Autonomous okrug
Autonomous districts of Russia.png
CategoryFederated state
LocationRussian Federation
Number4
Populations42,090 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 1,532,243 (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug)
Areas177,000 km2 (68,200 sq mi) (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) - 750,000 km2 (289,700 sq mi) (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug)
GovernmentOkrug Government
Subdivisionsadministrative: districts, cities and towns of okrug significance, towns of district significance, urban-type settlements of district significance, selsoviets; municipal: urban okrugs, municipal districts, urban settlements, rural settlements

Autonomous okrug (Russian: автономный округ, lit. 'avtonomny okrug'), occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia has four autonomous okrugs of its 85 federal subjects. The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is the only okrug which is not subordinate to an oblast. The other three are Arkhangelsk Oblast's Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast.

History[edit]

Originally called national okrug, this type of administrative unit was created in the 1920s and widely implemented in 1930 to provide autonomy to indigenous peoples of the North. In 1977, the 1977 Soviet Constitution changed the term "national okrugs" to "autonomous okrugs" in order to emphasize that they were indeed autonomies and not simply another type of administrative and territorial division. While the 1977 Constitution stipulated that the autonomous okrugs are subordinated to the oblasts and krais, this clause was revised on December 15, 1990, when it was specified that autonomous okrugs are subordinated directly to the Russian SFSR, although they still may stay in jurisdiction of a krai or an oblast to which they were subordinated before.

Autonomous Okrugs[edit]

Flag Map Name
Domestic names
Capital
Population (2010)[1]
Area
Formation
Flag of Chukotka
Map showing Chukotka in Russia
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Чукотский Aвтономный Oкруг (Chukotskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Chukot: Чукоткакэн Aвтономныкэн Oкруг (Chukotkaken Avtonomnyken Okrug)
Anadyr

Russian: Анадырь (Anadyr)

Chukot: Кагыргын (Kagyrgyn)
50,526 721,481 km2 (278,565 sq mi) 1930-12-10
Flag of Yugra
Map showing Yugra in Russia
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Ханты-Мансийский Aвтономный Oкруг (Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Khanty: Хӑнты-Мансийской Aвтономной Oкруг (Ȟănty-Mansijskoj Avtonomnoj Okrug)

Mansi: Ханты-Мансийский Aвтономный Oкруг (Hanty-Mansijskij Avtonomnyj Okrug)
Khanty-Mansiysk

Russian: Ханты-Мансийск (Khanty-Mansiysk)

Khanty: Ёмвоҷ (Yomvoḉ)

Mansi: Абга (Abga)
1,532,243 534,801 km2 (206,488 sq mi) 1930-12-10
Flag of Nenetsia
Map showing Nenetsia in Russia
Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Ненецкий Aвтономный Oкруг (Nenetskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Nenets: Ненёцие Aвтономной Ӈокрук (Nenjocije Awtonomnoj Ŋokruk)
Naryan-Mar

Russian: Нарьян-Мар (Naryan-Mar)

Nenets: Няръянa Mарˮ (Nyar'yana Marq)
42,090 176,810 km2 (68,267 sq mi) 1929-07-15
Flag of Yamalo-Nenetsia
Map showing Yamalo-Nenetsia in Russia
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Ямало-Ненецкий Aвтономный Oкруг (Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Nenets: Ямалы-Ненёцие Aвтономной Ӈокрук (Yamaly-Nenyotsiye Avtonomnoj Ŋokruk)
Salekhard

Russian: Салехард (Salekhard)

Nenets: Саляʼ Xарад (Salja’ Harad)
522,904 769,250 km2 (297,009 sq mi) 1930-12-10

Former Autonomous Okrugs[edit]

Flag Map Name
Domestic names
Capital
Population
Area
Years
Flag of Agin-Buryatia
Map showing Agin-Buryatia in Russia
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Агинский Бурятский Aвтономный Oкруг (Aginskiy Buryatskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Buryat: Агын Буряадай Aвтономито Tойрог (Agyn Buryaaday Avtonomito Toyrog)
Aginskoye

Russian: Агинское (Aginskoye)

Buryat: Ага (Aga)
76,383 (2008) 19,592 km2 (7,565 sq mi) 1937–2008
Flag of Evenkia
Map showing Evenkia in Russia
Evenk Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Эвенкийский Aвтономный Oкруг (Evenkiyskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Evenki: Эведы Автомоды Округ (Ēvēde Avtōmōde Okrug)
Tura

Russian: Тура (Tura)

Evenki: Typy (Turu)
16,979 (2007) 763,197 km2 (294,672 sq mi) 1930–2007
Flag of Komi-Permyakia
Map showing Komi-Permyakia in Russia
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Коми-Пермяцкий Aвтономный Oкруг (Komi-Permyatskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Komi-Permyak: Коми-Пермяцкöй Aвтономнöй Oкруг (Komi-Permjacköj Avtonomnöj Okrug)
Kudymkar

Russian: Кудымкар (Kudymkar)

Komi-Permyak: Кудымкöр (Kudymkör)
132,824 (2005) 32,770 km2 (12,653 sq mi) 1930–2005
Flag of Koryakia
Map showing Koryakia in Russia
Koryak Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Корякский Aвтономный Oкруг (Koryakskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Koryak: Чав’чываокруг (Čav’čyvaokrug)
Palana

Russian: Палана (Palana)

Koryak: Пылылъын (Pylylʺyn)
22,580 (2007) 292,600 km2 (112,973 sq mi) 1930–2007
Flag of Taymyria
Map showing Taymyria in Russia
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Таймырский Aвтономный Oкруг (Taymyrskiy Avtonomny Okrug) Dudinka

Russian: Дудинка (Dudinka)
38,372 (2007) 879,929 km2 (339,742 sq mi) 1930–2007
Flag of Ust-Orda Buryatia
Map showing Ust-Orda Buryatia in Russia
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Усть-Ордынский Бурятский Aвтономный Oкруг (Ust’-Ordynskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Buryat: Усть-Ордын Буряадай Aвтономито Tойрог (Ust’-Ordyn Buryaaday Avtonomito Toyrog)
Ust-Ordynsky

Russian: Усть-Ордынский (Ust-Ordynsky)

Buryat: Ордын Адаг (Ordyn Adag)
134,320 (2008) 22,400 km2 (8,649 sq mi) 1937–2008

Recent developments[edit]

In 1990, ten autonomous okrugs existed within the RSFSR. Between 2005 and 2008, the three autonomous okrugs in which the titular nationality constituted more than 30% of the population were abolished. Since then, three more have been abolished, leaving four. On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic.[2][3] A referendum on the merger is planned to be held on 13 September 2020.[4]

The ten autonomous okrugs in 1990 were:

Entity in 1990 Status in August 2008
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug now Agin-Buryat Okrug of Zabaykalsky Krai
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug within Magadan Oblast no longer subordinated to Magadan Oblast
Evenk Autonomous Okrug within Krasnoyarsk Krai now Evenkiysky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast (no change)
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug now Komi-Permyak Okrug of Perm Krai
Koryak Autonomous Okrug within Kamchatka Oblast now Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai
Nenets Autonomous Okrug within Arkhangelsk Oblast (no change)
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug within Krasnoyarsk Krai now Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug within Irkutsk Oblast now Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug of Irkutsk Oblast
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast (no change)

Ethnic composition of autonomous okrugs[edit]

The table below also includes autonomous okrugs which have since changed status.

Autonomous Okrug titular nation Russians other[5]
year 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug[6] 52,2 54,9 62,5 42 40,8 35,1
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug[6] 61,6 60,2 59 34,9 36,1 38,1
Koryak Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous)[6] 16,3 16,45 26,6 30,3 62,9 62 50,5 46,2 24,9 40,5 46,5
Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Komi) 12,8 11,9 18,6 Steady18,6 66 65,8 62,4 66,1 11,1 9,5 10,8 9
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (Dolgan and Nenets)[6] 9,6 8,9 13,8 15,7 68,9 67,1 58,6 50,0 5 4,4 7,6 10,1
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug[6] 34,1 36,3 39,6 58,3 56,5 54,4
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug 1,9 0,9 1,2 1,3 74,3 66,3 66 68,1 1,1 0,5 0,7 0,8
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous) 8,1 7,3 23,4 26,7 68,6 66,1 51,8 52,5 9,6 30,8 35,3
Evenk Autonomous Okrug[6] 20 14,1 21,5 22,0 62,5 67,5 61,9 59,4
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Nenets) 10,7 4,2 5,2 5,9 59,1 59,2 58,8 61,7 1,5 1,7 1,9

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2010 All-Russian Population Census" (PDF). All-Russian Population Census (in Russian). December 22, 2011. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  2. ^ Quinn, Eilís (May 14, 2020). ""Catastrophic" economic situation prompts merger talks for Nenets AO and Arkhangelsk Oblast". The Barents Observer. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  3. ^ "Russian Regions to Become Single Federal Subject in Decade-First". The Moscow Times. May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  4. ^ Mukhametshina, Elena (May 13, 2020). "Arkhangelsk region and Nenets okrug merge in a year". Vedomosti (in Russian). Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  5. ^ Are the people who are in parentheses next to the autonomous regions and the second-largest two-part indigenous autonomous regions.
  6. ^ a b c d e f liquidated Autonomous okrug.

See also[edit]