13 January 2017). "Met je gezin voor twee planten op straat gezet. En meer uitwassen van de strijd tegen wiet".
- "wetten.nl - Regeling - Opiumwet 1960 BES - BWBR0028519". wetten.overheid.nl.
- Dangerous Drugs Act, 1927
- Ainge Roy, Eleanor (11 December 2018). "New Zealand passes laws to make medical marijuana widely available". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "NZ Voters Will Decide Whether Cannabis Is Legalized". New York Times. 18 December 2018.
- European Coalition for Just and Effective Drug Policies, Encod.org, archived from the original on 18 May 2011, retrieved 17 February 2011
- "Macedonia: Parliament Legalizes Medical Marijuana". Eurasia Review.[permanent dead link]
- "Procedure for treatment with medical cannabis within the current regulations". The Norwegian Medicines Agency. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- "Medical cannabis is legal in Norway". NORMAL. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- "NOU 2019: 26". regjeringen.no. 19 December 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- "The Drug Policy Working Group". The Office of the Prime Minister.
- "Riksadvokatens rundskriv nr. 2 2014" (PDF).
- Cannabis legal status vault – Pakistan/Peshawar, Erowid.org
- TNI. "Paraguay - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "En Paraguay, la posesión y consumo personal de la marihuana es legal". E'a. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Collyns, Dan (20 October 2017). "Peru legalises medical marijuana in move spurred by mother's home lab". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "Modificando el Código Penal en materia de Tráfico Ilícito de Drogas". Instituto de Defensa Legal – Seguridad Ciudadana. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012.
- "Ley Nº 28002" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2013.
- "Código Penal. Decreto Legislativo Nº 635".
- Manuel Vigo. "Peru rules out proposals to legalize marijuana". Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "Legalización de la marihuana en Perú a debate". Peru21. 19 July 2014. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- TNI. "Peru - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Viray, Patricia Lourdes (18 December 2018). "Fact check: Is medical marijuana already allowed in the Philippines?". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- "Poland Approves Drug Decriminalization -- Sort Of". stopthedrugwar.org. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
- Drugs in small quantity and for personal use with no punishment – Poland, Interia.pl, 26 May 2011, archived from the original on 29 May 2011, retrieved 29 May 2011
- EMCDDA: Drug policy profiles, Portugal, Emcdda.europa.eu, 17 August 2011, retrieved 14 December 2011
- Pedepsele pentru traficul și consumul de droguri s-au redus. Totuși..., Reporter NTV, 10 February 2015, archived from the original on 4 September 2017, retrieved 4 September 2017
- Raport pentru EBA: Comisia prezidenţială susţine dezincriminarea consumului de droguri şi sexul comercial, Antena3.ro, 22 September 2009, retrieved 17 February 2011
- "Romania Legalizes Medical Marijuana, Becomes 10th EU Country To Permit Theraputic Use". Novinite. 6 October 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- "ANM: Nu avem nicio cerere de punere pe piaţă a canabisului medicinal; dacă ar fi, am aproba-o". Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- КОДЕКС РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ОБ АДМИНИСТРАТИВНЫХ ПРАВОНАРУШЕНИЯХ (in Russian). Retrieved 5 December 2018.
- "No arrest for two ounces or less of cannabis". Searchlight. 2 August 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
- US Department of State – International Travel – Saudi Arabia, Travel.state.gov, archived from the original on 11 December 2013, retrieved 17 February 2011
- Serbian Cannabis: Between Pain and the Law, VICE, 2016, retrieved 27 July 2016
- Krivični zakonik (The Criminal Code), paragraf.rs, 2013, retrieved 17 February 2011
- Emmanuel Akyeampong; Allan G. Hill; Arthur Kleinman (1 May 2015). The Culture of Mental Illness and Psychiatric Practice in Africa. Indiana University Press. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-0-253-01304-0.
- Nanthawan Bunyapraphatsō̜n (1999). Medicinal and poisonous plants. Backhuys Publishers. p. 169. ISBN 978-90-5782-042-7.
- Cannabis legal status vault – Singapore, Erowid.org, retrieved 17 February 2011
- "MISUSE OF DRUGS ACT". Attorney-General's Chamber. Singapore Government. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2013.
- "High contrast". The Economist. London: Economist Newspaper. 26 August 2010. ISSN 0013-0613. OCLC 60625410. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Rousek, Leos (3 April 2012). "Slovakia's Incoming Leftist Premier Wants to Relax Tough Cannabis Laws". The Wall Street Journal. New York, NY: Dow Jones. ISSN 0099-9660. OCLC 43638285. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Slovenija dovolila uporabo konoplje v medicinske namene". Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Uporaba konoplje v medicini". NIJZ. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "Zakon o proizvodnji in prometu s prepovedanimi drogami (ZPPPD)". Uradni List. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Lindeque, Mia. "ConCourt upholds ruling that private use of dagga is legal".
- "The highest court has spoken: You are allowed to smoke - and grow - dagga at home".
- Hudson, Ross (21 April 2017). "The Future of Spain's Cannabis Social Clubs". Marijuana Games. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
- "Somos Policías: Tenencia de drogas: ¿Consumo propio o tráfico ilícito?". Somos-policias.blogspot.com. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
- Rueda, José. "Multas y penas por consumo y tenencia de drogas en España". I Wanna Grow. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
- Mac. "Marihuana y su legalidad en España". La Marihuana. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "España endurece las leyes sobre el cannabis en plena corriente mundial por la despenalización". El Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Catalonia legalises marijuana consumption, cultivation and distribution". The Independent. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "of the Constitutional Court: The End of Cannabis Tolerance in Spain". 15 January 2018.
- Mac. "¿El auto cultivo de marihuana se despenaliza en España?". La Marihuana. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- "Getting High And Low In The 'Mal' Capital". Colombo Telegraph. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
- Marijuana Should be Allowed; Sri Lanka Indigenous Medicine Minister Says :: NIDAHASA News, News.nidahasa.com, 2 July 2009, retrieved 17 February 2011
- Rosemarijn Hoefte (1998). In Place of Slavery: A Social History of British Indian and Javanese Laborers in Suriname. University Press of Florida. pp. 160–. ISBN 978-0-8130-1625-2.
- Swedish drug control FINAL_14feb_merged (PDF), retrieved 17 February 2011
- RättsPM 2009:1 (PDF) (in Swedish), Åklagarmyndighetens Utvecklngscentrum, 2009[permanent dead link]
- "FF 2012 7539" (PDF). Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Ahmad, Rozh (24 August 2012). "www.rudaw.net/english/news/syria/5123.html". Rudaw. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- Cannabis legal status vault – Taiwan, Erowid.org, retrieved 1 November 2015
- "พระราชบัญญัติกันชา พุทธศักราช ๒๔๗๗" (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 52: 339–343. 5 May 1935. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- Eric Blair (2001), History of Marijuana Use and Anti-Marijuana Laws in Thailand, retrieved 27 August 2015
- "Thailand approves medicinal cannabis - BBC News". Bbc.com. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
- Axel Klein; Marcus Day; Anthony Harriott (13 November 2004). Caribbean Drugs: From Criminalization to Harm Reduction. Zed Books. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-1-84277-499-1.
- Ramdass, Anna (19 December 2019). "Merry Christmas: Weed decriminalisation law to be proclaimed December 23". Trinidad Express. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
- United Nations. Commission on Narcotic Drugs (1949). Summary of Annual Reports of Governments Relating to Opium and Other Narcotic Drugs.
TUNISIA 18. A Decree of 23 April 1953“ (published in the Journal Officiel Tunisien of 28 April 1953) prohibits the cultivation of cannabis and the use of takrouri (cannabis) and specifies the conditions under which ...
- Jacobs, Daniel; Morris, Peter (2001). The Rough Guide to Tunisia – Daniel Jacobs, Peter Morris – Google grâmatas. ISBN 9781858287485. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Tunisia accuses 'missing' Maltese of smuggling cannabis". timesofmalta.com. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- قانون عدد 52 لسنة 1992 مؤرخ في 18 ماي 1992 يتعلق بالمخدرات [Law No. 52 of 1992, dated 18 May 1992 concerning drugs] (in Arabic). Tunisia: DCAF / legislation-securite.tn. Archived from the original on 19 December 2015.
- "Turkey legalises controlled cannabis production in nineteen provinces". Retrieved 16 October 2016.
- "Türkiye'de 19 ilde kenevir yasallaştı" (in Turkish). Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (31 January 2012), Country overview: Turkey, Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, OCLC 527925326
- "Responsibility for growing cannabis and storing marijuana". zakon-online.com.ua. 12 September 2012. Archived from the original on 11 August 2018.
- "UAE Drug Laws". BBC News. 8 February 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- "Drug possession offences: A guide to help you represent yourself" (PDF). Release.co.uk. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
- Paul Manning (11 January 2013). Drugs and Popular Culture. Routledge. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-1-134-01211-4.
- "Drug Laws". United Kingdom Home Office. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- the D.O.J. allows indian reservations to grow and sell marijuana, nwherald.com, 12 December 2014, retrieved 24 December 2014
- Cannabis South American laws, Erowid.org, March 1995
- "The experiment: Another blow against prohibition". The Economist. 1 August 2013.
- "Uruguay becomes first country to legalize marijuana trade". Reuters. 10 December 2013.
- "Uruguay marijuana sales delayed until 2015: President - Americas". Retrieved 14 January 2015.
- "Criminal Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan" (in Uzbek). The national database of legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Ley Orgánica de Drogas – Sept.10 (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2012, retrieved 17 February 2011